West End theatre

  (Redirected from West End (theatre))
London's Palace Theatre built in 1891

West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London.[1] Along with New York City's Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity in London.[1]

In 2013, ticket sales reached a record 14.4 million, making West End the largest English speaking audience in the world.[2] Famous screen actors frequently appear on the London stage.[3]



Further information: English Renaissance theatre

Theatre in London flourished after the English Reformation. The first permanent public playhouse, known simply as The Theatre, was constructed in 1576 in Shoreditch by James Burbage. It was soon joined by The Curtain. Both are known to have been used by William Shakespeare's company. In 1599, the timber from The Theatre was moved to Southwark, where it was used in building the Globe Theatre in a new theatre district formed beyond the controls of the City corporation. These theatres were closed in 1642 due to the Puritans who would later influence the interregnum of 1649.

After the Restoration (1660), two companies were licensed to perform, the Duke's Company and the King's Company. Performances were held in converted buildings, such as Lisle's Tennis Court. The first West End theatre, known as Theatre Royal in Bridges Street, was designed by Thomas Killigrew and built on the site of the present Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. It opened on 7 May 1663 and was destroyed by a fire nine years later. It was replaced by a new structure designed by Christopher Wren and renamed the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.[4][5]

Outside the West End, Sadler's Wells Theatre opened in Islington on 3 June 1683. Taking its name from founder Richard Sadler and monastic springs that were discovered on the property,[6][7] it operated as a "Musick House", with performances of opera; as it was not licensed for plays. In the West End, the Theatre Royal Haymarket opened on 29 December 1720 on a site slightly north of its current location, and the Royal Opera House opened in Covent Garden on 7 December 1732.

The Patent theatre companies retained their duopoly on drama well into the 19th century, and all other theatres could perform only musical entertainments. By the early 19th century, however, music hall entertainments became popular, and presenters found a loophole in the restrictions on non-patent theatres in the genre of melodrama. Melodrama did not break the Patent Acts, as it was accompanied by music. Initially, these entertainments were presented in large halls, attached to public houses, but purpose-built theatres began to appear in the East End at Shoreditch and Whitechapel.

The West End theatre district became established with the opening of many small theatres and halls, including the Adelphi in The Strand on 17 November 1806. South of the River Thames, the Old Vic, Waterloo Road, opened on 11 May 1818. The expansion of the West End theatre district gained pace with the Theatres Act 1843; which relaxed the conditions for the performance of plays, and The Strand gained another venue when the Vaudeville opened on 16 April 1870. The next few decades saw the opening of many new theatres in the West End. The Criterion Theatre opened on Piccadilly Circus on 21 March 1874, and in 1881, two more houses appeared: the Savoy Theatre in The Strand, built by Richard D'Oyly Carte specifically to showcase the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, opened on 10 October (the first theatre to be lit by cooler, cleaner electric lights), and five days later the Comedy Theatre opened as the Royal Comedy Theatre on Panton Street in Leicester Square. It abbreviated its name three years later.[5] The theatre building boom continued until about World War I.

During the 1950s and 1960s, many plays were produced in theatre clubs, to evade the censorship then exercised by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The Theatres Act 1968 finally abolished censorship of the stage in the United Kingdom.


"Theatreland", London's main theatre district, contains approximately forty venues and is located in and near the heart of the West End of London. It is traditionally defined by The Strand to the south, Oxford Street to the north, Regent Street to the west, and Kingsway to the east, but a few other nearby theatres are also considered "West End" despite being outside the area proper (e.g. The Apollo Victoria Theatre, in Westminster). Prominent theatre streets include Drury Lane, Shaftesbury Avenue, and The Strand. The works staged are predominantly musicals, classic and modern straight plays, and comedy performances.[9]

Many theatres in the West End are of late Victorian or Edwardian construction and are privately owned. The majority of them have great character, and the largest and best maintained feature grand neo-classical, Romanesque, or Victorian façades and luxurious, detailed interior design and decoration.

