Vice President of Peru

The Republic of Peru has two Vice Presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections.[2] Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution.[3]

First and Second Vice President of
the Republic of Peru
Flag of Peru (state).svg
Incumbent
Vacant

since 23 March 2018 (First)
and 7 May 2020 (Second)
StyleMr./Madame Vice President
ResidenceGovernment Palace
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFive years, not renewable immediately
Inaugural holderDiego de Aliaga (1823)
Formation1823[1]
SuccessionFirst Vice President
Second Vice President
President of Congress
Websitegob.pe/presidencia
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution
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The Vice Presidents are first in the Presidential line of succession.[4]

Historically, the position was one of a sole Vice President, which was in place between 1829–1831 and 1858–1862. The dual positions of First and Second Vice Presidents have been in place since 1862.

The most recent holder is Mercedes Aráoz, who was elected as the Second Vice President in 2016 along with the election of Pedro Kuzcynski as President and Martín Vizcarra as First Vice President.[5][6] When Vizcarra succeeded Kuzcynski, after the latter's being driven from office by scandal in 2018, Aráoz became the sole Peruvian Vice President.[5] On 30 September 2019, the Peruvian Congress, caught up in a constitutional political crisis, named Aráoz acting President after having declared Vizacarra temporarily unfit for office.[5][6][7] Given that the Congress had itself been dissolved earlier that day by President Vizcarra, and given that Aráoz supported the latter's call for new congressional elections, she irrevocably resigned as Second Vice President on 1 October 2019, thus leaving vacancies in both vice-presidential offices and, moreover, leaving Vizcarra as the sole claimant for President, supported in that position by the Peruvian Armed Forces and the National Police of Peru.[5][6][7][8][9] However, her resignation is not official, since in Peru the resignation of the vice president has to be accepted by the Congress and that institution is not celebrating meetings given its dissolution.[10] Her resignation was finally accepted on 7 May 2020 by the new Peruvian Congress sworn on 16 March 2020.[11]

In contemporary history, only one vice president has assumed the presidency of Peru via constitutional succession.[citation needed] The 66th Vice President Vizcarra assumed the office of the presidency in 2018 after the graft scandal that led to the ousting of President Kuczynski.[6]

HistoryEdit

The position of Vice President of Peru appeared for the first time in the Constitution of 1823:[1]

"ARTICLE 76: There will be a Vice President in whom the same qualities concur. He/she will administer and withhold Executive Power in event of the death, resignation, or impeachment of the President, or when the president is unable to control the armed forces." Constitution of 1823

First Vice PresidentEdit

The Constitution of 1828 and the Life Constitution of 1826 also proposed only one vice president, who had to be appointed by the president. In the Constitution of 1834, the office was disbanded until the Magna Carta of 1856, which reinstated the sole vice-presidency.

Second Vice PresidentEdit

The Constitution of 1860 established two vice-presidents, elected jointly with the President.

Article 89: "There will be two Vice Presidents of the Republic, named first and second, who will be elected at the same time, with the same qualities and for the same period as the President. Constitution of 1860

In the Constitution of 1867, the power of vice-presidents was eminently curtailed. However, this constitution held in place for a short period until a successful revolution of that same year restored the Constitution of 1860.

Similarly, the Constitution of 1920 abolished the positions of vice-presidents. The Constitution of 1933 failed to change this, but the office was eventually restored by the second presidency of Óscar R. Benavides, by law on April 1, 1936. In 1939, via plebiscitary consultation, a constitutional amendment was made restoring the office of vice president and second vice president.

The 1993 Constitution and the current constitution in force — put forth by President Alberto Fujimori — recognizes the double vice-presidency in the Executive Branch.

