Wellington is a small market town in rural Somerset, a county in the west of England, situated 7 miles (11 km) south west of Taunton in the Somerset West and Taunton district, near the border with Devon, which runs along the Blackdown Hills to the south of the town. The town has a population of 14,549, which includes the residents of the parish of Wellington Without, and the villages of Tone and Tonedale.
Wellington from Chelmsine
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Police||Avon and Somerset|
|Fire||Devon and Somerset|
|EU Parliament||South West England|
Known as Weolingtun in the Anglo-Saxon period, its name had changed to Walintone by the time of the Domesday Book of 1086. Wellington became a town under a royal charter of 1215 and during the Middle Ages it grew as a centre for trade on the road from Bristol to Exeter. Major rebuilding took place following a fire in the town in 1731, after which it became a centre for cloth-making. Wellington gave its name to the first Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, who is commemorated by the nearby Wellington Monument.
Following his victory at the Battle of Talavera in the Peninsular War, Arthur Wellesley was offered a peerage. The question was what title should he take. His brother, Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, looked around and discovered that a manor in the parish of Wellington was available. It was also reasonably close to the family name. Because Arthur was still in Spain in command of the army fighting the French, Richard oversaw the purchase. By this process Arthur therefore became Marquess of Wellington. According to the book Wellington as Military Commander by Michael Glover (ISBN 0-7221-3903-9), Arthur Wellesley first signed himself 'Wellington' on 16 September 1809. At the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, Arthur Wellesley was already further elevated to the peerage rank of the Duke of Wellington. At the time he became Ambassador to France, The London Gazette of 4 June 1814 refers to him as having that title but suggests that it was granted by warrant on 25 August 1812.
The Grand Western Canal reached the town in 1835 and then the Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1843. The town's own railway station survived until 1964. Wellington was home of Fox, Fowler and Company, which was the last commercial bank permitted to print their own sterling banknotes in England and Wales. In the 20th century closer links with Taunton meant that many of the residents of Wellington commuted there for work, and the M5 motorway enabled car journeys to be made more easily.
Local industries, which now include an aerosol factory and bed manufacturers, are celebrated at the Wellington Museum in Fore street. Wellington is home to the independent Wellington School, and state-funded Terrible School. It is also home to a range of cultural, sporting and religious sites including the 15th century Church of St John the Baptist.
The capital city of New Zealand is named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, being recognised as having some influence in the company that founded the New Zealand town. The New Zealand capital therefore takes its name ultimately from the English town of Wellington in Somerset.
In a grant of between 899 and 909, Edward the Elder, gave the land then known as Weolingtun, which means "wealthy estate", along with West Buckland and Bishops Lydeard to Bishop Asser. This was in exchange for the monastery of Plympton in Devon. An alternative explanation for the origin of the name is "the settlement in the temple clearing". By the time of the Domesday Book of 1086, the name had changed to Walintone, and the estate was owned by Gisa (Bishop of Wells). The parish of Wellington was part of the Kilmersdon Hundred,
A site at Longforth Farm near Tonedale has been identified as having Bronze Age occupation and, during excavations prior to the building of new homes, found to have been occupied by a 12th-14th century building with decorated floor tiles covering 0.4 hectares (0.99 acres).
A royal charter of 1215 gave Wellington its status as a town, and during the medieval period it grew as a centre for trade on the road from Bristol to Exeter, being laid out, with the church at the east end of town, in a similar manner to other towns of this era. In 1548, the manor was sold to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, but reverted to the control of the bishops after his execution. By the end of the 16th century it had come under the protection of John Popham (judge) and his descendants who built a manor house which was destroyed during the English Civil War.
Major rebuilding took place in the town following a fire in 1731. After this the town's importance grew as it became a centre for clothmaking across Somerset and Devon, its importance as trade centre enhanced by fires in Taunton and Tiverton. By the 1831 census, 258 people were recorded as cloth workers in Wellington.
