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Victorian Amateur Football Association

The Victorian Amateur Football Association (VAFA) is the largest amateur Australian rules football league in Australia and consists of seven senior divisions (with each club in the first 3 divisions fielding 3 teams, and all clubs fielding 2).

Victorian Amateur Football Association (VAFA)
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2019
Victorian fa logo.png
SportAustralian rules football
Founded1892; 127 years ago (1892)
No. of teams68
CountryAustralia
Level on pyramid7
Official websitevafa.com.au

The league's administration base is at Sportscover Arena at Elsternwick Park, a former Victorian Football Association stadium in suburban Elsternwick, Victoria, that was home to the now defunct Brighton Football Club. It has a small grandstand and capacity for around 15,000 spectators.

In addition there are also three Club XVIII divisions, primarily made up of either clubs only able to field one team, or clubs from higher divisions that can field a third team after their seniors and reserves. The league operates a promotion and relegation system between divisions with various rules dictating which division clubs can play in.

Many of the clubs are private school based where school old boys play.

The 2017 William Buck Premier is St Kevins Old Boys who defeated Collegians 10.10.70 to 9.13.67

HistoryEdit

 
Collegians vs Melbourne University Blacks at Collegians home ground at Albert Park
                    Public Schools and Football.
The question of public school boys playing in senior football has recently been raised.
It has been contended that the entry of prominent schoolboy players into the ranks of the senior football teams would be a boon to the game, and it is also reported that some schoolboys are likely to play with senior teams.
In view of these reports, the attitude of the headmasters is of interest.
They have laid down the rule that no boy while at school shall be permitted to play with any League or Association team, but no ban is placed on a boy who may wish to play with an amateur team, provided such games do not interfere with his duty to the school football team.
          Table Talk, 26 April 1923.[1]

Metropolitan Junior Football Association (MJFA)Edit

The Victorian Amateur Football Association was founded in 1892 as the Metropolitan Junior Football Association.[2] The foundation clubs were: Alberton; Brighton; Collegians; Footscray District; St Jude's; St Mary's; Toorak-Grosvenor; YMCA.[3][4]

Metropolitan Amateur Football Association (MAFA)Edit

In 1912 the MJFA became the Metropolitan Amateur Football Association.[5]

Prior to the First World War, apart from its core function of delivering a competition for amateur footballers, the MAFA also provided an (unofficial) second-level competition for the VFL.[6] The VFL Second XVIII competition began in 1919;[7] the MAFA competition was not resumed, post-war, until 1920.

Victorian Amateur Football Association (VAFA)Edit

In 1933 it changed its name to the Victorian Amateur Football Association.[3][8]

Movement in and out of senior competition since inceptionEdit

From a history of the VAFA[3]

Inter-league and Inter-state gamesEdit

1925Edit

In June 1925 a MAFA Representative XVIII defeated the South Australian 21.22 to 8.10 at the MCG in the first amateur Interstate representative game.[3]

1954Edit

On 14 June 1954, the Queen's Birthday holiday, a Victorian representative team defeated a South Australian team 12.14 (86) to 10.15 (75) at the Junction Oval. The match was preceded by the Grand Final of a "lightning premiership" that involving sixteen teams playing knock-out matches of two 10 minute halves. Four of the first round matches were played at the Junction Oval, and the other four were played (simultaneously) at the Ross Gregory Oval at the other end of Albert Park Lake. The quarter final, semi final, and the Grand Final matches were all played at the Junction Oval. The sixteen teams involved were:[9]

Parkside (the team that would later go on to have its twenty-ninth consecutive win in the 1954 C Section Grand Final), having beaten Balwyn in the first round, Preston in the quarter finals, and Ivanhoe in the Semi-finals, defeated Alphington in the Grand Final to win the lightning premiership.[10]

1956Edit

In 1956 a VAFA XVIII beat the combined VFL/VFA Amateurs in an Olympic demonstration game, 12.9 (81) to 8.7 (55).

