Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont

(Redirected from Waldeck (state))

The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929. In 1349 the county gained Imperial immediacy and in 1712 was raised to the rank of Principality. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 it was a constituent state of its successors: the Confederation of the Rhine, the German Confederation, the North German Confederation, the German Empire and, until 1929, the Weimar Republic. It comprised territories in present-day Hesse and Lower Saxony (Germany).

Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Fürstentum Waldeck und Pyrmont
1180–1918
Flag of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Top: Flag
(before 1830)
Bottom: Flag
(after 1830)
Coat of arms of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Coat of arms
Anthem: "Mein Waldeck"
Waldeck (red) within the German Empire. The small northern territory is Pyrmont while the southern lands are Waldeck.
Waldeck (red) within the German Empire. The small northern territory is Pyrmont while the southern lands are Waldeck.
Map of Waldeck, showing the border between Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau
Map of Waldeck, showing the border between Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire
State of the Confederation of the Rhine
State of the German Confederation
State of the North German Confederation
State of the German Empire
CapitalWaldeck (to 1655)
Arolsen (from 1655)
51°22′N 9°1′E / 51.367°N 9.017°E / 51.367; 9.017Coordinates: 51°22′N 9°1′E / 51.367°N 9.017°E / 51.367; 9.017
Common languagesGerman
Religion
United Protestant: Evangelical State Church of Waldeck and Pyrmont
GovernmentPrincipality
Prince 
• 1712–1728
Friedrich Anton Ulrich (first)
• 1893–1918
Friedrich (last)
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Established as a County
1180
• Became Reichsgraf (immediate count)
1349
• Succeeded to Pyrmont
1625
• Raised to Imp. Principality
January 1712
• Administered by Prussia
1868
1918
• Subsumed into Prussia
1929
Population
• 1848
56,000[1]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Franconia
Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont

HistoryEdit

 
Coat of arms of the counts of Waldeck (1349–1712)
 
Government bond of the Principality Waldeck and Pyrmont, issued 1 January 1863

Waldeck was a county within the Holy Roman Empire from 1180. The ruling counts were a branch of the Counts of Schwalenberg (at Schwalenberg Castle). Waldeck Castle (Waldeck), overlooking the Eder river at Waldeck and first mentioned in 1120, was inherited by count Widekind I of Schwalenberg and his son Volkwin, from the counts of Itter and the counts of Ziegenhain, when they married wives of these families. Waldeck remained the main residence of the county until 1655.

Its counts included Adolf II of Waldeck from 1270 to 1276. In 1655, the residence was shifted from Waldeck to Arolsen. In 1625, the small county of Pyrmont became part of the county through inheritance, as it had also been ruled by a branch of the counts of Schwalenberg.

In January 1712, the count of Waldeck and Pyrmont was elevated to prince by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor. For a brief period, 1805 to 1812, Pyrmont was a separate principality as a result of inheritance and partition after the death of the previous prince, but the two parts were united again in 1812. The independence of the principality was confirmed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, and Waldeck and Pyrmont became a member of the German Confederation. From 1868 onward, the principality was administered by Prussia, but retained its legislative sovereignty. Prussian administration served to reduce administrative costs for the small state and was based on a ten-year contract that was repeatedly renewed for the duration of its existence. In 1871, the principality became a constituent state of the new German Empire. At the end of World War I, during the German Revolution that resulted in the fall of all the German monarchies, the prince abdicated and the principality became the Free State of Waldeck-Pyrmont within the Weimar Republic.

The princely house of Waldeck and Pyrmont is closely related to the royal family of the Netherlands. The last ruling prince, Frederick, was the brother of Queen Consort Emma of the Netherlands.

In 1905, Waldeck and Pyrmont had an area of 1121 km2 and a population of 59,000.

