Volvo D5 engine

The Volvo D5[1] is a type of turbocharged diesel engine developed by Volvo Cars for use in its passenger cars. The D5 engine is based on the Volvo Modular petrol engine.[2] The D5 displaces 2.4 liters; a smaller series of two-litre engines were developed in 2010 and marketed as the Volvo D3 and D4.

Volvo D5 Engine
V70 second generation engine compartment.jpg
V70 2nd generation (Euro 4) engine in a 2007 model V70
Overview
ManufacturerVolvo Cars
Also calledVolvo D3
Volvo D4
Production2002–2017
Layout
ConfigurationInline-5
Displacement2.0–2.4 L (1,984–2,401 cc)
Cylinder bore81 mm (3.19 in)
Piston stroke77–93.15 mm (3.03–3.67 in)
Block materialAluminium
Head materialAluminium
ValvetrainDOHC 4 valves x cyl.
Compression ratio16.5:1, 17.3:1, 18.0:1
RPM range
Redline5200 rpm
Combustion
TurbochargerVariable Nozzle Turbine or Two-stage with intercooler
Fuel systemCommon rail Direct injection
ManagementEDC15, ECD16, EDC17
Fuel typeDiesel
Oil systemWet sump
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Output
Power output82–164 kW (111–223 PS; 110–220 hp)
Torque output280–450 N⋅m (207–332 lb⋅ft)
Emissions
Emissions target standardEuro 3 - Euro 5+
Emissions control technology
Chronology
SuccessorVEA Diesel

HistoryEdit

 
Volvo D5 engine D5244T15 (Euro 5), in 2015 model year Volvo XC70

It is an all aluminium five-cylinder engine with 20 valves and double overhead camshafts. In all but one late version it has a VGT turbocharger of the type VNT (variable nozzle turbine), common rail direct injection and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).

There are three generations of D5 engines:

  • The first generation was introduced in 2001.
  • The second generation was introduced in 2005. The second generation got a slight reduction in stroke and has a reduced compression ratio, a water-cooled VNT turbocharger with a bigger compressor and an electric servo motor to adjust the vanes, an improved EGR system, a throttle valve, revised intake and exhaust ports and a newer generation of common-rail direct injection with improved injectors.[3]
  • The third generation was introduced in 2009. The third generation got a further reduction in compression ratio, a two-stage turbo system (D5244T10), an improved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system, revised intake and exhaust ports and a newer generation of common-rail direct injection with higher pressure and piezoelectric injectors.
 
D5 emblem on a 2008 Volvo C30

Volvo has a special version of the D5 (D5244T8/T13) for use in the C30, S40, V50 and C70 models that produces 180 PS (132 kW) and 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) of torque, reduced to 350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) with automatic transmission. The engine compartments of these cars are smaller so among other things the engine has a different air intake system, different exhaust system, smaller charge air cooler and a smaller radiator.

In 2009 Volvo, in conjunction with Polestar, launched software upgrades for many of its D5 engines.[4] These upgrades have no impact on official emission or fuel consumption figures, but produce power and torque gains of typically a little over 10%. The first engine to have such an upgrade available was the D5244T4, and the upgrade increased the torque from 400 to 450 N⋅m (295 to 332 lb⋅ft), and power from 185 to 205 PS (136 to 151 kW). The same upgrade was available for the mechanically-identical D5244T5. Similar upgrades have since been launched for later engines.[5]

Marine engineEdit

The D5244T is also offered as a marine engine by Volvo Penta under the name D3. The marinised engine is in large parts identical to D5244T. This includes crankshaft, pistons, camshafts, valves, cylinder block, cylinder head, turbo, injectors and the high pressure pump. The D3 ECU has a modified software, which e.g. gives a modified torque suited for marine applications and has a simplified starting sequence. The hardware differences between D5244T and D3 are: a water-cooled intercooler, a water-cooled exhaust manifold, a heavier monolithic crankwheel, a seawater-pump and a heat exchanger. The output is 110 hp (82 kW) at 3,000 rpm, 130 hp (97 kW), 160 hp (119 kW), 190 hp (142 kW), 220 hp (164 kW) at 4,000 rpm and it is coupled to a duoprop I/O system.

ModelsEdit

Engine code Max. power Max. torque Max. engine speed Bore x Stroke Displacement Compression ratio Turbocharging system Common rail
D5244T 163 PS (120 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) at 1,750-2,750 rpm 4,600 rpm 81 mm × 93.2 mm (3.19 in × 3.67 in) 2,401 cc (146.5 cu in) 18.0:1 VNT Second generation 1,600 bar (23,000 psi)
D5244T2 130 PS (96 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) at 1,750-3,000 rpm
D5244T3 116 PS (85 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) at 1,750-3,000 rpm
D5244T4 185 PS (136 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) at 2,000-2,750 rpm 5,000 rpm 81 mm × 93.15 mm (3.19 in × 3.67 in) 2,400 cc (150 cu in) 17.3:1
D5244T5 163 PS (120 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
340 N⋅m (251 lb⋅ft) at 1,750-2,250 rpm
D5244T7 126 PS (93 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
300 N⋅m (221 lb⋅ft) at 1,750-2,750 rpm
D5244T8 180 PS (132 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) at 1,750-3,250 rpm 4,600 rpm
D5244T13 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) at 2,000-2,750 rpm
D5244T18 200 PS (147 kW)
at 3,900 rpm
420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) at 1,900-2,800 rpm 5,000 rpm
D5244T10 205 PS (151 kW)[6]
at 4,000 rpm
420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) at 1,500-3,250 rpm 5,200 rpm 16.5:1 Two-stage Third generation 1,800 bar (26,000 psi)
D5244T11 215 PS (158 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
D5244T14 175 PS (129 kW)
at 3,000-4,000 rpm
420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) at 1,500-2,750 rpm 5,000 rpm VNT
D5244T15 215 PS (158 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
440 N⋅m (325 lb⋅ft) at 1,500-3,000 rpm 5,200 rpm Two-stage
D5244T16/T17 163 PS (120 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) at 1,500-2,500 rpm 5,000 rpm
D5244T21 190 PS (140 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
5,200 rpm
D5244T22[7] 220 PS (162 kW)
at 4,000 rpm
420 N⋅m (310 lb⋅ft) at 1,500-3,000 rpm