1957Edit

Of some considerable historical significance, the VAFA vs. South Australian Amateur Football League interstate match, played at Olympic Park on 17 June 1957 — which Victoria won 15.9 (99) to 8.3 (51)[11] — was the first ever uninterrupted telecast of a complete Australian rules football game (viz., it was a direct broadcast of the entire four quarters of the match, rather than just the last quarter) .[12][13][14][3]

1971Edit

In 1971 a VAFA Representative side beat a VFA XVIII for the inaugural Victorian Football Cup 23.12 to 19.17.[3]

GrowthEdit

The inaugural season of the then MJFA comprised fixtures between 8 teams. By 1922 the association divided into 2 sections of 8. Only 4 years later three sections were established; Section A with 10 clubs and Section B and C with 8 clubs each.[3]

Competition was ceased for the Second World War (as it had after the Great War).[15] Restarting in 1946 with 27 clubs in three sections, by 1947 34 clubs were competing over three sections. 1948 saw 35 clubs spread over four sections. In 1954 the MAFA established a fifth section for its 48 senior clubs.[3]

1960 saw 74 clubs over 7 sections. The league dwindled and lost two sections. Section F was reintroduced in 1971. Section G was introduced in 1986. By 1987 there were 68 clubs over 8 sections.[3]

A major indicator of the growth and quality of the association led to poaching of VAFA players to the VFL in 1961.[3]

PremiersEdit


From the VAFA Website[16]

