In Pāṇini's Sanskrit grammar, vṛddhi (Sanskrit: वृद्धि, IPA: [ˈʋr̩d̪d̪ʱɪ], lit. 'growth', from Proto-Indo-European *werdʰ- 'to grow') is a group of long vowels produced by ablaut (vowel gradation). For example:
- bhṛ-tá- भृत ภฺฤต "carried" (base form, nowadays called zero grade)
- bhár-aṇa- भरण ภรณ "burden" (guṇa, full grade)
- bhār-yá- भार्य ภารฺย "to be carried" (vṛddhi, lengthened grade)
In modern Indo-European linguistics it is used in Pāṇini's sense, but not restricted to Sanskrit but applicable to the Indo-European languages in general as well as to the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language from which this feature was inherited:
A vṛddhi-derivation or vṛddhi-derivative is a word that is derived by such lengthening, a type of formation very common in Sanskrit, but also attested in other languages. Such derivatives signify "of, belonging to, descended from". An example:
- PIE *swéḱuro- "father-in-law" (Vedic Sanskrit śváśura- श्वशुर ศฺวศุร; Pali: สสุร sasura) → *swēḱuró- "relating to one's father-in-law" (Vedic śvāśura- "relating to one's father-in-law", Old High German swāgur "brother-in-law")
Derivatives that are formed by inserting a full grade (as opposed to a lengthened grade) vowel into the "wrong" position of a zero grade are also called vṛddhi-derivations:
- in Sanskrit, a -tí-nomen actionis formed from the verbal root vṛdh-/vardh- 'to grow'
- *werdʰ- 'to grow' entry at Indo-European etymological database of The Tower of Babel project
- Meier-Brügger, Fritz & Mayrhofer (2003, L 413)
- The asterisk * indicates that a form is not directly attested, but has been reconstructed on the basis of other linguistic material.
- Rix (2001:76f)
- Fortson (2004:116f)
- Fortson, Benjamin W., IV (2004). Indo-European Language and Culture. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0316-7.
- Meier-Brügger, Michael; Fritz, Matthias; Mayrhofer, Manfred (2003). Indo-European Linguistics. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-017433-2.
- Rix, H (2001). Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben (2 ed.). ISBN 3-89500-219-4.