On the other hand, leg room is often cramped, and audience facilities such as bars and toilets are often much smaller than in modern theatres. The protected status of the buildings and their confined urban locations, combined with financial constraints, make it very difficult to make substantial improvements to the level of comfort offered. In 2003, the Theatres Trust estimated that an investment of £250 million over the following 15 years was required for modernisation,[10] and stated that 60% of theatres had seats from which the stage was not fully visible.[11] The theatre owners unsuccessfully requested tax concessions to help them meet the costs.

Several incidents followed from 2004 onwards of falling plasterwork or performances being cancelled because of urgent building repairs being required culminating in the partial collapse of the ceiling of the Apollo Theatre in December 2013.[12] Of these earlier incidents, only one led to people being hurt,[13] but at the Apollo Theatre 76 people needed medical treatment for their injuries.[14]

In 2012, gross sales of £529,787,692 were up 0.27% and attendances also increased 0.56% to 13,992,773-year-on-year[15] In 2013, sales again rose this time by 11% to £585,506,455,[16] with attendances rising to 14,587,276.[17] This was despite slightly fewer performances occurring in 2013.[18]

Long-running showsEdit

The St Martin's Theatre, home to The Mousetrap, the longest-running play in the world.

The length of West End shows depend on ticket sales. The longest-running musical in West End history is Les Misérables. It overtook Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats, which closed in 2002 after running for 8,949 performances and 21 years, as the longest-running West End musical of all time on 8 October 2006. Other long-runners include Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera and Willy Russell's Blood Brothers which have also subsequently overtaken Cats. However the non-musical Agatha Christie play The Mousetrap is the longest-running production in the world, and has been performed continuously since 1952.