Year Premier Premier B Premier C Division 1 Division 2 Division 3 Division 4
2019 University Blues Caulfield Grammarians Williamstown CYMS Preston Bullants Whitefriars Aquinas St Francis Xavier OC
2018 St Kevins OB St Bernards Fitzroy Ormond UHS-VU Glen Eira North Brunswick AFC
2017 St Kevins Old Boys Old Brighton Old Haileyburians PEGS Football Club Prahran Assumption Football Club UHS-VU Aquinas OC
2016 Old Xaverians Beaumaris Mazenod Old Collegians Old Geelong Preston Bullants Glen Eira Westbourne Grammarians
2015 St Bernards St Kevins Old Boys Old Haileyburians Kew Old Paradians West Brunswick Canterbury
2014 University Blacks University Blues Hampton Rovers Williamstown CYMS Kew Northern Blues West Brunswick
2013 Old Xaverians Old Brighton Old Ivanhoe Hampton Rovers Therry Penola Kew Northern Blues
2012 Collegians University Blacks Parkdale Vultures North Old Boys/St Pats Bulleen-Templestowe Yarra Valley Old Boys South Mornington
2011 Collegians Caufield Grammarians Ajax Parkdale Vultures St Johns Old Collegians Prahran/Assumption St Francis Xaiver
2010 Old Xaverians Old Carey Beaumaris Werribee AFC Banyule La Trobe Uni Monash Gryphons
2009 Old Xaverians Old Melburnians MHSOB Rupertswood Williamstown CYMS Bentleigh La Trobe Uni
2008 St Bede's-Mentone Tigers Marcellin Old Collegians Ormond Bulleen-Templestowe Werribee AFC Williamstown CYMS West Brunswick
2007 Old Xaverians St Bede's-Mentone Tigers Old Camberwell Grammarians Oakleigh South Melbourne Dist. Old Westbourne UHS-VU
2006 Old Haileyburians Collegians St Bede's-Mentone Tigers Old Carey Oakleigh South Melbourne Dist. Powerhouse
2005 Old Xaverians Old Ivanhoe Grammarians University Blacks Fitzroy Reds Old Geelong Grammarians St Johns Old Collegians Elsternwick
2004 University Blues St Kevins Old Boys MHSOB University Blacks Bulleen-Templestowe Oakleigh Old Westbourne
2003 Old Xaverians De La Salle Old Collegians Beaumaris Monash Blues Football Club Fitzroy Reds Swinburne University UHS-VU
2002 St Bernard's Old Collegians Old Melburnians Whitefriars Old Collegians St Leo's Emmaus WP Yarra Valley Old Boys West Brunswick Rupertswood
2001 Marcellin Old Collegians Old Ivanhoe Grammarians Hampton Rovers Old Camberwell Grammarians Mentone Amateurs Fitzroy Reds Syndal Tally Ho
2000 Old Xaverians Mazenod Old Collegians Therry Penola Caufield Grammarians University Blacks Powerhouse South Melbourne Dist.
Year A Section B Section C Section D Section E White E Blue F Section
1999 Old Xaverians Old Trinity Whitefriars Old Collegians A.J.A.X. Old Carey La Trobe Uni Eley Park
1998 Old Xaverians Marcellin Old Collegians Hampton Rovers Whitefriars Old Collegians Caufield Grammarians Oakleigh Hawthorn
Year A Section B Section C Section D Section E South E Central E East
1997 Old Xaverians Old Brighton Marcellin Old Collegians Beaumaris Southbank University Blacks Yarra Valley
1996 Old Xaverians Old Trinity St Kevin's Old Boys Monash Blues Salesian Old Essendon Aquinas
1995 Old Xaverians Old Haileyburians Old Ivanhoe Hampton Rovers Beaumaris University Reds St Leos Wattle Park
Year A Section B Section C Section D Section E Section F Section G Section
1994 Old Melbournians Old Trinity Grammarians St Kilda South Caulfield Old Ivanhoe Grammarians Glenhuntly Yarra Valley Richmond Centrals
1993 Collegians Old Melburnians Mazenod Old Collegians St Bede's Mentone Tigers Old Camberwell St Marys Oakleigh
Year A Section B Section C Section D Section E Section F Section
1992 Collegians Old Trinity Grammarians Fawkner Mazenod Old Collegians Brunswick St Leos Wattle Park
1991 De La Salle O.C. St Bernard's Old Collegians Whitefriars Old Collegians MHSOB Mazenod Elsternwick
1990 Ormond Old Haileyburians Old Mentonians Ajax Old Geelong St Marys
1989 Ormond De La Salle OC Old Haileyburians Thomastown La Trobe Uni Mazenod
1988 Ormond Parkside Old Melberians Preston MBOB Whitefries La Trobe Uni
1987 Ormond St Bernards Monash Blues Old Ivanhoe Grammarians State Bank Aquinas
1986 Collegians Old Paradians Banyule Balaclava Bulleen United Old Essendon Grammarians
1985 Ormond Marcelin Fawkner Old Trinity Heatherton Brunswick
1984 De La Salle OC St Bernards St. Kilda C.B.O.C. Therry C.C.O.B. Balaclava Williamstown CYMS
