Voiceless palatal lateral approximant
The voiceless palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʎ̥⟩ (devoiced ⟨ʎ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is
|Voiceless palatal lateral approximant|
|IPA Number||157 402A|
If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal lateral approximant may be transcribed as ⟨l̠̊ʲ⟩ or ⟨l̥˗ʲ⟩ (both symbols denote a devoiced, retracted and palatalized ⟨l⟩) or ⟨ʎ̥˖⟩ (devoiced and advanced ⟨ʎ⟩); these are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are
L_0_+, respectively. A non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ̊⟩ (devoiced ⟨ȴ⟩, which is an ordinary "l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩) can also be used.
Features of the voiceless palatal lateral approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Faroese||kjálki||[ˈt͡ʃʰaʎ̥t͡ʃɪ]||'jaw'||Allophone of /l/. See Faroese phonology|
|Inupiaq||sikł̣aq||[sikʎ̥˖ɑq]||ˈpickaxeˈ||Alveolo-palatal; also described as a fricative [ʎ̥˖˔]. Contrasts with voiceless /ɬ/ and voiced /ʎ/ and /l/.|
|nuiŋił̣ł̣uni||[nuiŋiʎ̥˖ʎ̥˖uni]||'because it did not appear'|
|Norwegian||Trondheim subdialect of Trøndersk||alt||[ɑʎ̥c]||'everything, all'||Allophone of /ʎ/ before /c/. See Norwegian phonology|
|Some subdialects of Trøndersk||tatle||[tɑʎ̥]||'acting silly'||According to some scholars, it is a phoneme that contrasts with /ʎ/ (as in /tɑʎ/ 'softwood'.) See Norwegian phonology|
|Xumi||Lower||[Hʎ̥˖o]||'spirit'||Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiced /ʎ/.|
- Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
- Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
- Árnason (2011:115)
- Kaplan 1981, p. 29.
- MacLean 1980, p. XX.
- Vanvik (1979), p. 37.
- Such as Vanvik (1979)
- An example of a scholar disagreeing with this position is Scholtz (2009). On page 15, she provides a phoneme chart for Trøndersk, in which /ʎ/ is included. Under the phoneme chart she writes "Vanvik also lists /ʎ̥/ as an underlying phoneme, but that’s ridiculous." She provides no further explanation for that.
- Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157[permanent dead link]
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169[permanent dead link]
- Scholtz, Anna (2009), A phonetic study of the status of three mergers in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian (PDF), Williamstown, Massachusetts: Williams College
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
- MacLean, Edna Ahgeak (1980), Iñupiallu Tanņiḷḷu Uqaluņisa Iḷaņich = Abridged Iñupiaq and English Dictionary (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, p. xvii-xx, retrieved 20 December 2017
- Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1981), Phonological Issues in North Alaskan Inupiaq (PDF), Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, pp. 21–29, retrieved 20 December 2017
- List of languages with [ʎ̥] on PHOIBLE