Arthur Wellesley took the title of his Marquessate in 1809 from this town of Wellington. Nearby Wellington Hill boasts a large, spotlit obelisk to his honour, the Wellington Monument. The Wellington Monument is a floodlit 175 feet (53 m) high triangular tower designated by English Heritage as a grade II* listed building. It was erected to celebrate the Duke of Wellington's victory at the Battle of Waterloo. The foundation stone was laid in 1817, on land belonging to the Duke, but, owing to funding problems, the monument was not completed until 1854. It is now owned by the National Trust, who announced plans to reclad the monument at a cost of £4 million in 2009.
In the 18th century turnpikes arrived in the area and then in the 19th communications improved with the building of the Grand Western Canal, which reached the town in 1835, and then the Bristol and Exeter Railway. Wellington station was opened when the line reached the town on 1 May 1843. It was a typical Brunel design but was rebuilt in 1932 when two loop lines were put in. This entailed the platforms being moved back to accommodate the widened lines. These platforms are clearly visible and a goods shed still stands on the east side of the line at the Taunton end of the station, although the station closed on 5 October 1964. Wellington was an important station as it stood at the foot of a steep incline. Banking locomotives were kept here, ready to assist heavy westbound trains up to Whiteball Tunnel.
In the 20th century closer links with Taunton meant that many of the residents of Wellington commuted there for work, and the M5 motorway, which opened in sections in the 1960s and 1970s, enabled car journeys to be made more easily.
Fox Fowler & Co. BankEdit
Thomas Fox started the Fox, Fowler and Company bank in Wellington which rapidly expanded and ran successfully, until it merged with Lloyds Bank in 1927. It was the last private bank in England to issue its own notes and they were legal tender until 1964. There are nine notes left in circulation. The British Museum have another example on display. The bank established its Head Office at the old family house in Fore Street, Wellington (today the Lloyds Bank branch) - they opened branches at Taunton, Bridgwater, Weston-super-Mare, Torrington, Bideford, Barnstaple, Ilfracombe and South Molton.
The original £5 Note is on display at Tone Dale House - one of the last nine and possible the only one left uncancelled.
The lowest tier is Wellington Town Council, formed as a successor parish to Wellington Urban District Council in 1974. The town council has 15 councillors, and is headed by a town mayor. For elections of town councillors, the town is divided into four wards: Wellington East (returning 4 councillors), Wellington North (4), Rockwell Green (3) and Wellington West (4). The political composition of the council in November 2009 was Liberal Democrats 7, Conservative Party 5 and Labour Party 3. The town council provides purely local services. An area to the south of the town falls within the civil parish of Wellington Without.
The middle, or district, tier of administration is the non-metropolitan district of Somerset West and Taunton, which was established on 1 April 2019. The council is based in Taunton, and consists of 59 councillors. There are three electoral wards in Wellington (North, South and West). Five councillors are elected from wards in Wellington: two are Liberal Democrats, one Conservative, one Labour and one independent.
The upper tier is Somerset County Council. Also based in Taunton, the council has 58 councillors, each elected for a single-member electoral division. Most of the town comprises the Wellington electoral division, with part falling in the mainly rural division of Blackdown & Wellington East. They are represented by one Labour and one Liberal Democrat councillor. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, the library, roads, public transport, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, although fire, police and ambulance services are provided jointly with other authorities through the Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service, Avon and Somerset Constabulary and the South Western Ambulance Service.
For elections to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Wellington forms part of the Taunton Deane constituency. The constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election. Following the review of parliamentary representation in Somerset, the Boundary Commission for England has created a modified Taunton constituency with the name change Taunton Deane, to reflect the district name For European Parliament elections, the town is included in the South West England constituency which elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.