1983 De La Salle OC Bulleen-Templestowe Caufield Grammarians Banyule Thomastown Footscray I.T.O.B.
1982 North Old Boys Old Melbournians Old Camberwell Parkside Therry C.C.O.B. Bulleen United
1981 Old Xavierians University Blues Alphington Banyule North Brunswick Banyule
1980 De La Salle Old Xavierians Old Brighton Alphington West Brunswick University Reds
1979 De La Salle Ajax Kew Bulleen-Templestowe AMP Society St Pius
1978 Old Scotch Old Melbournians Old Xavierians Old Camberwell Bulleen-Templestowe Thornbury
1977 De La Salle Old Scotch Fawkner Old Brighton Heatherton St Bedes O.C.
1976 North Old Boys Marcellin Old Melbournians Old Xavierians La Trobe Blacks West Brunswick
1975 St Bernards De La Salle St Kilds CBOC Fawkner Ajax Monash Whites
1974 University Blacks Old Trinity Marcellin Brunswick Fawkner North Brunswick
1973 Ormond Reservoir OB Powerhouse Alphington Old Ivanhoe Fawkner
1972 Ormond Geelong Reservoir OB Parkside State Saving Bank Old Camberwell
1971 Ormond Old Paradians Taroonga-Malvern Powerhouse St Pats Marcellin
Year A Section B Section C Section D Section E Section
1970 Caufield Grammarians Old Scotch Uhsob Old Trinity Brunswick
1969 Coburg Ivanhoe Commonwealth Bank Old Haileyburians Fairfield
1968 Old Paradains Ormond Footscray TSOB National Bank A.M.P. Society
1967 Old Paradians University Blues Alphington St Pats Assumption O.C.
1966 Old Paradians Kew Geelong Old Geelong Ajax
1965 University Blacks Old Scotch St Kilda CBCOB North Melbourne CBCOB St. Pats
1964 Old Paradians University Blacks Kew St Bernards North Melbourne CBCOB
1963 Old Paradians Coburg Parkside Old Haileyburians St Bernards
1962 Old Paradians Old Xaverians Kew Fairfield Monash University
1961 Collegians MHSOB State Savings Bank Caufield Grammarians Old Carey
1960 University Blues UHSOB MHSOB St Kilda CBCOC West Brunswick
1959 Collegians Old Melbournians Powerhouse Footscray TSOC Preston
1958 Collegians Old Paradians De La Selle Port Melbourne St Kilda COCOB
1957 Collegians Alphington Old Geelong National Bank Port Melbourne
1956 Ivanhoe Collegians St Kilda City Old Geelong National Bank
1955 Old Melbournians Coburg Brunswick South Melbourne City De La Selle
1954 Old Melbournians Ivanhoe Parkside Teachers College South Melbourne City
Year A Section B Section C Section D Section
1953 Old Melbournians Kew Caufield Grammerians Footscray TSOB
1952 University Blues MHSOB Coburg St Kevins OB
1951 Hampton Rovers Old Paradians Meyer Elsternwick
1950 Ormond Commonwealth Bank Kew East Malvern
1949 University Blacks Geelong North Alphington Caufield Grammerians
1948 University Blacks Old Xaverians Geelong Fairfield
1947 University Blacks Hampton Rovers Commonwealth Bank
1946 University Blacks M.H.S.O.B Hampton Rovers
1940–45
(No competition due to World War II)
1939 University Blacks Elsternwick M.H.S.O.B Hampton Rovers
1938 University Blacks Old Melburnians Old Xaverians Fairfield
1937 Collegians Malvern Coburg M.H.S.O.B
1936 Collegians Ivanhoe Parkdale Coburg
1935 University Blacks Teachers' College Ivanhoe Malvern
1934 Old Scotch Collegians ES & A Bank Ormond Ivanhoe
1933 Old Scotch Collegians Geelong ES & A Bank Ormond
1932 Old Scotch Collegians Brunswick Canterbury Utd Churches West Brunswick
Year A Section B Section C Section
1931 Old Scotch Collegians Geelong West Hawthorn
1930 Old Melburnians Teachers' College Bentleigh
1929 University Blacks Murrumbeena East Malvern
1928 University Blacks Brightonvale Black Rock
1927 Old Scotch Collegians Murrumbeena State Savings Bank
1926 Old Scotch Collegians Collegians Brightonvale
Year A Section B Section
1925 Elsternwick Caulfield Gr.
1924 Old Scotch Collegians Murrumbeena
1923 Old Scotch Collegians Sandringham
Year Premier
1922 University B
1921 University B
1920 Elsternwick
1916–19
(No competition due to World War I)
1915 Collingwood District
1914 South Yarra
1913 Leopold
1912 Beverley
1911 Leopold
1910 Leopold
1909 South Yarra
1908 South Yarra
1907 University
1906 University
1905 Port Rovers
1904 Collegians
1903 Brighton
1902 Collegians
1901 Leopold
1900 Leopold
1899 Collegians
1898 Collegians
1897 South St. Kilda
1896 Collegians
1895 South St. Kilda
1894 South St. Kilda
1893 South St. Kilda
1892 Collegians

