Virginia literature

The literature of Virginia, United States, is literature produced by, written within or pertaining to the American state of Virginia which is situated on the eastern coast of the US. Including fiction, non-fiction, poetry, prose, letters, travel diaries, logs, drama, belles-lettres and journalistic writing, Virginian literature has evolved and developed from pre-colonial settlement to the modern day.[1] Virginian literature was influenced in its early years by the English establishment of the Jamestown Colony in 1607 in the Chesapeake Bay area.[2] Literature of the region was later characterised by the Antebellum period, civil war, reconstruction, and slavery.[3] Representative authors include James Branch Cabell, Ellen Glasgow, William Hoffman, Lee Smith, Carolyn Kreiter-Foronda and William Styron. Literary journals include The Virginia Quarterly Review and The Virginia Normal.

HistoryEdit

Pre-Colonial Settlement & Native Indigenous LiteratureEdit

Prior to English settlement and the formation of Jamestown on the east Virginian coast in 1607, the region was home to the native Algonquian peoples, also known as the Powhatan peoples of Tsenacommacah. Literature made by the early Powhatan peoples was multi-textual, not based on the English written word and took many artistic and cultural forms.[4] Indigenous literature of early Virginia consisted of oral stories and tales, markings made on rock and the land itself, physical memorials that were used as a way of storytelling, and, other kinds of texts including "earthworks (architectonic forms of public rhetoric that embody and express civic and sacred power) and other smaller expressive forms such as effigies, pipes, and pottery".[5]

There is some evidence to suggest that the Algonquin people used a form of hieroglyphic writing in order to communicate and record information.[6] Written observations made by European settlers recorded that indigenous people were writing these hieroglyphic inscriptions on birch bark and in screen-fold books on a number of matters including public life, private affairs, culture, social systems and spiritual beliefs.[7] This is known as a form of indigenous literacy[8] or literature that employs a non-alphabetic writing system and makes use of signs and symbols in order to communicate.

Early Literature (1600s - 1700s)Edit

Literature produced during the early period was predominantly written in the style of prose and focused almost exclusively on topics of exploration and settlement.[9] Texts mostly consisted of diaries, letters, logs, political writings, promotion literature, prose, travel notes/practical manuals, religious sermons and poetry. Early writings were predominantly observational logs made by the first colonisers in service of the crown describing the landscape, indigenous peoples and conditions of settlement.[10] Explorer and colony governor (from 1606 – 1609) George Percy, wrote the Observations, a highly detailed eye-witness account of the incidents of the first voyage to Virginia and the party's many expeditions onto land, however it was not published until 1625.

An excerpt of 'A True Relation of Virginia' by John Smith.

John Smith, explorer and captain of the newly established Virginian colony wrote frequently and in 1608 Smith's first book A True Relation of Virginia also known under the title A True Relation of such occurrences and accidents of noate as hath hapned in Virginia since the first planting of that collony, which is now resident in the South part thereof, till the last returne from thence was published at Stationers Hall in London.[11] Attributed as a natural-born writer,[12] Smith's account of Jamestown was a straightforward, matter-of-fact record of his journey to, settlement of, and what he witnessed and experienced within, the colony. The text itself was forthright, vivid and used direct and strong natural prose. It followed a tradition of British geographical style writing prominent at the time that documented, categorised and expounded the nature of adventure and colonisation. It describes in detail the Indigenous Powhatan peoples Smith encountered and presented Virginia as a 'Wonder of Nature' and as a 'Mirror of our Clime' in which he reflects "a vision of a heroic imperial England".[13] As it was the first published English-language literary text of the region it helped to establish Smith's reputation as an authority on Virginia.[14] It is cited by historians as the first piece of literature produced within and about Virginia, marking the beginning of Virginian (and also American) literary history.[15]

 
Title page of 'Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles' by John Smith.