List of Vice Presidents of PeruEdit

Portrait Vice President Political Party Inaugurated Left office President Notes
- Diego de Aliaga November 1823 February 1824 José Bernardo de Tagle [1]
- Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano August 1827 June 1829 José de la Mar [1]
- Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente 1 September 1829 16 April 1831 Agustín Gamarra [1]
- Juan Manuel del Mar 24 October 1858 16 June 1862 Ramón Castilla [1]
First Juan Antonio Pezet Military 24 October 1862 5 August 1863 Miguel de San Román [1]
Second Pedro Diez Canseco Military 24 October 1862 5 August 1863 [1]
First Mariano Herencia Zevallos Military 2 August 1868 27 July 1872 José Balta [1]
Second Francisco Diez Canseco Military 2 August 1868 27 July 1872 [1]
First Manuel Costas Arce Civilista Party 2 August 1872 2 August 1876 Manuel Pardo y Lavalle [1]
Second Francisco Garmendia Puértolas Civilista Party 2 August 1872 2 August 1876 [1]
First Luis La Puerta 2 August 1876 18 December 1879 Mariano Ignacio Prado [1]
Second José Francisco Canevaro 2 August 1876 18 December 1879 [1]
First Lizardo Montero Flores 12 March 1881 6 November 1881 Francisco García Calderón [1]
Second Andrés Avelino Cáceres 12 March 1881 6 November 1881 [1]
First Remigio Morales Bermúdez Constitutional Party 3 June 1886 10 August 1890 Andrés Cáceres [1]
Second Aurelio Denegri Constitutional Party 3 June 1886 10 August 1890 [1]
First Pedro Alejandrino del Solar Constitutional Party 10 August 1890 1 April 1894 Remigio Morales Bermúdez [1]
Second Justiniano Borgoño Constitutional Party 10 August 1890 1 April 1894 [1]
First César Canevaro Constitutional Party 10 August 1894 20 March 1895 Andrés Cáceres [1]
Second Cesáreo Chacaltana Reyes Constitutional Party 10 August 1894 20 March 1895 [1]
First Guillermo Billinghurst Democratic Party 8 September 1895 8 September 1899 Nicolás de Piérola [1]
Second Augusto Seminario Váscones Democratic Party 8 September 1895 8 September 1899 [1]
First Isaac Alzamora Alianza Civil-Demócrata 8 September 1899 8 September 1903 Eduardo López de Romaña [1]
Second Federico Bresani Alianza Civil-Demócrata 8 September 1899 8 September 1903 [1]
First Lino Alarco Brediñana Civilista Party September 1903 September 1903 Manuel Candamo Died before taking office[1]
Second Serapio Calderón Civilista Party 8 September 1903 7 May 1904 [1]
First José Salvador Cavero Ovalle Civilista Party 24 September 1904 24 September 1908 José Pardo y Barreda [1]
Second Serapio Calderón Civilista Party 24 September 1904 1907 [1]
First Eugenio Larrabure y Unanue Civilista Party 24 September 1908 24 September 1912 Augusto Leguía [1]
Second Belisario Sosa Constitutional Party 24 September 1908 24 September 1912 [1]
  First Roberto Leguía Civilista Party 24 September 1912 4 February 1914 Guillermo Billinghurst [1]
Second Miguel Echenique Civilista Party 24 September 1912 4 February 1914 [1]
  First Ricardo Bentín Sánchez Alianza Civil-Constitucional-Liberal 18 August 1915 4 July 1919 José Pardo y Barreda [1]
Second Melitón Carvajal Alianza Civil-Constitucional-Liberal 18 August 1915 4 July 1919 [1]
First César Canevaro 12 October 1919 31 October 1922 Augusto Leguía [1]
Second Agustín de la Torre González 12 October 1919 12 October 1924 [1]
First Ernesto Montagne Markholz Peruvian Army 13 April 1936 8 December 1939 Óscar R. Benavides [1]
Second Antonio Rodríguez Ramírez Peruvian Army 13 April 1936 8 December 1939 [1]
First Rafael Larco Herrera Conservative 8 December 1939 28 July 1945 Manuel Prado Ugarteche [1]
Second Carlos D. Gibson Conservative 8 December 1939 28 July 1945 [1]
First José Gálvez Barrenechea National Democratic Front 28 July 1945 29 October 1948 José Bustamante y Rivero [1]
Second Eduardo Ganoza y Ganoza National Democratic Front 28 July 1945 29 October 1948 [1]
- Zenón Noriega Agüero Peruvian Army 29 October 1948 1 June 1950 Manuel A. Odría De facto
First Héctor Boza Odriíst National Union 28 July 1950 28 July 1956 [1]
Second Federico Bolognesi Odriíst National Union 28 July 1950 28 July 1956 [1]
First Luis Gallo Porras Peruvian Democratic Movement 28 July 1956 18 July 1962 Manuel Prado Ugarteche [1]
Second Carlos Moreyra y Paz Soldán Peruvian Democratic Movement 28 July 1956 18 July 1962 [1]
First Nicolás Lindley López Peruvian Army 18 July 1962 3 March 1963 Ricardo Pérez Godoy De facto
Second Pedro Vargas Prada Peruvian Army 18 July 1962 3 March 1963 De facto
First Edgardo Seoane Corrales Popular Action 28 July 1963 3 October 1968 Fernando Belaúnde Terry [1]
Second Mario Polar Ugarteche Christian Democracy 28 July 1963 3 October 1968 [1]
- Luis Edgardo Mercado Jarrín Peruvian Army 3 October 1968 30 August 1975 Juan Velasco Alvarado De facto
- Pedro Richter Prada Peruvian Army 30 August 1975 28 July 1980 Francisco Morales Bermúdez De facto
First Fernando Schwalb López Aldana Popular Action 28 July 1980 28 July 1985 Fernando Belaúnde Terry [12][1]
Second Javier Alva Orlandini Popular Action 28 July 1980 28 July 1985 [12][1]
First Luis Alberto Sánchez Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 1985 28 July 1990 Alan García Pérez [12][1]
Second Luis Alva Castro Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 1985 28 July 1990 [12][1]
First Máximo San Román Change 90 28 July 1990 5 April 1992 Alberto Fujimori [12][1]
Second Carlos García y García Change 90 28 July 1990 5 April 1992 [12][1]
First Ricardo Márquez Flores Change 90-New Majority 28 July 1995 28 July 2000 [12]
Second César Paredes Canto Change 90-New Majority 28 July 1995 28 July 2000 [12]
First Francisco Tudela Peru 2000 28 July 2000 22 November 2000 [12]
Second Ricardo Márquez Flores Peru 2000 28 July 2000 22 November 2000 [12]
First Raúl Diez Canseco Popular Action 28 July 2001 30 January 2004 Alejandro Toledo Manrique [12]
Second David Waisman Possible Peru 28 July 2001 28 July 2006 [12]
  First Luis Giampietri Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 2006 28 July 2011 Alan García Pérez [12]
  Second Lourdes Mendoza Peruvian Aprista Party 28 July 2006 28 July 2011 [12]
  First Marisol Espinoza Peruvian Nationalist Party 28 July 2011 28 July 2016 Ollanta Humala [12]
  Second Omar Chehade Peruvian Nationalist Party 28 July 2011 16 January 2012 [12]
  First Martín Vizcarra Peruvians for Change 28 July 2016 23 March 2018 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
  Second Mercedes Aráoz Peruvians for Change 28 July 2016 7 May 2020 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Martín Vizcarra