Current clubsEdit

For the 2019 season,[needs update] the 7 senior divisions were structured as follows:[17]

William Buck PremierEdit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
Collegians Football Club Lions Albert Park Harry Trott Oval Official Site 1892 1892
De La Salle Old Collegians DLSOC East Malvern Waverley Park Official Site 1955 1955
Old Brighton Grammarians Tonners Brighton Brighton Beach Oval Official Site 1921 1957
Old Carey Football Club Panthers Bulleen Carey Sports Complex Official Site 1954 1954
Old Melburnians Football Club OMs Elsternwick Sportscover Arena Official Site 1896 1920
Old Trinity Grammarians OTGs Kew Daley Oval Trinity Grammar Playing Fields Official Site 1923 1954
Old Xaverians Old Xavs Armadale Toorak Park Official site 1923 1923
St Bernards Old Collegians Snowdogs Essendon St Bernards College Official Site 1963 1963
St Kevins Old Boys Skob Kooyong T H King Reserve Official Site 1947 1947
University Blues Blues Parkville Melbourne Uni, Main Oval Official Site 1928 1928

Premier BEdit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
Beaumaris Sharks Beaumaris Beaumaris Oval Official Site 1962 1995
Caulfield Grammarians Football Club Fields North Caulfield Glenhuntly Oval Official Site 1920 1920
Fitzroy Football Club Roys Fitzroy Brunswick Street Oval Official Site 1883 2009
Monash Blues Blues Monash Frearson Oval, Monash University Official Site 1962 1962
Old Geelong OGs South Yarra Como Park Official Site 1954 1954
Old Haileyburians Bloods McKinnon McKinnon Reserve Official Site 1925 1961
Old Scotch Cardinals Camberwell Camberwell Sports Ground [2] 1894 1921
St Bedes/Mentone Tigers Tigers Mentone Mentone Reserve Official Site 1972 1972
Parkdale Vultures Vultures Parkdale Gerry Green Reserve Official Site 1991 1991
University Blacks Blacks Parkville Melbourne Uni, Main Oval Official Site 1928 1928

Premier CEdit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
AJAX Jackas St Kilda Gary Smorgon Oval Official Site 1957 1957
Hampton Rovers Rovers Hampton Boss James Reserve Official site 1933 1933
Marcellin Old Collegians Eagles Bulleen Oval 1, Marcellin College Official Site 1971 1971
Mazenod Old Collegians Nodders Glen Waverley Central Reserve, Glen Waverley Official Site 1978 1989
Old Mentonians Panthers Keysborough Mentone Grammar Playing Fields Official Site 1968 1968
Old Camberwell Grammarians Wellers North Balwyn Gordon Barnard Reserve Official Site 1960 1960
Old Ivanhoe Grammarians Hoers Ivanhoe Chelsworth Park Official Site 1929 1964
Ormond Monders Ormond E.E. Gunn Reserve Official Site 1932 1932
PEGS Football Club Bombers East Keilor Penleigh & Essendon Grammar School Official Site 1970 1984
Williamstown CYMS The Gold and Blue Williamstown Fearon Reserve Official Site 1983 1983

Division 1Edit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
Kew FC Bears Kew J.J. Higgins Reserve Official Site 1900 1949
Oakleigh AFC Krushers Oakleigh W.A. Scammell Reserve Gary Bennett Official Site 1991 1991
Old Paradians Raiders Bundoora Garvey Oval, Parade College Official site 1929 1929
Peninsula Old Boys Pirates Mount Eliza Peninsula College Official Site 1980 1980
Prahran Assumption FC Two Blues Toorak Toorak Park Official site 1886 2011
Preston Bullants AFC Bullants Preston Ruthven Reserve, Preston Official Site 2009 2009
St Marys-Salesian Saints Glen Iris Ferndale Reserve Official Site 2008 2008
Therry Penola Old Boys Lions Oak Park JP Fawkner Reserve Official site 1977 1977
UHS-VU FC Vultures Parkville Brens Oval Official Site 1932 1933
West Brunswick FC Magpies Parkville McAlister Oval Official Site 1932 1959

Division 2Edit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
Brunswick NOBSPC Renegades Brunswick Alec Gillon Oval Official Site 1932 1963
Bulleen-Templestowe Bullants Bulleen Ted Ajani Reserve Official Site 1975 1975
Glen Eira AFC Gryphons Carnegie Packer Reserve Julius Waras Carstensen John Edgar Official Site 1999 1999
Hawthorn AFC Hawks Hawthorn East Rathmines Road Reserve Official Site 1954 1995
Ivanhoe AFC Hoers Ivanhoe Ivanhoe Park Official Site 1910[18] 1934
Melbourne HS Old Boys MHSOB South Yarra Melbourne High School Official Site 1928 1928
Powerhouse FC Slushies St Kilda Ross Gregory Oval Liam Macklin Ben Nicholas Official Site 1940 1940
St Johns OC Jocs Doveton Thomas Carroll Reserve Official Site 1991 1991
Whitefriars OC Friars Doncaster Whitefriars Oval Official Site 1986 1986
Yarra Old Grammarians Bushrangers Park Orchards Doncaster Reserve Official Site 1993 1993