List of West End theatresEdit

  • If no show is currently running, the play listed is the next show planned (dates marked with an *).
  • If the next show planned is not announced, the applicable columns are left blank.
Theatre Address Capacity Owner/Operator Current production Classification Opening
Adelphi Theatre Strand 1436 Really Useful Theatres Kinky Boots Musical 2015-09-1515 September 2015 Open-ended
Aldwych Theatre Aldwych 1176 Nederlander Organization Beautiful: The Carole King Musical Musical 2015-02-2424 February 2015 Open-ended
Ambassadors Theatre West Street 450 Stephen Waley-Cohen Stomp Physical theatre 2007-10-044 October 2007 Open-ended
Apollo Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 658[19] Nimax Theatres Travesties[20] Play 2017-02-1414 February 2017 2017-04-2929 April 2017
Apollo Victoria Theatre Wilton Road 2384 Ambassador Theatre Group Wicked Musical 2006-09-2727 September 2006 Open-ended
Arts Theatre Great Newport Street 350[21] JJ Goodman Ltd. The Wipers Times[22] Play 2017-03-2727 March 2017 2017-05-1313 May 2017
Cambridge Theatre Earlham Street 1283 Really Useful Theatres Matilda the Musical Musical 2011-11-2424 November 2011 Open-ended
Criterion Theatre Jermyn Street 591[23] Criterion Theatre Trust The Comedy About a Bank Robbery[24] Play 2016-04-2121 April 2016 Open-ended
Dominion Theatre Tottenham Court Road 2001 Nederlander Organization An American in Paris[25] Musical 2017-03-2121 March 2017 Open-ended
Duchess Theatre Catherine Street 494[26] Nimax Theatres The Play That Goes Wrong Play 2014-09-1414 September 2014 Open-ended
Duke of York's Theatre St. Martin's Lane 650 Ambassador Theatre Group The Glass Menagerie[27] Play 2017-02-022 February 2017 2017-04-2929 April 2017
Fortune Theatre Russell Street 440 Ambassador Theatre Group The Woman in Black Play 1989-06-077 June 1989 Open-ended
Garrick Theatre Charing Cross Road 718[28] Nimax Theatres The Miser[29] Play 2017-03-1313 March 2017 2017-06-033 June 2017
Gielgud Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 889 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time Play 2014-07-088 July 2014 2017-06-033 June 2017
Harold Pinter Theatre Panton Street 796 Ambassador Theatre Group Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?[30] Play 2017-03-099 March 2017 2017-05-2727 May 2017
Her Majesty's Theatre Haymarket 1161 Really Useful Theatres The Phantom of the Opera Musical 1986-10-099 October 1986 Open-ended
London Palladium Argyll Street 2286 Really Useful Theatres The Wind in the Willows[31] Musical 2017-06-2929 June 2017* 2017-09-099 September 2017
Lyceum Theatre Wellington Street 2100 Ambassador Theatre Group The Lion King Musical 1999-10-1919 October 1999 Open-ended
Lyric Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 915[32] Nimax Theatres Thriller – Live Musical 2009-01-2121 January 2009 Open-ended
New London Theatre Drury Lane 1108 Really Useful Theatres School of Rock[33] Musical 2016-11-1414 November 2016 Open-ended
Noël Coward Theatre St. Martin's Lane 872 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Half a Sixpence[34] Musical 2016-11-1717 November 2016 Open-ended
Novello Theatre Aldwych 1143 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Mamma Mia! Musical 2012-09-066 September 2012 Open-ended
Palace Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 1400[35] Nimax Theatres Harry Potter and the Cursed Child[36] Play 2016-07-3030 July 2016 Open-ended
Phoenix Theatre Charing Cross Road 1000 Ambassador Theatre Group The Girls[37] Musical 2017-02-2121 February 2017 Open-ended
Piccadilly Theatre Denman Street 1200 Ambassador Theatre Group Annie[38] Musical 2017-06-055 June 2017* Open-ended
Playhouse Theatre Craven Street 786 Ambassador Theatre Group My Family: Not the Sitcom[39] Play 2017-03-2828 March 2017 2017-06-033 June 2017
Prince Edward Theatre Old Compton Street 1618 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Aladdin[40] Musical 2016-06-1515 June 2016 Open-ended
Prince of Wales Theatre Coventry Street 1160 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres The Book of Mormon Musical 2013-03-2121 March 2013 Open-ended
Queen's Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 1099 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Les Misérables Musical 2004-04-1212 April 2004 Open-ended
Savoy Theatre Strand 1158 Ambassador Theatre Group Dreamgirls[41] Musical 2016-12-1414 December 2016 Open-ended
Shaftesbury Theatre Shaftesbury Avenue 1400 The Theatre of Comedy Company Motown: The Musical Musical 2016-03-088 March 2016 Open-ended
St Martin's Theatre West Street 550 Stephen Waley-Cohen The Mousetrap Play 1974-03-2525 March 1974 Open-ended
Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Catherine Street 2196 Really Useful Theatres 42nd Street[42] Musical 2017-04-044 April 2017 Open-ended
Theatre Royal Haymarket Haymarket 888 Crown Estate The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?[43] Play 2017-04-055 April 2017 2017-06-2424 June 2017
Trafalgar Studios Whitehall 380 Ambassador Theatre Group The Philanthropist[44] Play 2017-04-2020 April 2017 2017-07-2222 July 2017
Vaudeville Theatre Strand 681[45] Nimax Theatres Stepping Out[46] Play 2017-03-1414 March 2017 2017-06-1717 June 2017
Victoria Palace Theatre Victoria Street 1517 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Hamilton Musical 2017-12-07December 7, 2017* Open-ended
Wyndham's Theatre St. Martin's Court 750 Delfont Mackintosh Theatres Don Juan in Soho[47] Play 2017-03-2828 March 2017 2017-06-1010 June 2017

Upcoming productionsEdit

The following have been announced as future West End productions. The theatre in which they will run is either not yet known or currently occupied by another show.