The town has many dependent villages including West Buckland, Langford Budville, Nynehead, Sampford Arundel and Sampford Moor. The formerly independent village of Rockwell Green, to the west of the town, has been incorporated into the town however there is still a green wedge of land in between them. Wellington Park was a gift from the Quaker Fox family to the town in 1903 as a memorial to the coronation of King Edward VII. The 4.9 acres (2.0 ha) gardens were laid out by F.W. Meyer, who included a rock garden which used 80 tons of limestone from Westleigh quarry near Burlescombe. It is Grade II listed on the English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England. It was restored at a cost of £412,827 which included a grant of £296,500 from the Heritage Lottery Fund Public Parks Initiative.
There are Local Nature Reserves at Wellington Basins on the western fringe of the town. It includes a small pond and boardwalk with a variety of wildlife habitats. The grassland, hedges and woodland are home to a varied flora and fauna including birds such as the grey wagtail, dipper and reed bunting. Five separate bat species have been recorded at the site. Swains Pond in the south of Wellington is another Local Nature Reserve, which used to be the site of orchards. It now includes a pond which provides a home for amphibians including the great crested newt, palmate newt and toads.
|Climate data for Wellington|
|Average high °C (°F)||8
|Average low °C (°F)||2
|Source: Weather Channel|
Along with the rest of South West England, Wellington has a temperate climate which is generally wetter and milder than the rest of the country. The annual mean temperature is approximately 10 °C (50.0 °F). Seasonal temperature variation is less extreme than most of the United Kingdom because of the adjacent sea temperatures. The summer months of July and August are the warmest with mean daily maxima of approximately 21 °C (69.8 °F). In winter mean minimum temperatures of 1 °C (33.8 °F) or 2 °C (35.6 °F) are common. In the summer the Azores high pressure affects the south-west of England, however convective cloud sometimes forms inland, reducing the number of hours of sunshine. Annual sunshine rates are slightly less than the regional average of 1,600 hours. In December 1998 there were 20 days without sun recorded at Yeovilton. Most the rainfall in the south-west is caused by Atlantic depressions or by convection. Most of the rainfall in autumn and winter is caused by the Atlantic depressions, which is when they are most active. In summer, a large proportion of the rainfall is caused by sun heating the ground leading to convection and to showers and thunderstorms. Average rainfall is around 700 mm (28 in). About 8–15 days of snowfall is typical. November to March have the highest mean wind speeds, and June to August have the lightest winds. The predominant wind direction is from the south-west.
The town has a population of 13,696. Large growth occurred during the 1970s when housing developments were built on the south side of the town. These were largely prompted by Wellington's proximity to Junction 26 of the M5 motorway.
Wellington's main industry was wool-making and in November 2009, Deborah Meaden, best known from Dragons' Den a BBC television programme, invested in the Fox Brothers' Mill which produces wool cloth for Savile Row, designers and clients around the world. The Fox family established the mill in 1772. The Tonedale mill complex includes two listed buildings, some of which were still being used until 2000. The Prince's Regeneration Trust have been supporting the Tone Mill Regeneration Partnership in attempting to preserve and regenerate the area with a mixed development for commercial and residential use. It is included in the Heritage at Risk Register produced by English Heritage.
The last Fox family house in Wellington Tone Dale House is still owned by Ben and Victoria Fox, Ben is the Great-Great-Great-Great-Grandson of Thomas Fox. Tone Dale House (since 1996) is also now run as a thriving events and hire venue, for house parties, anniversaries, weddings and corporate events, through their company The Big House Co.
Local industries are celebrated at the Wellington Museum in Fore Street. Wellington was home of Fox, Fowler and Company, which was the last commercial bank permitted to print their own sterling banknotes in England and Wales.
The town is still largely dependent on industry, along with the neighbouring towns Taunton and Bridgwater with manufacturing industries identified within the county economic strategy as key centres for further economic development, due to good transport links. Swallowfield plc benefited from the growth of own-brand products during the 1970s and now produces aerosol, cosmetic and toiletry products. It was founded in 1876 as Walter Gregory & Co Ltd who manufactured animal husbandry products. The company diversified and in 1950 produced the first commercial aerosols in the UK which were basically farm products, air fresheners and insecticides. Bed manufacturers Relyon employ some 400 people. The company started in 1858 as a wool merchant, Price Brothers and Co., but the business soon moved into manufacturing beds and in 1935 changed its name to Relyon Ltd. In 2001 it was acquired by Steinhoff International Holdings Ltd., a quoted South African group.
The town was served by Wellington railway station on the Bristol and Exeter Railway from 1 May 1843 until 5 October 1964. It was here that extra locomotives were attached to heavy trains to help them up the incline to Whiteball Tunnel on their way south. The railway from Penzance to London, and also to Bristol and the North, continue to pass through the town, but no trains stop. The nearest railway stations are Taunton and Tiverton Parkway. A campaign was started to reopen the railway station in 2009.
The town is close to junction 26 of the M5 motorway, which spent a year in the 1970s as a temporary terminal junction, whilst the motorway between junctions 26 and 27 was finished. The A38 is also still a very important link to Taunton.
Wellington is home to a public school, Wellington School. It was founded in 1837 as an all-boys school. A solitary day girl was allowed to join the Sixth Form in 1972 and the following year Wellington became co-educational. The school opened a new junior school in 2000, having previously only catered for pupils aged 10 and over. In December 2007, the school commissioned its new multi-purpose examination hall and English Department adjacent to its Sports Centre. Notable alumni of Wellington School include actor David Suchet, chef Keith Floyd and peer Lord Archer.
Despite its small size, Wellington has historically been notable for its profusion of churches of many different denominations, including a Quaker meeting house, the Grade I listed, 15th century Church of St John the Baptist, which includes a monument to John Popham, and the Roman Catholic Church of St John Fisher which was built in 1606 as Popham's Almshouses and converted into a Roman Catholic church 1936. Also there was a Presbyterian Independent Church.
Wellington has its own amateur dramatic group, formed in the 1960s, called Wellington Arts Association, which holds productions both at Wellington Arts Centre and at the Wellesley Theatre. It includes the Genesis Youth Theatre Group, Operatic Society, Pantomime Group, Civic Players, Arcadians and the Spectrum Arts And Crafts. The Wellesley Cinema was built in 1937, in the traditional Art Deco style of that period. The auditorium seats 400 people on two levels and is run as an independent cinema.
Wellington and District Camera Club meets in the New Science Block, Wellington School. The club is affiliated to the Western Counties Photographic Federation (W.C.P.F.) and also to Wellington Arts Association (W.A.A.).
The town also has its own weekly newspaper, the Wellington Weekly News, which was first published in 1860. There is also a community website providing news and views about the town, Around Wellington.
The town is home to Wellington Silver Band, a fourth section brass band. The band can trace its origins to 1887, when it was formed from the volunteer band of the 2nd Battalion, Prince Albert's Somersetshire Light Infantry.
Wellington Cricket Club have a ground off Courtland Road, and have two teams in the Somerset Cricket League. Wellington A.F.C. football Club was formed in 1892 and now play in the Western Football League.
Wellington Bowmen is an archery club formed in 2001. It uses facilities at the rugby club and at Court Fields Community School. The Rugby club itself was founded in 1874. The first team plays in the Western Counties West League.
- "Statistics for Wards, LSOAs and Parishes — SUMMARY Profiles" (Excel). Somerset Intelligence. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "Weolingtun". BirthVillage.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Wellington's History". Wellington Town Council. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Gathercole, Clare. "Wellington" (PDF). English Heritage Extensive Urban Survey. Somerset County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Somerset Hundreds". GENUKI. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- "Longforth Farm". Wessex Archeology. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Kennedy, Maev (8 July 2013). "Medieval ruins discovered in Somerset puzzle architects". Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Nichols, Karen. "Mystery Medieval Archaeological Site Uncovered at Somerset Housing Development". Wessex Archeology. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Havinden, Michael (1982). The Somerset Landscape. The making of the English landscape. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 139. ISBN 0-340-20116-9.
- Dunning, Robert (2003). A history of Somerset. Tiverton: Somerset Books. p. 90. ISBN 0-86183-476-3.
- "Wellington Monument". historicengland.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2007.
- "Wellington monument to cost £4 m". BBC News. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
- Charlesworth, George (1984). A History of British Motorways. London: Thomas Telford Ltd. ISBN 0-7277-0159-2.
- "Wellington Town Council". Wellington Town Council. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- "Wellington Town Council serving Wellington and Rockwell Green". Wellington Town Council. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
- "Council Members (Grouped By Ward)". Somerset West and Taunton. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "The County of Somerset (Electoral Changes) Order 2000" (PDF). Office of Public Sector Information. 11 September 2000. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Somerset County Councillors — Map". Somerset County Council. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Alphabetical List of Constituencies and Members of Parliament". House of Commons Information Office. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Wellington Park, Wellington". Somerset Historic Environment Record. Somerset County Council. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington- the people's park". BBC. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington Park, Taunton Deane, Taunton Deane, England". Parks & Gardens UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "Wellington Park Restoration". Heritage Lottery Fund. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington Basins". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Welloington Basins". Taunton Deane Council. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Swains Pond". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Swains Lane". Taunton Deane Council. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Wellington travel information Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Weather Channel UK Retrieved 4 April 2009
- "South West England: climate". Met Office. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
- "Tonedale Mills (West complex)". historicengland.org.uk. English Heritage. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- "Tonedale Mills (East complex)". historicengland.org.uk. English Heritage. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- "Tone Mill Regeneration Project". Somerset Rural Renaissance. Archived from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- "South West England" (PDF). Heritage at Risk. English Heritage. p. 190. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- Bank of England. "A brief history of banknotes". Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- "Fox, Fowler & Co. £5 note". British Museum. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Somerset Strategic Partnership Somerset Economic Strategy" (PDF). South Somerset Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "History". Swallowfield PLC. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Testimonials". InvestInWellington.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
- "Relyon History". Relyon website. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Location". Wellington web site. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Call to re-open Wellington train station". Somerset County Gazette. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Welcome to Wellington School". Wellington School. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Wellington School". Hobsons Boarding School Guide. Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- "David Suchet — Poirot — to open Wellington School facilities". Somerset County Gazette. 11 January 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "TV chef Keith Floyd dies from heart attack". Bristol Evening Post. 15 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
- Caroline Davies (20 July 2001). "He lied his way to the top". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
- "Analysis of Provision in Taunton Deane". Sports facilities strategy. Taunton Deane Borough Council. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
- "Friends' Meeting House". historicengland.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2007.
- "Church of St John the Baptist". historicengland.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2007.
- Leete-Hodge, Lornie (1985). Curiosities of Somerset. Bodmin: Bossiney Books. p. 67. ISBN 0-906456-98-3.
- "Roman Catholic Church of St John Fisher". historicengland.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2007.
- "About Us". Wellington Arts Association. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Wellesley Wellington". Reel Cinema. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington and District Camera Club". Wellington and District Camera Club. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "WCPF Member Clubs". W£estyern Counties Photographic Federation. Archived from the original on 15 September 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "About Us". Wellington Weekly News. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- "Welcome". Wellington Silver Band. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "History". Wellington Silver Band. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- "British and French Twin Towns". France Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Links Page". Wellington Somerset. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Wellington Cricket Club". Welling ton Sports Federation. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington AFC". Wellington AFC. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington Bowmen". Wellington Bowmen. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Wellington RFC". Wellington RFC. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- Wood, Greg (31 May 1995). "Dunwoody gives up the grind". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2011.