The Republic of Peru has two vice presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution.
|First and Second Vice President of |
the Republic of Peru
|Appointer||Direct popular election|
|Term length||Five years, renewable indefinitely but not immediately|
|Inaugural holder||Diego de Aliaga (1823)|
|Succession||First Vice President|
Second Vice President
President of Congress
Historically, the position was one of a sole Vice President, which was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. The dual positions of First and Second Vice Presidents have been in place since 1862.
The most recent holder is Mercedes Aráoz, who was elected as the Second Vice President in 2016 along with the election of Pedro Kuzcynski as President and Martín Vizcarra as First Vice President. When Vizcarra succeeded Kuzcynski, after the latter's being driven from office by scandal in 2018, Aráoz became the sole Peruvian Vice President. On 30 September 2019, the Peruvian Congress, caught up in a constitutional political crisis, named Aráoz acting President after having declared Vizcarra temporarily unfit for office. Given that the Congress had itself been dissolved earlier that day by President Vizcarra, and given that Aráoz supported the latter's call for new congressional elections, she irrevocably resigned as Second Vice President on 1 October 2019, thus leaving vacancies in both vice-presidential offices and, moreover, leaving Vizcarra as the sole claimant for President, supported in that position by the Peruvian Armed Forces and the National Police of Peru. However, her resignation is not official, since in Peru, the resignation of the vice president has to be accepted by the Congress and that institution is not celebrating meetings given its dissolution. Her resignation was finally accepted on 7 May 2020 by the new Peruvian Congress sworn in on 16 March 2020.
In contemporary history, only one vice president has assumed the presidency of Peru via constitutional succession. The 66th Vice President Vizcarra assumed the office of the presidency in 2018 after the graft scandal that led to the ousting of President Kuczynski.
The position of Vice President of Peru appeared for the first time in the Constitution of 1823:
"ARTICLE 76: There will be a Vice President in whom the same qualities concur. He/she will administer and withhold Executive Power in event of the death, resignation, or impeachment of the President, or when the president is unable to control the armed forces." Constitution of 1823
First Vice PresidentEdit
The Constitution of 1828 and the Life Constitution of 1826 also proposed only one vice president, who had to be appointed by the president. In the Constitution of 1834, the office was disbanded until the Magna Carta of 1856, which reinstated the sole vice-presidency.
Second Vice PresidentEdit
The Constitution of 1860 established two vice-presidents, elected jointly with the President.
Article 89: "There will be two Vice Presidents of the Republic, named first and second, who will be elected at the same time, with the same qualities and for the same period as the President. Constitution of 1860
In the Constitution of 1867, the power of vice-presidents was eminently curtailed. However, this constitution held in place for a short period until a successful revolution of that same year restored the Constitution of 1860.
Similarly, the Constitution of 1920 abolished the positions of vice-presidents. The Constitution of 1933 failed to change this, but the office was eventually restored by the second presidency of Óscar R. Benavides, by law on April 1, 1936. In 1939, via plebiscitary consultation, a constitutional amendment was made restoring the office of vice president and second vice president.
The 1993 Constitution and the current constitution in force — put forth by President Alberto Fujimori — recognizes the double vice-presidency in the Executive Branch.
List of vice presidents of PeruEdit
- Abog. Freddy Ronald Centurión González. "LA INSTITUCIÓN DE LA VICEPRESIDENCIA DE LA REPÚBLICA EN LA CONSTITUCIÓN PERUANA" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-10-19.
- Artículo 111°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- Artículos 113°, 114°, y 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- Artículo 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: quién es Mercedes Aráoz, que renunció tras ser nombrada 'presidenta en funciones' por el Parlamento peruano para sustituir a Vizcarra", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- Disolución del Congreso en Perú: 4 claves para entender el enfrentamiento entre Vizcarra y el Parlamento (y lo que puede pasar ahora)", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- Disolución del Congreso de Perú: las dudas sobre la legalidad de la decisión de Vizcarra de disolver la cámara y sobre la suspensión temporal del presidente", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- Disolución del Congreso en Perú: renuncia Mercedes Aráoz, nombrada "presidenta en funciones" por el Parlamento en sustitución de Vizcarra", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
- Mercedes Aráoz Fernández [MecheAF] (2019, October 1). He decidido renunciar irrevocablemente al cargo de Vicepresidenta Constitucional de la República. Las razones las explico en la carta adjunta. Espero que mi renuncia conduzca a la convocatoria de elecciones generales en el más breve plazo por el bien del país. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://mobile.twitter.com/MecheAF/status/1179221001936211968
- "Ministra de Justicia asegura que para el Gobierno Mercedes Aráoz continúa siendo la vicepresidenta". RPP Noticias. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "Congreso acepta renuncia de Mercedes Aráoz a la segunda vicepresidencia de la República NNDC | PERU". 7 May 2020.
- "Presidentes y vicepresidentes desde 1980 en Perú, crisis y realidades". 26 July 2018.
- Media related to Vice Presidents of Peru at Wikimedia Commons