  • Dick Whittington, London Palladium[50]



London's non-commercial theatresEdit

The exterior of the Old Vic

The term "West End theatre" is generally used to refer specifically to commercial productions in Theatreland. However, the leading non-commercial theatres in London enjoy great artistic prestige. These include the Royal National Theatre, the Barbican Centre, Shakespeare's Globe, the Old Vic, and the Regent's Park Open Air Theatre. These theatres stage a high proportion of straight drama, Shakespeare, other classic plays and premieres of new plays by leading playwrights. Successful productions from the non-commercial theatres sometimes transfer to one of the commercial West End houses for an extended run.

The Royal Opera House is widely regarded as one of the greatest opera houses in the world, comparable with the Palais Garnier, La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera House. Commonly known simply as Covent Garden due to its location, it is home to the Royal Opera, Royal Ballet and a resident symphony orchestra, and hosts guest performances from other leading opera, ballet and performance companies from around the world.

Likewise, the London Coliseum is the resident home to the English National Opera. The theatre is also the London base for performances by the English National Ballet, who perform regular seasons throughout the year when not on tour.

The Peacock Theatre is located on the edge of the Theatreland area. Now owned by the London School of Economics and Political Science, it is used in the evenings for dance performances by Sadler's Wells, who manage the theatre on behalf of the school.

Other London theatresEdit

There are a great number of theatre productions in London outside the West End. Much of this is known as fringe theatre which is the equivalent of Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway theatre in New York. Among these are the Bush Theatre and the Donmar Warehouse. Fringe venues range from well-equipped small theatres to rooms above pubs, and the performances range from classic plays, to cabaret, to plays in the languages of London's ethnic minorities. The performers range from emerging young professionals to amateurs.

There are many theatres located throughout Greater London, such as the Lyric Hammersmith, Rose Theatre, Kingston, New Wimbledon Theatre, the Rudolf Steiner Theatre in Westminster, the Ashcroft Theatre in Croydon, Secombe Theatre in Sutton and the Churchill Theatre in Bromley.