Gallery of castlesEdit

Rulers of WaldeckEdit

House of WaldeckEdit

Partitions of Waldeck under Waldeck ruleEdit

      
       County of
Pyrmont

(1189-1494)
       County of Schwalenberg
(1220-1356)
County of Waldeck
(1107-1486)
       County of
Sternberg

(1255-1402)
      
County of
Landau

(1st creation)
(1397-1495)
      
      
       Waldeck renamed
County of Wildungen
(1st creation, Waldeck line)
(1486-1598)
       Inherited by
the Spiegelberg family
(1494-1557);
the House of Lippe
(1557-1583);
and the Gleichen family
(1583-1625)
County of
Landau

(2nd creation)
(1539-1579)
      
      
      
County of Eisenberg
(1475-1682)
Raised to
Principality of
Eisenberg

(1682-1692)
County of Wildungen
(2nd creation, Eisenberg line)
(1607-1692)
      
County of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(1692-1712)
(Wildungen (Eisenberg) line)
Raised to
Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(1712-1918)
County of Bergheim
(1706-1918)

Table of rulersEdit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Widekind I ? 1107-1137 11 June 1137 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg until 1127)
Lutrud of Itter
(d. bef. 2 March 1149)
five children
Brothers and first known ruling members of the family.
Volkwin I ? 1107-1111 c. 1111 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg)
Unknown
Volkwin II 1125 1137-1178 1178 County of Waldeck Luitgard of Reichenbach
(d. aft. 1161)
1144
(annulled 1161)
five children
Son of Widukind I.
Henry I c. 1170 1178-1214 11 June 1137 County of Waldeck Heseke of Dassel
(d. 25 July 1220)
five children
Sons of Volkwin II, divided the land, but was quickly reunited with Waldeck.
Herman I 1163 1178-1225 1225 County of Waldeck
(at Schwalenberg)
Unmarried
Widekind II 1148 1178-1189 1189 County of Pyrmont Unknown
three children
Schwalenberg annexed to Waldeck
Gottschalk I ? 1189-1247 1247 County of Pyrmont Kunigunda of Limmer
(d.1239)
six children
Adolph I c. 1190 1214-1270 3 October 1270 County of Waldeck Sophie
(d.1254)
two children

Ethelind of Lippe
(1204-1273)
14 February 1254
no children
Children of Henry I, divided the land.
Volkwin III c. 1190 1214-1255 c. 1255 County of Schwalenberg Ermengard of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
(d.22 March 1274)
14 February 1254
twelve children
Henry III[2] 1225 c. 1250-1267 1267 County of Waldeck Matilda of Cuyk-Arnsberg
(1235-13 August 1298)
four children
Co-ruled with his father Adolph I, but predeceased him.
Gottschalk II ? 1247-1262 1258/62 County of Pyrmont Beatrice of Hallermund
(d.1272)
five children
Children of Gottschalk I, ruled jointly.
Herman I ? 1247-1265 May 1265 County of Pyrmont Hedwig
(d.20 June 1262)
two children
Widekind I ? 1255-1264 28 September 1264 County of Schwalenberg Unknown
c. 1246

Ermengard
c. 1250

Unknown
c. 1260

two children (in total)
Elder children of Volkwin III, divided the land. Widekind didn't have children and his part was inherited by his younger brothers, while Henry I ruled independently at Sternberg and passed it to his own descendants.
Henry I ? 1255-1279 1279 County of Sternberg ? of Woldenberg
two children
Adolph ? 1264-1305 26 January 1305 County of Schwalenberg Adelaide
(d.6 July 1274)

Jutta
(d.1 April 1305)
Younger children of Volkwin III, ruled jointly.
Albert c. 1190 1264-1317 After
5 February 1317
County of Schwalenberg Jutta of Rosdorf
(d.aft.1 April 1305)
14 February 1254
twelve children
Herman II ? 1265-1328 25 November 1328 County of Pyrmont Luitgard of Waldeck- Schwalenberg
(d.14 September 1317)
five children
Children of Gottschalk II and Herman I, ruled jointly. Herman III was a son of Herman I, and cousin of the other two rulers, sons of Gottschalk I.
Gottschalk III ? 1265-1279 1279 County of Pyrmont Unmarried
Herman III ? c. 1265 c. 1265 County of Pyrmont Unmarried
Adolph II 1258 1270-1276 13 December 1302 County of Waldeck Unmarried Abdicated in 1276 to his brother Otto, after a dispute with him and his other brothers on who would marry Sophia of Hesse, daughter of Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse, which Otto won, resulting in Adolph's resignation. Entering in clergy, Adolph eventually became Bishop of Liège (1301-1302).
Otto I 1262 1276-1305 11 November 1305 County of Waldeck Sophia of Hesse
(1264-1340)
1276
nine children
Inherited the county as prize from his brothers after being chosen to marry Sophia of Hesse.
Hoyer I 1252 1279-1303 1303 County of Sternberg Agnes of Lippe
(1251-aft.1307)five children
Henry II ? 1303-1318 8 January 1318 County of Sternberg Jutta of Tecklenburg
(d.bef. 8 January 1318)
five children
Henry IV 1282 1305-1348 1 May 1348 County of Waldeck Adelaide of Cleves
(d.1327)
1304
six children
Henry II[3] ? 1317-1349 11 April 1349 County of Schwalenberg Elisabeth of Wölpe
(d. 2 February 1336)
nine children

Matilda of Rietberg
(d.25 April 1400)
1342/45
one child
Henry III ? 1318-1346 1346 County of Sternberg Hediwg of Diepholz
(d.aft.1335)
bef.14 September 1330
four children
Children of Hoyer II, ruled jointly.
Hoyer II ? 1318-1320 1320 County of Sternberg Unmarried
Gottschalk IV 1289 1328-1342 24 February 1342 County of Pyrmont Adelaide of Homburg
(d.11 October 1341)
six children
Children of Herman II, ruled jointly.
Henry I ? 1328-c. 1330 c. 1330 County of Pyrmont Unmarried
Herman IV 1310 1328-1334 1334 County of Pyrmont Unmarried
Henry II ? 1342-1390 1390 County of Pyrmont Unknown
three children
Children of Gottschalk IV, ruled jointly.
Gottschalk V ? 1342-1355 1355 County of Pyrmont Unmarried
Herman V ? 1342-1360 1360 County of Pyrmont Oda
(d.1360)
no children/
three children
Herman VI ? 1342-1377 1377 County of Pyrmont Unmarried
Henry IV ? 1346-1385 1385 County of Sternberg Adelaide of Holstein-Pinneberg
(c. 1330-bef. 21 May 1376)
1348
two children
Otto II c. 1305 1348-1369 11 November 1369 County of Waldeck Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(d.1355)
27 August 1339
two children

Margaret of Löwenberg
no children
Henry III ? 1349-1356 After
19 December 1369
County of Schwalenberg Unmarried Sold his estates to Waldeck in 1356, and pursued a religious life.
Schwalenberg reabsorbed in Waldeck
Henry VI of Iron[4] c. 1340 1369-1397 16 February 1397 County of Waldeck Elizabeth of Berg
(c. 1340-4 October 1388)
16 December 1363
seven children
John ? 1385-1402 1402 County of Sternberg Unmarried Left no heirs. The county was annexed to Waldeck.
Sternberg annexed to Waldeck
Henry III ? 1390-1429 1429 County of Pyrmont Pelek
two children

Haseke of Spiegelberg
(d.22 March 1465)
two children
Son of Henry II (or according to other sources, son of Herman V).
Henry VII[5] c. 1370 1397-c. 1445 After 1442
(c. 1445?)
County of Waldeck Margaret of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein
(1380-aft.1435)
27 August 1398
three children
Children of Henry VI, divided the land.
Adolph III 1362 1397-1431 After
19 April 1431
County of Landau Agnes of Ziegenhain
(d.aft.26 December 1438)
1387
one child
Henry IV ? 1429-1478 1478 County of Pyrmont Unmarried Children of Gottschalk II, ruled jointly.
Maurice 1418 1429-1494 1494 County of Pyrmont Margaret of Nassau-Beilstein
(d.27 December 1498)
1462
no children
Inherited by the Spiegelberg family (1494-1557), the House of Lippe (1557-1583) and the Gleichen family (1583-1625)
Definitely annexed to Waldeck-Wildungen (from 1625)
Otto III 1389 1431-1459 1459 County of Landau Anna of Oldenburg
(d.aft.7 April 1438)
1424
three children
Wolrad I 1399 c. 1445-1475 After
1 February 1475
County of Waldeck Barbara of Wertheim
(1420-aft.1443)
Bef.9 March 1440
three children
Otto IV 1440 1459-1495 14 October 1495 County of Landau Matilda of Neuenahr
(d.26 May 1465)
16 January 1464
one child