John Smith later published The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles in 1624 which was divided into six sections spread across two volumes of work. The work further described British colonial efforts in Virginia, documenting the topography & geography of the region, recording observations of the spiritual practices, systems of law, and family life of the indigenous peoples, and categorising the native flora & fauna of the land. Smith also included a short and limited dictionary of the Algonquian language.[16] Literary scholars note that Smith's themes and the writing itself influenced later Virginian literary texts and styles, as well as other Southern writers "from Twain and Melville to Barth and Pynchon".[17]

Throughout the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia's leaders often sought to emulate a style of poetry established during the period of the English Renaissance, a tradition of writing which was primarily concerned with topics of civic and social life.[18] This style was widely used by their English compatriots back home.[19] These literary traditions would stretch into the 18th Century with common types of verse included the elegy, the narrative poem, and the historical poem.[20] William Strachey the colonial secretary of the Virginia Colony wrote several works including The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia which included the opening poem Aecclesiae et Reipub (Church and State) in which he "emphasises the inextricable link between planting a colony and planting the Christian faith, indicating that the English colonists had a religious responsibility to convert the Virginia Indians.”[21]

A printing press began operating in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1682.[22] Colonial- and Federal-era writers included Robert Beverley, Jr. (History and Present State of Virginia, 1705); Arthur Blackamore (Religious Triumverate, 1720); Thomas Jefferson (Notes on the State of Virginia, 1785).[23]

Later during the eighteenth century, letters became one of the most popular forms of literary text, the period being dubbed the golden age of letter writing due to "expanding social mobility, higher literacy rates, less expensive stationary supplies, and faster postal delivery".[24] It is noted that the earliest descriptions of Virginia (it's terrain, layout and original indigenous inhabitants) were recorded and proliferated in the literary form of the letter.[25] A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia by Thomas Harriot is one such example of descriptive letters published to English audiences describing the newly colonised Virginia.

Literature of the 19th CenturyEdit

Virginian Literature of the 19th Century covers literature produced from 1800 to the turn of the century in 1899. This period of writing was marked by the Antebellum (meaning 'before the war') period between 1812 – 1861 and the American civil war from 1861 – 1865.[26] The early years of the nineteenth century saw several important literary texts published including The History of the expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark, to the sources of the Missouri thence across the Rocky mountains and down the river Columbia to the Pacific Ocean (1814) which recorded the expedition of Lewis and Clark (two Virginian-born explorers) and A Tour through Part of Virginia in the Summer of 1808 (1809) by John Edwards Caldwell. These texts centred on the themes of travel, history, and biography.[27]

 
The cover of the December, 1835 issue of The Southern Literary Messenger magazine, published in Richmond, Virginia (VA), by T.W. White. Included in this issue is 'M.S. Found in a Bottle' by Edgar Allan Poe.

The early Antebellum period of Virginia's literary history was marked by genres of "elegies, poems, metrical romances, narrative, satire, sentimental humour, and vers de société."[28] Poetry on the topic of nature and the natural surrounds of the Virginia area was common and followed a tradition established in England by romantic poets such as William Wordsworth.[29] Such writing, like previous literature written during the Jeffersonian era, was typically "written by men of the professional class – clergymen, lawyers, legislators, physicians, teachers"[30] however in 1813 Judith Lomax became the first woman from Virginia to publish a book consisting only of her own written verse.[31] Other women poets of the time included Anna Byrd, Martha Ann Davis and Judith Wormeley.

The Southern Literary Messenger launched in Richmond in 1834.[32] Edgar Allen Poe a prominent literary figure of the antebellum period served as the paper's editor in chief between 1835-1837.[33] Other literary figures of the period include Virginia-born writers William Alexander Caruthers (1802–1846), John Esten Cooke (1830-1886), Philip Pendleton Cooke (1816 -1850), Nathaniel Beverley Tucker (1784-1851).[34] During the Antebellum period The Novel also became a popular form of literary text often highlighting "historic Virginia settings and historic figures" where action and narrative was "set either on a Virginia antebellum plantation or in a crucial moment from Virginia history."[35]

The period of the American Civil War provided an opportunity for literary development for women writers not only from Virginia but within the larger American South.[36] Women "in response to the war that rocked their patriarchal society...wrote diaries, memoirs, poetry, and novels".[37] The themes explored at this time were predominantly concerned with women's personal experiences of the War in the form of both fiction and non-fictional account.[38] Other female Virginian writers include Mary Tucker Magill (Woman, or a Chronicle of the Late War, 1867), Marta Lockett Avary (A Virginia Girl in the Civil War, 1903), Maie Dove Day (The Blended Flags), Susan Archer Tally and Marion Harland.