Division 3Edit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
Emmaus St Leos O C Animals Burwood Bennettswood Sports Ground Chris Beluszar/Harry Davis Ian Ledder Official Site 1992 1992
Aquinas OC Bloods Ringwood Aquinas College Official Site 1981 1987
Canterbury Football Club Cobras Canterbury Canterbury Sportsground Official Site 1881 2014
Manningham Amateur Football Club Cobras Bulleen Koonung Park Official Site 1996 1996
North Brunswick Football Club Bulls Brunswick Allard Park Official Site 1970 1971
Parkside Football Club Devils Alphington Pitcher Park Ryder Susman Official Site 1938 2015
Richmond Central Football Club Snakes Richmond Kevin Bartlett Reserve Official Site 1987 1987
Swinburne University Football Club Razorbacks Hawthorn St. James Park Official Site 1996 1996
Westbourne Grammarians Warriors Truganina Westbourne School Ground Official site 2014 2014

Division 4Edit

Club Nickname Location Home Ground Captain Coach Web Page Formed Joined League
Albert Park Football Club Falcons Albert Park Beaurepaire Pavilion Official Site 1954 1954
Box Hill North Football Club Demons Box Hill North Elgar Park Eamon Stewart Alan Chung Official Site 1983 2002
La Trobe University Football Club Trobes Bundoora Main Oval La Trobe University Alan Ezard Official Site 1970 1970
Eley Park Football Club Sharks Box Hill Whitehorse Reserve Official Site 1992 1994
Elsternwick Football Club Wickers Elsternwick Oval No 2, Elsternwick Park Official Site 1914 1947
Masala Football Club Dandenong Fotheringham Reserve Samuel Freeman Alan Sutherland Official Site 2013 2013
South Melbourne Districts Football Club Bloods Albert Park Lindsay Hassett Oval Official Site 1912 2000
South Mornington Football Club Tigers Mt Martha Citation reserve Daniel Woods Bobby Wilson [http:// Official Site] 2002 2007
St. Francis Xavier Football Club Saints Beaconsfield St. Francis Xavier College, Beaconsfield Official Site 2007 2007

Former clubsEdit

This may consist of clubs that are currently playing in the Club XVIII section.

 
A VAFA match featuring Old Melburnians at the Junction Oval

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Schools & Colleges: Public Schools and Football, Table Talk, (Thursday, 26 April 1923),p.24.
  2. ^ Metropolitan Juniors Football Association, The Independent, (Saturday, 7 May 1892), p.3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j A Brief History of the VAFA (pdf)
  4. ^ Metropolitan Junior Football Association, The Australasian,, (Saturday, 1 October 1892), p.18.
  5. ^ Football: Amateur Players: Move by Juniors, The (Melbourne) Herald, (Wednesday, 24 April 1912), p.5.
  6. ^ Riley, M., "Class and Warfare: The MAFA and the VFL Seconds", Boyles Football Photos, 4 April 2014.
  7. ^ The Sporting World: A Look Ahead, The Age, (Wednesday, 12 March 1919), p.11; Smith, W.H. & Ogilvey, A., "The Football Season (Letter to the Editor)", The Age, (Thursday, 13 March 1919), p.6.
  8. ^ Amateur Association: Change of Name Adopted, The Age, (Tuesday, 25 October 1932), p.10.
  9. ^ de Lacy, H., "Amateurs knock-out title on two grounds", The Sporting Globe, (Wednesday, 2 June 1954), p.18).
  10. ^ "Late burst saves State amateurs", The Argus, (Tuesday, 15 June 1954), p.13.
  11. ^ Amateurs: Third Term Burst Wins, The Age, (Tuesday, 18 June 1957), p.14.
  12. ^ "Football has Trial TV Run . . But League says 'No!'", The Argus, (Wednesday, 27 June 1956), p.22.
  13. ^ Inter-State Football in TV Week-end Cover,The Age Radio/TV Supplement, (14-20 June 1957), p.1.].
  14. ^ Monday Television: ABV-Channel 2 (2:15), The Age Radio/TV Supplement, (14-20 June 1957), p.9.].
  15. ^ Amateurs Conclude, The Age, (Monday, 24 June 1940), p.6.
  16. ^ Results from PDFs available at VAFA Website
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ https://ivanhoeafc.com/club-information/history/

External linksEdit