Note: 'D5' is branding. All these engines share the five-cylinder block, although not all consistently used the 'D5' badge over time. This is due to changes in hardware and the specific model the engine was deployed in. E.g. On the S60 -05 range, the D5244T was labelled 'D5', and subsequently the D5244T5 was labelled '2.4D' as a (software) detuned version of the D5244T4 'D5' on the 05-09 range. The D5244T21 was even badged 'D4' when used in the S60 D4 AWD automatic between 2016 and 2018.[8][9] Similarly the 2016 XC60 AWD branded the 190PS D5244T21 as 'D4', but the 220PS D5244T20 as 'D5', whilst the two wheel drive XC60 model of the same year used 'D4' to describe the different D4204T four-cylinder diesel engine developed in conjunction with Ford and PSA.[10]

Volvo D3 and D4Edit

 
First generation Volvo D3 engine

In 2010 Volvo debuted a new series of two-liter engines based on the third generation D5 with all the features of that engine. Three models with different power outputs were available (internal model codes D5204T, D5204T2, and D5204T5), marketed as the D3 and D4 depending on output. The direct injection pump is a Bosch CP4 with two heads, helping to produce torque of around 400 N⋅m (300 lb⋅ft) even at low engine speeds.

The D3/D4 bore remains the same as in the D5, but with a 77 mm (3.0 in) stroke the displacement is brought down to 1,984 cc (121.1 cu in), keeping it below the vital two-litre threshold in many countries. The D3 is the lower-powered series, with the higher output D5204T referred to as the D4.

In April 2011 the original D5204T2 was replaced by the upgraded D3 version, which featured Volvo's "Volvo Environment Diesel" (VED) technologies to lower emissions and consumption. Power and torque figures remained largely unchanged. In April 2012 a lower tuned engine, the 136 PS (100 kW) D5204T7 was announced; it was marketed as a "D3" and meanwhile the 163 PS (120 kW) version changed its name to "D4".[11]

SpecificationsEdit

D5204T2 D5204T3 D5204T5 D5204T7 D5204T
Max power 163 PS (120 kW)
at 2,900 rpm
163 PS (120 kW)
at 3,500 rpm
150 PS (110 kW)
at 3,500 rpm
136 PS (100 kW)
at 3,500 rpm
177 PS (130 kW)
at 3,500 rpm
Max torque 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
at 1,400-2,850 rpm
400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
at 1,500-2,750 rpm
350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft)
at 1,500-2,750 rpm
350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft)
at 1,500-2,250 rpm
400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft)
at 1,750-2,750 rpm
Max engine speed 4,400 rpm 5,000 rpm 5,000 rpm 5,000 rpm 5,000 rpm
Bore x Stroke 81 mm × 77 mm (3.19 in × 3.03 in)
Displacement 2.0 L (1,984 cc)
Compression ratio 16.5:1
Charging system Variable Nozzle Turbine
Common rail Third generation 1,800 bar (26,000 psi)

SuccessorEdit

In autumn of 2013 the new Volvo Engine Architecture was introduced. The 5-cylinder D5 began a process of being gradually phased out along with the V70/XC70 and first generation XC60. Production of the D5 type engines ended in 2017.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "6-Speed Manual for the D5 Engines" (PDF). www.volvoclub.org.uk (Press release). 30 March 2004. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  2. ^ "D5 - Volvo's Own Diesel Engine". autoworld.com.my. 6 August 2002. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  3. ^ "Volvo New Car Features. Model Year 2006. Technical Information" (PDF). Volvo Car Corporation. 2005. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  4. ^ "Volvo Car UK launches Polestar Performance for Volvo owners wanting to enhance their vehicle's performance". Volvo Car Corporation. 2009. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  5. ^ "The Upgraded Volvo D5 For 2012". Volvo Car Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2018-10-06.
  6. ^ "Upgraded D5 engine with enhanced performance and reduced fuel consumption". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  7. ^ "XC60 (2016 early): Engine Specifications". Volvo Car Corporation. 2020-01-14. Archived from the original on 2020-10-24.
  8. ^ "Polestar model selector S60".
  9. ^ "Volvo S60 2016 UK price list" (PDF). Volvo Car Corporation. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  10. ^ "Volvo XC60 2016 UK price list" (PDF). Volvo Car Corporation. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  11. ^ "Volvo Presenteert Nieuwe Vijfcilinder Dieselmotor" [Volvo Presents New Five-cylinder Diesel Engine]. AutoWeek (NL) (in Dutch). DPG Media Magazines B.V. 2012-04-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-25.

External linksEdit