Elisabeth of Tecklenburg
(d.aft.1499)
1465
no children
Landau annexed by Eisenberg
Philip I 1445 1475 1475 County of Waldeck Joanne of Nassau-Siegen
16 August 1452 or
14 October 1464
one child
Children of Wolrad I. Philip I died months after his father. Philip II ruled at first as regent of his nephew, and then divided the land with him, in 1486.
Philip II 3 March 1453 1486-1524 16 October 1524 County of Eisenberg Catherine of Solms-Lich
(1458-12 December 1492)
3 November 1478
six children

Catherine of Querfurt
(1450-22 February 1521)
1497
no children
Regency of Philip II, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1475-1486)
Henry VIII[6] 1465 1475-1513 28 May 1513 County of Waldeck
(1475–86)

County of Wildungen
(1486-1513)
Anastasia of Runkel
(d.24 April 1503)
Aft. 8 January 1492
three children
Philip IV[7] 1493 1513-1574 30 November 1574 County of Wildungen Margaret of East Frisia
(1500-15 July 1537)
17 February 1523
Emden
nine children

Catherine of Hatzfeld
(d.1546)
1539
no children

Jutta of Isenburg-Grenzau
(d.28 July 1564)
6 October 1554
two children
Philip III the Elder 9 December 1486 1524-1539 20 June 1539 County of Eisenberg Adelaide of Hoya
(d.11 April 1513)
20 November 1503
Bad Wildungen
four children

Anna of Cleves
(21 May 1495 – 24 May 1567)
22 January 1519
Kleve
four children
Wolrad II the Scholar   27 March 1509 1539-1575 15 April 1575 County of Eisenberg Anastasia Günthera of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
(31 March 1526 – 1 April 1570)
6 June 1546
Waldeck
thirteen children
Children of Philip III, divided the land, by mediation of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse: the children from Philip III's first marriage, Wolrad and Otto, kept Waldeck, while the sons from the second marriage, John, Philip and Francis, inherited Landau. For the children who are usually said that did not reign (Otto, Philip and Francis), they are sometimes treated as Waldeck-Eisenberg (in the case of Otto) and Waldeck-Landau (cases of Philip V and Francis), which are the parts the called reigning brothers actually ruled, which may imply a level of co-regency between the brothers:
  • Otto joined the Order of St. John in 1539, and abdicated in the same year of his father's death, which seems to imply that he reigned in that year.[8]
  • Philip V, like Otto, may have reigned,[8] even if for only a few months, in Landau, together with his brother John I. Also, at the time of the division, Philip was not exercising any clerical position (was canon at Mainz in 1530, and then reappears as canon in Cologne in 1544[9]), which would possibly extend a co-rulership that ended with Philip resuming his religious life at Cologne.
  • The same can be said for Francis, who was taken by Anne of Cleves to England in 1540. Given that he is documented starting his religious career only in 1549, nothing seems to oppose a brief co-rulership of Francis in 1539–40, before his trip to England.
Otto V 1504 1539 8 March 1541 County of Eisenberg Unmarried
John I the Pious   1521 1539-1567 9 April 1567 County of Landau Anna of Lippe
(1529-24 November 1590)
1 October 1550
Detmold
eight children
Philip V the Deaf   1519 1539-c. 1544? 5 March 1584 County of Landau Elisabeth von Elsen
(d. 12 June 1584)
27 June 1576
Hückeswagen
no children
Francis II[10] 1526 1539-c. 1540? 29 July 1574 County of Landau Maria Gogreve
(d.1580)
1563
no children
Philip VI the Younger 4 October 1551 1567-1579 9 November 1579 County of Landau Unmarried Children of John I, ruled jointly. As neither of them left descendants, Landau was reabsorbed in Eisenberg.
Francis III[11] 27 June 1553 1567-1597 12 March 1597 County of Landau Unmarried
Landau was reabsorbed into Eisenberg
Daniel 1 August 1530 1574-1577 7 June 1577 County of Wildungen Barbara of Hesse
11 November 1568
Kassel
no children
Left no heirs, and was succeeded by his brother Henry.
Josias I 18 March 1554 1575-1588 6 August 1588 County of Eisenberg Maria of Barby-Mühlingen
(8 April 1563 – 29 December 1619)
8 March 1582
four children
Children of Wolrad II, ruled jointly.
Wolrad III 16 June 1563 1575-1587 12 November 1587 County of Eisenberg Unmarried
Henry IX[12] 10 December 1531 1577 3 October 1577 County of Wildungen Anna of Viermund-Nordenbeck
(1538-1599)
19 December 1563
Korbach
no children
Died shortly after his brother, and didn't have children as well.
Gunther 19 June 1557 1577-1585 23 May 1585 County of Wildungen Margaret of Waldeck-Landau
(1559-20 October 1580)
15 December 1578
Bad Wildungen
no children

Margaret of Gleichen
(28 May 1556 – 14 January 1619)
20 May 1582
Gräfentonna
one child
His second marriage brought the county of Bad Pyrmont back to Waldeck control.
Regency of Margaret of Gleichen (1585-1598) His death determined the extinction of the main branch of the House of Waldeck.
William Ernest 8 June 1584 1585-1598 16 September 1598 County of Wildungen Umarried
Wildungen briefly annexed to Eisenberg
Wolrad IV 7 June 1588 1588-1640 6 October 1640 County of Eisenberg Anna of Baden-Durlach
(13 June 1587 – 11 March 1649)
8 September 1607
Durlach
ten children
Children of Josias I, divided the land. Christian took Wildungen for himself after its annexation in 1598.
Christian 25 December 1585 1607-1637 31 December 1637 County of Wildungen Elisabeth of Nassau-Siegen
(8 November 1584 – 26 July 1661)
18 November 1604
Bad Wildungen
fifteen children
Philip VII   25 November 1613 1637-1645 24 February 1645 County of Wildungen Anna Catherine of Sayn-Wittgenstein
(2 July 1610 – 1 December 1650)
26 October 1634
Frankfurt am Main
six children
Philip Theodore   2 November 1614 1640-1645 7 December 1645 County of Eisenberg Maria Magdalena of Nassau-Siegen
(21 October 1622 – 30 August 1647)
25 August 1639
Culemborg
two children
Regency of George Frederick, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1645-1659) Left no heirs, and was succeeded by his uncle and previous regent.
Henry Wolrad 28 March 1642 1645-1664 15 July 1664 County of Eisenberg Juliane Elisabeth of Waldeck-Wildungen
(1637-1707)

no children
Regencies of Anna Catherine of Sayn-Wittgenstein (1645-1660) and Henry Wolrad, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1659-1660) Children of Philip VII, ruled jointly.
Christian Louis   29 July 1635 1645-1706 12 December 1706 County of Wildungen
(1645–92)

County of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(1692-1706)
Anna Elisabeth of Rappoltstein
(7 March 1644 – 6 December 1676)
2 July 1658
fifteen children

Johanna of Nassau-Saarbrücken-Idstein
(14 September 1657 – 14 March 1733)
6 June 1680
Idstein
ten children
Josias II   2 July 1636 1645-1669 8 August 1669 County of Wildungen Wilhelmine Christine of Nassau-Siegen
(10 July 1629 – 22 January 1700)
26 January 1660
Arolsen
seven children
George Frederick   31 January 1620 1664-1692 19 November 1692 County of Eisenberg
(1664–82)

Principality of Eisenberg
(1682–92)
Elisabeth Charlotte of Nassau-Siegen
(11 March 1626 – 16 November 1694)
29 November 1643
Culemborg
nine children
In 1682, he received the title of Prince. Left no surviving male heirs. The principality was inherited by Wildungen, which was kept as a county until a few years later.
Eisenberg (except Culemborg) was definitely annexed to Wildungen
Louise Anna 18 April 1653 1692-1714 30 June 1714 County of Eisenberg
(at Culemborg)
George IV, Count of Erbach-Fürstenau
22 August 1671
Arolsen
four children
Kept the lordship of Culemborg. As she survived all her children, the lordship was inherited, after her death, by her nephew, Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Culemborg was inherited by Saxe-Hildburghausen
Frederick Anton Ulrich   26 November 1676 1706-1728 1 January 1728 County of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(1706–12)

Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(1712–28)
Louise of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
(28 October 1678 – 3 May 1753)
22 October 1700
Hanau
eleven children
Children of Christian Louis. Frederick Anton was elevated in 1712 to hereditary prince by Emperor Charles VI. On 30 September 1695, their father had changed the primogeniture house law of the Waldeck house, which he had enacted in 1685 and modified in 1687, insofar as he issued a paragium under the established suzerainty of the ruling line of the house, consisting of the three villages of Bergheim, Königshagen and Welle. This paragium, or vassal line, was inherited by Christian Louis' second son, Josias I.
Josias I   20 August 1696 1706-1763 2 February 1763 County of Bergheim Dorothea Sophia Wilhelmine zu Solms-Rödelheim and Assenheim
(27 January 1698 – 6 February 1774)
17 January 1825
seven children
Charles August   24 September 1704 1728-1763 29 August 1763 Waldeck and Pyrmont Christiane Henriette of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
19 August 1741
Zweibrücken
seven children
Frederick Charles August   25 October 1743 1763-1812 24 September 1812 Waldeck and Pyrmont Unmarried Left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother.
George   20 July 1732 1763-1771 9 April 1771 County of Bergheim Christine of Isenburg-Meerholz
(22 November 1742 – 20 March 1808)
31 August 1766
no children
Left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother.
Josias II   16 October 1733 1771-1788 4 January 1788 County of Bergheim Christine Wilhelmine of Isenburg-Büdingen
(24 June 1756 – 13 November 1826)
5 March 1772
no children
Josias III   13 May 1774 1788-1829 9 June 1829 County of Bergheim Wilhelmine of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg
(23 April 1774 – 25 June 1817)
10 January 1802
no children
Left no heirs and was succeeded by his brother.
George I   6 May 1747 1812-1813 9 September 1813 Waldeck and Pyrmont Augusta of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
(1 February 1768 – 26 December 1849)
12 September 1784
Otterwisch
three children
Brother of the previous.
George II   20 September 1789 1813-1845 15 May 1845 Waldeck and Pyrmont Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
26 June 1823
Schaumburg
five children
Charles   17 November 1778 1829-1849 21 January 1849 County of Bergheim Karoline Schilling von Canstatt
(2 February 1798 – 7 October 1866)
25 April 1819
six children
Regency of Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1845-1858)
George Victor   14 January 1831 1845-1893 12 May 1893 Waldeck and Pyrmont Helena of Nassau
26 September 1853
Wiesbaden
seven children

Louise of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
29 April 1891
Luisenlund
one child
Adalbert I 19 February 1833 1849-1893 24 July 1893 County of Bergheim Agnes Karolina of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
(18 April 1834 – 18 February 1886)
3 August 1858
seven children

Ida Charlotte of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein
(25 February 1837 – 7 May 1922)
18 October 1887
no children
Frederick   20 January 1865 1893-1918 26 May 1946 Waldeck and Pyrmont Bathildis of Schaumburg-Lippe
9 August 1895
Náchod
four children
Brother of Queen Emma of the Netherlands. Abolition of the monarchy in 1918.
Adalbert II 6 January 1863 1893-1918 23 February 1934 County of Bergheim Unmarried Abolition of the monarchy in 1918.

MilitaryEdit

Waldeck had raised a battalion of infantry in 1681 but for much of the subsequent history leading up to the Napoleonic Wars, Waldeckers generally served as what is commonly described as 'mercenaries', but was actually 'auxiliaries' hired out by the rulers of Waldeck for foreign service. Such was the demand that the single battalion became two in 1740 (the 1st Regiment), three battalions in 1744, four in 1767 (forming a 2nd Regiment). Most notably the foreign service was with the Dutch (the 1st and 2nd Regiments) and English (after an agreement was signed with the English in 1776 to supply troops for the American War of Independence, the 3rd Waldeck Regiment, of a single battalion, was raised). The 3rd Waldeck Regiment thus served in America, where they were known under the 'umbrella term' used during that conflict for all Germans—'Hessians'. The regiment, which was made up of 4 'Battalion companies', a 'Grenadier' company, staff and a detachment of artillery, was captured by French and Spanish troops supporting the Americans and only a small number returned to Germany, where some formed part of a newly raised 5th Battalion (1784).

By the time of Napoleon's conquest of Germany, the Waldeck Regiments in Dutch service had been dissolved when, as the Batavian Republic, Holland was made into a kingdom ruled by Napoleon's brother Louis. Reduced to battalion strength, they now formed the 3rd battalions of the 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments of the Kingdom of Holland. The 5th Battalion was disbanded, and Waldeck was now also obliged to provide two companies to the II Battalion, 6th German Confederation (i.e., Confederation of the Rhine) Regiment (along with two companies from Reuß) in the service of the French Empire. As with all French infantry, they were referred to as 'Fusiliers'. They served mainly in the Peninsular War against the Duke of Wellington. In 1812, the 6th Confederation Regiment was re-formed, with three companies from Waldeck and one from Reuß again forming the II Battalion. By the time of the downfall of the French Empire in 1814 the battalions in Dutch service had disappeared, but Waldeck now supplied three Infantry and one Jäger Companies to the newly formed German Confederation.

 
Cockade of Waldeck, worn on a Pickelhaube

By 1866, the Waldeck contingent was styled Fürstlisches Waldecksches Füselier-Bataillon, and in the Austro-Prussian War of that year Waldeck (already in a military convention with Prussia from 1862) allied with the Prussians; however the Battalion saw no action. Joining the North German Confederation after 1867, under Prussian leadership, the Waldeck Fusilier Battalion became the III (Fusilier) Battalion of the Prussian Infantry Regiment von Wittich (3rd Electoral Hessian) No. 83, and as such it remained until 1918. The position of regimental 'Chef' (an honorary title) was held by the Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont.

Unlike Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) retained no distinctions to differentiate them from the Prussian. The Waldeckers however, were permitted the distinction of carrying the Cockade of Waldeck on the Pickelhaube. The Waldeck battalion was garrisoned, at various times, at Arolsen/Mengeringhausen/Helsen, Bad Wildungen, Bad Pyrmont and Warburg.

The regiment saw action in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 (where it acquired the nickname Das Eiserne Regiment), and during the First World War—as part of the 22nd Division—fought mainly on the Eastern Front.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A Pictorial Geography of the World: Comprising a System of Universal Geography, Popular and Scientific. Boston: C.D. Strong. 1848. p. 762.
  2. ^ Numbered III because, despite being the second ruler named Henry, tradicional genealogies numbered another Henry, son of Count Henry I, and a canon at Paderborn (1211-1288) as Henry II. This Henry II never ruled.
  3. ^ This numbering taks in account Henry I, Count of Sternberg as Henry I of Schwalenberg
  4. ^ Numbered VI because, despite being the fourth ruler named Henry, tradicional genealogies numbered another Henry, son of Count Henry IV, and a dean at Minden (d.1349) as Henry V. This Henry V never ruled.
  5. ^ Despite never missing any number from this point on, the numbering of the Henrys is unredeemably compromised (because of Henry II and Henry V, who never ruled). So, despite the total counting of 9 Henrys, only 7 actually ruled. Henry VII was the fifth ruler named Henry.
  6. ^ Henry VIII was the sixth ruler named Henry.
  7. ^ Despite succeeding first, he was numbered IV probbaly because he was born after the then still heir Philip III of Eisenberg
  8. ^ a b Haarmann (2014), p. 21.
  9. ^ Wilhelm Blankertz Schloß Hückeswagen Sonderdruck einer Artikelserie des „Bergischer Volksbote" (Burscheider Zeitung) July 1940, PDF, retrieved 14 December 2014.
  10. ^ Counted II because Francis I was a son of Count Philip II, and counted as I, despite never ruling, and that was bishop of Münster and Osnabrück (r.1532-1553)
  11. ^ In fact the second Francis ruling.
  12. ^ Henry IX was the seventh and final ruler named Henry.

External linksEdit