Marion Fontaine Cabell Tyree's Housekeeping in Old Virginia, a cookbook, was published in Richmond in 1878.[39] In 1855 Sketches of Slave Life: Or, Illustrations of the Peculiar Institution was written by Peter Randolph an ex-Virginian Slave and noted abolitionist.[40] He also wrote From Slave Cabin to the Pulpit in 1893. His narratives recorded the day-to-day hardships of slave life in Virginia, "relating how the lives of slaves were controlled by their masters and the laws of the land."[41] Randolph's writing was part of a larger change of literary voices in Virginia's history as African American writers began to write to "assert themselves not only as human beings worthy of freedom and opportunity, but also as equals to whites, with the act of writing their stories being the first step in asserting that equality."[42]

Organisations & ProgramsEdit

The Virginia Writers Club was formed in November of 1918[43] and currently has ten chapters. Its mission is to "support and stimulate the art, craft, and business of writing, as well as advocate the literary arts in the broader Virginia community".[44] It has a diverse range of members of both published and unpublished writers, poets, journalists and essayists. They offer courses, contests and hold an annual writing symposium in Virginia.[45]

The Poetry Society of Virginia formed in May 1923.[46] According to their mission statement they "seek to promote the writing and enjoyment of poetry through a wide range of programs and monthly events, offered in seven regions across Virginia".[47] Dr. Charles N. Feidelson, a Professor of Literature at Yale was appointed as the first president of the society. The current president is Terry Cox-Joseph. The Poetry Society of Virginia holds a festival in the third weekend in May each year and an annual poetry competition.

The Virginia Centre for the Book is a program developed through Virginia Humanities and seeks to "unite communities of readers, writers, artists, and book lovers through year-round programs and partnership initiatives...promoting books, reading, literacy, and the literary life of Virginia"[48] The centre is affiliated with The University of Virginia and The National Endowment for the Humanities, and holds public education initiatives, programs and workshops in an effort to encourage "all Virginians to develop a love of books and reading".[49] The centre is also an affiliate of the Centre for the Book in the Library of Congress.[50]

Awards and eventsEdit

The Virginia General Assembly created the position of Poet Laureate of Virginia in 1936. The position is currently held by Luisa Igloria, a professor of English and Creative Writing at Old Dominion University.[51]

 
Herman M. Schwartz, Professor of Politics at The University of Virginia, speaks at The Virginia Festival of the Book in 2010.

The Library of Virginia established an annual literary awards program in 1997. Awards are given to Virginian writers in multiple categories including fiction, non-fiction and poetry and aims to honour and celebrate authors and their contributions to the field of Virginia literature.[52] There are People’s Choice Awards for Fiction and Nonfiction works. The library also awards a Literary Lifetime Achievement Award, acknowledging the outstanding achievement of one long-standing individual each year. Past winners of this award include Earl Hamner, Lee Smith, Tom Robbins, Charles Wright, Barbara Kingsolver, Rita Dove, John Grisham, Tom Wolfe, and David Baldacci.[53]

Virginia currently holds an annual festival titled the 'Virginia Festival of the Book' which aims to support emerging and established writers by "bringing together writers and readers to promote and celebrate books, reading, literacy and literary culture".[54] This initiative is organised by The Virginia Centre for the Book and is sponsored by The Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation[55] and supported by the University of Virginia. Other major partners include Dominion Energy, Bank of America, CFA Institute and Macmillan Publisher Services.[56] Over twenty thousand people attend each year.[57]

Literary Journals in VirginiaEdit

Name of Journal Place/Institute of Publication Years Active Editor(s) Notes
Artemis Journal Roanoke Taubman Museum of Art,

Roanoke VA

1977 – Present Editorial Staff:

Founder & Editor-in-Chief: Jeri Rogers

Associate Editor: Julia Fallon

Literary Editors: Donnie Secreast, Adam Gnuse

Distinguished Poet, Page Turner, Art Editor: Nikki Giovanni

Layout Editor: Zephren Turner

Poet Liason Va. Poetry Society: Angela Dribben

Treasurer & Legal Advisor: Jonathan Rogers

Artemis journal seeks to showcase women's voices through the publishing of both poetry and prose and regularly includes both established and previously unpublished authors.