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Christopher Innes, "West End" in The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 1194–1195, ISBN 0-521-43437-8
  2. ^ Singh, Anita (23 June 2015). "West End audiences hit record high thanks to Twitter". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  3. ^ "Stars on stage". London theatre. Retrieved 23 June 2015
  4. ^ "London's Vibrant West End Theatre SCENE". TheatreHistory.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "London pub trivia – Ten oldest London theatres". Timeout London. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  6. ^ "London's Lost Tea-Gardens: I". Story of London. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  7. ^ "Sadler's Wells Theatre". LondonTown.com. Retrieved 17 January 2010. 
  8. ^ "1.8 million views of Lion King". Theatre Views Newsletter. October 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Michael Billington "Snooty about musicals? Sheila Hancock should change her tune", The Guardian. (blog), 16 March 2001
  10. ^ Giles Worsley "Falling Houses", The Daily Telegraph, 6 December 2003
  11. ^ Michael Billington "Crisis in the West End", The Guardian, 2 August 2007
  12. ^ Sarah Jane Griffiths "How safe is London's Theatreland?", BBC News, 20 December 2013
  13. ^ At the Theatre Royal Haymarket in 2004, 15 people were injured when part of the ceiling fell on to them, see the Sarah Jane Griffiths article above.
  14. ^ Alice Philipson, and Andrew Marszal "Apollo Theatre ceiling in London's West End collapses: scores injured", The Daily Telegraph, 20 December
  15. ^ http://www.solt.co.uk/downloads/pdfs/pressroom/2013-01-29-SOLT%202012-box-office-figures.pdf
  16. ^ Singh, Anita (29 January 2014). "West End audiences hit record high thanks to Twitter". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "West End Theatre Ticket Sales at Record High". Sky (United Kingdom). 29 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  18. ^ "West End Has Another Record Year, With Increases in Both Attendance and Revenue". Playbill. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Apollo Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  20. ^ "Travesties by Tom Stoppard transfers to the West End's Apollo Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016. 
  21. ^ "Arts Theatre". artstheatrewestend.co.uk. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  22. ^ "Ian Hislop and Nick Newman's The Wipers Times transfers to the Arts Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016. 
  23. ^ "Technical Overview". Criterion Theatre Trust. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  24. ^ "Play That Goes Wrong team launches new West End show". The Stage. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  25. ^ "An American in Paris show to dance into West End in 2017". bbc.co.uk/news. BBC News. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2016. 
  26. ^ "Duchess Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  27. ^ "Cherry Jones leads West End revival of The Glass Menagerie at the Duke of York's Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  28. ^ "Garrick Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "Reece Shearsmith and Griff Rhys Jones to return to the West End". whatsonstage.com. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016. 
  30. ^ "Imelda Staunton to star in Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? in London's West End". londontheatre.co.uk. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  31. ^ "The Wind In The Willows musical confirms West End dates". WhatsOnStage.com. Retrieved 2016-11-08. 
  32. ^ "Lyric Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  33. ^ "The West End Enrolls in School of Rock: Tony-Nominated Tuner Sets London Dates & Theater". broadway.com. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  34. ^ "Cameron Mackintosh brings hit musical Half A Sixpence to West End". 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
  35. ^ "Seating". palacetheatrelondon.org. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  36. ^ "Harry Potter and the Cursed Child play to open in West End in 2016". The Guardian. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2015. 
  37. ^ "Gary Barlow's The Girls Musical opens in London and cast is announced tomorrow". londontheatre.co.uk. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016. 
  38. ^ "Miranda Hart gears up for Annie role". BBC News. 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2017-02-16. 
  39. ^ "David Baddiel's My Family: Not the Sitcom transfers to the Playhouse Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 18 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  40. ^ "Disney's Aladdin coming to West End summer 2016?". Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  41. ^ "Amber Riley to star in West End Dreamgirls – Savoy". londontheatre.co.uk. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2016. 
  42. ^ "BAZ BAMIGBOYE: That's a lot of legs!". Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  43. ^ "Damian Lewis to star in Albee's The Goat, or Who is Sylvia? at the Theatre Royal Haymarket". londontheatre.co.uk. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016. 
  44. ^ "Simon Callow to direct new production of The Philanthropist at Trafalgar Studios". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 
  45. ^ "Vaudeville Theatre". nimaxtheatres.com. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  46. ^ "Amanda Holden stars in Stepping Out at the Vaudeville Theatre in London". londontheatre.co.uk. 23 September 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2016. 
  47. ^ "David Tennant makes West End return in Patrick Marber's Don Juan in Soho - Tickets now on sale". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  48. ^ "Exclusive: The Toxic Avenger to return to London in September". WhatsOnStage.com. Retrieved 2017-04-20. 
  49. ^ "Dates for Young Frankenstein West End run announced". WhatsOnStage.com. Retrieved 2017-02-09. 
  50. ^ "Dick Whittington at the London Palladium". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  51. ^ "Sienna Miller and Jack O'Connell star in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof at the Apollo Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 
  52. ^ "Andrew Scott's Hamlet to transfer to the West End". http://www.whatsonstage.com. Whats On Stage. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.  External link in |work= (help)
  53. ^ "Judy! a new play with music about the life of Judy Garland to run at the Arts Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 3 March 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017. 
  54. ^ "The Kite Runner transfers to The Playhouse Theatre in London's West End". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 24 March 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  55. ^ "Audra McDonald to star in Lady Day at the Wyndham's Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  56. ^ "Love in Idleness transfers to the West End's Apollo Theatre with Eve Best". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  57. ^ "Oslo by J.T. Rogers transfers from New York to the Harold Pinter and National Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 6 April 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017. 
  58. ^ "Our Ladies of Perpetual Succour transfers to the Duke of York's Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  59. ^ "RSC's Queen Anne transfers to the Theatre Royal Haymarket". londontheatre.co.uk. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  60. ^ "Jez Butterworth's The Ferryman transfers to The Gielgud Theatre". londontheatre.co.uk. London Theatre. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  61. ^ Solutions, Powder Blue Internet Business. "Tape Face announces West End run : News 2016 : Chortle : The UK Comedy Guide". www.chortle.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-11-15. 

External linksEdit