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Abog. Freddy Ronald Centurión González. "LA INSTITUCIÓN DE LA VICEPRESIDENCIA DE LA REPÚBLICA EN LA CONSTITUCIÓN PERUANA" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  2. ^ Artículo 111°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  3. ^ Artículos 113°, 114°, y 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  4. ^ Artículo 115°, Constitución Política Del Perú. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  5. ^ a b c d "Disolución del Congreso en Perú: quién es Mercedes Aráoz, que renunció tras ser nombrada 'presidenta en funciones' por el Parlamento peruano para sustituir a Vizcarra", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  6. ^ a b c d Disolución del Congreso en Perú: 4 claves para entender el enfrentamiento entre Vizcarra y el Parlamento (y lo que puede pasar ahora)", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  7. ^ a b Disolución del Congreso de Perú: las dudas sobre la legalidad de la decisión de Vizcarra de disolver la cámara y sobre la suspensión temporal del presidente", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  8. ^ Disolución del Congreso en Perú: renuncia Mercedes Aráoz, nombrada "presidenta en funciones" por el Parlamento en sustitución de Vizcarra", BBC Mundo, 2 octubre 2019. (Retrieved 2019-10-06.)
  9. ^ Mercedes Aráoz Fernández [MecheAF] (2019, October 1). He decidido renunciar irrevocablemente al cargo de Vicepresidenta Constitucional de la República. Las razones las explico en la carta adjunta. Espero que mi renuncia conduzca a la convocatoria de elecciones generales en el más breve plazo por el bien del país. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://mobile.twitter.com/MecheAF/status/1179221001936211968
  10. ^ "Ministra de Justicia asegura que para el Gobierno Mercedes Aráoz continúa siendo la vicepresidenta". RPP Noticias. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  11. ^ https://gestion.pe/peru/politica/congreso-acepta-renuncia-de-mercedes-araoz-a-la-segunda-vicepresidencia-de-la-republica-noticia/
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Presidentes y vicepresidentes desde 1980 en Perú, crisis y realidades". 26 July 2018.

External linksEdit