It is a "charitable, non-profit organisation" sponsored by the Roanoke Arts Commission and The Taubman Museum of Art.[58]

Blue Collar Review - Journal of Progressive Working Class Literature Partisan Press

Norfolk, VA

Unknown Unknown
Clinch Mountain Review Southwest Virginia Community College,

Richlands VA

Unknown Editor: Russ Wood
Hampden-Sydney Poetry Review Hampden-Sydney College,

Hampden-Sydney VA

1975 - Present Editor: Nathaniel D. Perry (Elliott Professor of English and Editor of The Poetry Review)
Meridian University of Virginia,

Charlottesville VA

1998 - Present Editor in Chief: Jeddie Sophronius

Fiction Editor: Nana Nyarko Boateng

Nonfiction Editor: Henrietta Hadley

Associate Poetry Editor: Kaitlyn Airy

Meridian is published annually and is created in conjunction with the university's MFA in Creative Writing Program students who serve as the magazine's editors.
Sow's Ear Poetry Review The Word Process,

Winchester VA

1989 - present Managing Editor: Sarah Kohrs
The Hollins Critic Hollins University,

Roanoke VA

1963 - Present Editor: Billy Faires
Blackbird (formerly known as The New Virginia Review) Virginia Commonwealth University Department of English

Norfolk Va

1978 - Present

Change of name 2002

Managing Editor: Rebecca Poynor Main contributors to the journal include graduate and undergraduate student interns, as well as MA and MFA Graduate Assistants from the VCU Department of English[59]
The Northern Virginia Review Northern Virginia Community College,

Annandale VA

2013 - Present Editor in Chief: Ruth Stewart

Associate Editor: Jonathan Harvey

The Virginia Normal Virginia State University Literary Journal,

Petersburg VA

2013 (established)

2015 (first issue published) - Present

Faculty Editors:

Ann Rudy Franklin

Dr Michael McClure

Claire Boswell

Latorial Faison

Founded by members of Virginia State University's Department of Languages and Literature
The Virginia Quarterly Review (VQR) Centre for Media and Citizenship, University of Virginia,

Charlottesville VA

1925 - Present Director: Siva Vaidhyanathan

Editor: Paul Reyes
Publisher & Executive Editor: Allison Wright
Art Director: Jenn Boggs

