Vulgaxanthins are a group of betaxanthins, or the predominant yellow plant pigments found in red beets, among other plants like Mirabilis jalapa and swiss chard. They are antioxidant pigments, types I, II, III, IV, and V. Like all betaxanthins, they cannot be hydrolyzed by acid to aglycone without degradation. Water activity also affects stability of this antioxidant. It has been studied as a natural nutritional additive but instability remains a problem.
- Vulgaxanthin-II + Ammonia + NADH = Vulgaxanthin-I + NAD+ + H2O
- Vulgaxanthin-I + H2O = Vulgaxanthin-II + Ammonia
- Vulgaxanthin-II + ATP + Ammonia = Vulgaxanthin-I + ADP + Orthophosphate
- Vulgaxanthin-II + ATP + Ammonia = Vulgaxanthin-I + Diphosphate + 5'-AMP
- Betalamic acid + L-Glutamine + ATP = Vulgaxanthin-I + ADP + Orthophosphate
- Trejo-Tapia, G.; Balcazar-Aguilar, J. B.; Martínez-Bonfil, B.; Salcedo-Morales, G.; Jaramillo-Flores, M.; Arenas-Ocampo, M. L.; Jiménez-Aparicio, A. (2008-01-01). "Effect of screening and subculture on the production of betaxanthins in Beta vulgaris L. var. 'Dark Detroit' callus culture". Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 9 (1): 32–36. doi:10.1016/j.ifset.2007.04.009. ISSN 1466-8564.