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ Jones, Howard Mumford (1946). "The Literature of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century". Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 19 (2): 1–47. doi:10.2307/25058511. hdl:2027/uva.x001249441. ISSN 0096-6134. JSTOR 25058511.
  3. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ Anderson, Eric Gary (2016). Hobson, Fred; Ladd, Barbara (eds.). Literary and Textual Histories of the Native South. Oxford University Press. p. 1. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199767472.013.1.
  5. ^ Anderson, Eric Gary (2016). Hobson, Fred; Ladd, Barbara (eds.). Literary and Textual Histories of the Native South. Oxford University Press. p. 2. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199767472.013.1. ISBN 978-0-19-976747-2.
  6. ^ Rasmussen, Birgit Brander (2012). Queequeg's Coffin: Indigenous Literacies and Early American Literature. Duke University Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780822393832.
  7. ^ Rasmussen, Birgit Brander (2012). Queequeg's Coffin: Indigenous Literacies and Early American Literature. Duke University Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780822393832.
  8. ^ Parker, Robert Dale (2002). The Invention of Native American Literature. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9781501724664.
  9. ^ Jones, Howard Mumford (1946). "The Literature of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century". Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 19 (2): 8. doi:10.2307/25058511. hdl:2027/uva.x001249441. JSTOR 25058511.
  10. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ Gardiner, Tyler Lyon (1966). Narratives of early Virginia, 1606-1625. New York: Barnes & Noble. p. 27.
  12. ^ Goodheart, Adam (2012). "1607 Fear and love in the Virginia colony". In Marcus, Greil (ed.). A New Literary History of America. Harvard University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780674054219.
  13. ^ Street, Susan Castillo (2016). "Forging a Transatlantic Persona: Panegyric Verse and John Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England and the Summer Isles". The Yearbook of English Studies. 46: 79. doi:10.5699/yearenglstud.46.2016.0075. ISSN 0306-2473. JSTOR 10.5699/yearenglstud.46.2016.0075. S2CID 163996515.
  14. ^ Street, Susan Castillo (2016). "Forging a Transatlantic Persona: Panegyric Verse and John Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England and the Summer Isles". The Yearbook of English Studies. 46: 76. doi:10.5699/yearenglstud.46.2016.0075. ISSN 0306-2473. JSTOR 10.5699/yearenglstud.46.2016.0075. S2CID 163996515.
  15. ^ Hayes 2015, p. 17.
  16. ^ Goodheart, Adam (2012). "1607 Fear and love in the Virginia colony". In Greil, Marcus; Sollors, Werner (eds.). A New Literary History of America. Harvard University Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780674054219.
  17. ^ Goodheart, Adam (2012). "1607 Fear and love in the Virginia colony". In Marcus, Greil; Sollors, Werner (eds.). A New Literary History of America. p. 25. ISBN 9780674054219.
  18. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  19. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  20. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  21. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  22. ^ Lawrence C. Wroth (1938), "Diffusion of Printing", The Colonial Printer, Portland, Maine: Southworth-Anthoensen Press – via Internet Archive (Fulltext)
  23. ^ Charles Reagan Wilson; William Ferris, eds. (1989). "Beginnings of Southern Literature". Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807818232 – via Documenting the American South.
  24. ^ Hewitt, Elizabeth (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Letter Writing in Eighteenth-Century Virginia", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 96–108, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.008, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  25. ^ Hewitt, Elizabeth (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Letter Writing in Eighteenth-Century Virginia", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 96–108, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.008, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  26. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  27. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  28. ^ Brickey, Russell (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Romantic Verse", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 171, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.013, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  29. ^ Brickey, Russell (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Romantic Verse", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 171, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.013, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  30. ^ Brickey, Russell (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Romantic Verse", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 170, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.013, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  31. ^ Brickey, Russell (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Romantic Verse", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 171, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.013, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  32. ^ Hayes 2015.
  33. ^ Jones, Paul Christian (2015), Hayes, Kevin J. (ed.), "Edgar Allan Poe and the Art of Fiction", A History of Virginia Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 180–192, doi:10.1017/cbo9781107415164.014, ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7, retrieved 2022-06-01
  34. ^ Charles Reagan Wilson; William Ferris, eds. (1989). "Antebellum Era". Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807818232 – via Documenting the American South.
  35. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  36. ^ Clabough, Casey (2014). Women of War : Selected Memoirs, Poems, and Fiction by Virginia Women Who Lived Through the Civil War. College Station: Texas Review Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-937875-50-3. OCLC 890072332.
  37. ^ Clabough, Casey (2014). Women of War : Selected Memoirs, Poems, and Fiction by Virginia Women Who Lived Through the Civil War. College Station: Texas Review Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-937875-50-3. OCLC 890072332.
  38. ^ Clabough, Casey (2014). Women of War : Selected Memoirs, Poems, and Fiction by Virginia Women Who Lived Through the Civil War. College Station: Texas Review Press. ISBN 978-1-937875-50-3. OCLC 890072332.
  39. ^ "Regional American Cooking: South and Border States", Feeding America: the Historic American Cookbook Project, Michigan State University, retrieved March 13, 2017
  40. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  41. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  42. ^ A history of Virginia literature. Kevin J. Hayes. New York. 2015. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-107-05777-7. OCLC 903688822.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  43. ^ "Virginia Writers Club". www.virginiawritersclub.org. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  44. ^ "Virginia Writers Club - About Us". www.virginiawritersclub.org. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  45. ^ "2021 VWC Symposium". www.virginiawritersclub.org. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  46. ^ "About PSV". Poetry Society of Virginia. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
  47. ^ "ABOUT US". Poetry Society. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  48. ^ "About". Virginia Center for the Book. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  49. ^ "About". Virginia Center for the Book. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  50. ^ "About - Center for the Book | Library of Congress". www.read.gov. 2013. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  51. ^ "HOME". LUISA A. IGLORIA. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  52. ^ "Library of Virginia Annual Library of Virginia Literary Awards". www.lva.virginia.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  53. ^ "Finalists and Winners of the Library of Virginia Annual Literary Awards". www.lva.virginia.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  54. ^ "About Us". Virginia Festival of the Book. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  55. ^ "The Joseph and Robert Cornell Memorial Foundation". cornellmemorialfoundation.org. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  56. ^ "Partners & Sponsors". Virginia Festival of the Book. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  57. ^ "Home". Virginia Festival of the Book. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  58. ^ "Artemis Journal". Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  59. ^ "Spring 2022 Editorial Staff | Blackbird v21n1". blackbird.vcu.edu. Retrieved 2022-05-30.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit