Victor "Vic" Toews, PC, QC (//; born September 10, 1952) is a Canadian jurist and former politician. Toews is a judge of the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba. He represented Provencher in the House of Commons of Canada from 2000 until his resignation on July 9, 2013, and served in the cabinet of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, most recently as Minister of Public Safety. He previously served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1995 to 1999, and was a senior cabinet minister in the government of Gary Filmon. Prior to his appointment to the judiciary, Toews was a member of the Conservative Party of Canada.
|Minister of Public Safety|
January 19, 2010 – July 9, 2013
|Prime Minister||Stephen Harper|
|Preceded by||Peter Van Loan|
|Succeeded by||Steven Blaney|
|48th Minister of Justice|
February 6, 2006 – January 4, 2007
|Prime Minister||Stephen Harper|
|Preceded by||Irwin Cotler|
|Succeeded by||Rob Nicholson|
|President of the Treasury Board|
January 4, 2007 – January 19, 2010
|Prime Minister||Stephen Harper|
|Preceded by||John Baird|
|Succeeded by||Stockwell Day|
|Member of the Canadian Parliament|
November 27, 2000 – July 9, 2013
|Preceded by||David Iftody|
|Succeeded by||Ted Falk|
|Member of the Manitoba Legislative Assembly|
April 25, 1995 – September 21, 1999
|Preceded by||Harry Schellenberg|
|Succeeded by||Harry Schellenberg|
September 10, 1952
|Political party||Conservative (2003–present)|
|Progressive Conservative (Before 2000)|
|Spouse(s)||Lorraine Toews (div. 2008)|
|Alma mater||University of Winnipeg|
University of Manitoba
Toews was born September 10, 1952, in Filadelfia, Boquerón Department, Paraguay, son of Reverend Victor David Toews (1918–1993) and Anna Peters. Vic Toews has five siblings: Bernhard, Clara, Marlene, Edward, and Esther. His family left Paraguay in 1956 for Canada and settled in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Toews speaks Mennonite Low German (his mother tongue), Spanish and English. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in History from the University of Winnipeg (1973), and a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Manitoba (1976). Toews was called to the Manitoba Bar in 1977. He joined the provincial Ministry of Justice in 1976 and became a Crown attorney the following year. Vic Toews great grand parents were killed in a bomb blast in Molotschna, South Russia (now Molochansk, Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine) during the Russian Civil War that followed the Russian Revolution.
Toews divorced from his wife of 30 years, Lorraine Kathleen Fehr, after it was discovered that he had fathered a child with a young Conservative Party staffer. In divorce documents, Fehr claimed Toews had a much earlier relationship with the family's child care provider. This incident later became publicized in February 2012, when an anonymous Twitter account (later discovered to be a Liberal Party staffer) began posting information from Toews' divorce affidavit (that were on the public record, filed with the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba) as reaction to the introduction of Bill-30.
In 2005, Toews was charged with violating Manitoba's Election Finances Act in the 1999 provincial election. During the election cycle, it was discovered that his election campaign had spent $7,500 more than the allowed limit. Toews pleaded guilty, and was later convicted and fined $500.
Toews joined the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba in 1989, winning a seat in the 1995 election, by narrowly defeating NDP incumbent Harry Schellenberg in the north Winnipeg riding of Rossmere. In 1999, the Progressive Conservatives were defeated in the 1999 provincial election and Toews himself lost to Schellenberg in a rematch.
Minister of LabourEdit
Toews was appointed to the cabinet of Premier Gary Filmon after the election, becoming Minister of Labour on May 9, 1995. In his debut speech to the legislature, he said that his political philosophy was partly influenced by leaders of Canada's social democratic movement, as well as his own Mennonite upbringing.
Toews's tenure as Labour Minister was marked by a difficult relationship with organized labour. His first major legislative initiative was Bill 26 (1996), which required unions to disclose the salaries of their officials and indicate how membership dues were spent, mandated union certification votes to take place within seven days of an application, and granted employees the right to prevent their dues from being donated to political parties. Several labour leaders described the bill as anti-union. NDP leader Gary Doer argued that the provision regarding donations unfairly targeted his party, and suggested that corporate shareholders should be given the same right to shield their investments from party donations. Toews rejected these criticisms, and argued that Bill 26 provided greater autonomy to individual workers.
Toews's department proposed the privatization of home-care delivery services in 1996, drawing opposition from many in the field and triggering an extended strike. He was also forced to deal with strikes at Boeing, Inco, and the Manitoba Lotteries Corporation, leading one journalist to describe 1996 as "the busiest year for picketing since the 1919 Winnipeg General Strike". Toews blamed unions for provoking the strikes, saying they were conducted "for political, not economic, reasons." 
Toews canceled the provincial Payment of Wages Fund in July 1996, argued that it was not achieving its purpose. The stated intention of the fund was to allow workers to collect revenues from employers who entered bankruptcy or receivership.
Minister of JusticeEdit
On January 6, 1997, Toews was promoted to Minister of Justice, Attorney General and Keeper of the Great Seal, with further responsibility for Constitutional Affairs.
Approach to crime and the judiciaryEdit
As Justice Minister, Toews earned a reputation for focusing on "law and order" issues. One of his first ministerial decisions was to grant jail superintendents the right to institute complete smoking bans, impose random drug tests, and monitor prisoners' calls. In August 1998, Toews announced that his ministry would hire more Crown attorneys and construct more than seventy new beds for the Headingley Correctional Institution, in an attempt to incarcerate more dangerous offenders.
Toews also introduced legislation to make parents legally responsible for the crimes of their children. Members of the opposition New Democratic Party argued that the plan would be ineffective, citing past experiments in the United States as evidence.
Toews criticized some criminal justice initiatives brought forward by the federal government of Jean Chrétien. In 1997, he announced that Manitoba would not enforce or administer the Canadian gun registry. Two years later, he described changes to the federal Young Offenders Act as both ineffective and too expensive. Toews nonetheless cooperated with the federal government on several issues. In March 1998, he stood with federal cabinet minister Lloyd Axworthy to announce a plan discouraging court sentences for non-violent aboriginal offenders. Toews said that the proposal was "sensitive to the needs of the aboriginal community", and that it would reduce the number of repeat offenders.
Toews's relationship with the judiciary was sometimes difficult. In May 1998, he asked a judicial appointment committee to add two names to a list of proposed judges. Some argued that this was improper interference, while Toews stated that he acted to ensure the appointment of more bilingual judges. In 1999, he delivered a speech to the Alberta Summit on Justice that criticized judges for intervening in political matters. He was quoted as saying that judges, unlike parliamentarians, "are not well-placed to understand and represent the social, economic and political values of the public". Some attendees criticized his speech, and a representative of the Legal Aid Society of Alberta described it as "inflammatory and sensational". Toews stated on another occasion that judges have a relatively light workload. Chief Provincial Justice Judith Webster described this as "misleading and inaccurate".
The New Democrats argued that Crown offices were underfunded under Toews' watch, and suggested that the Justice Department's prosecutorial duties were compromised.
During a legislative debate in June 1999, Toews accused NDP Justice Critic Gord Mackintosh of mischief for repeatedly calling the province's Street Peace gang hotline only to hang up before leaving a message. Calls to the hotline were meant to be confidential and anonymous, but Toews later acknowledged that calls from government buildings had been tracked and that he received Mackintosh's name from an employee in his department. Premier Filmon described Toews's conduct in the matter as inappropriate. During the fallout from this controversy, Toews was forced to admit that the hotline had gone unanswered for several months.
After leaving provincial politics, Toews turned his attention to the federal scene and Canada's "unite-the-right" movement. He had been a supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada for decades federally. Although he did not endorse the United Alternative initiative when it was first announced in 1999, he began calling for cooperation between the Tories and the right-wing Reform Party of Canada. He expressed interest in working with the Canadian Alliance, a successor to the Reform Party that sought to build support among Blue Tory Progressive Conservatives. Toews endorsed Tom Long's bid for the Alliance leadership in June 2000, and approved of Brian Pallister's efforts to bring the Progressive Conservatives into cooperation with the new party.
Toews formally joined the Alliance in the buildup to the 2000 federal election, and defeated four other candidates to win the party's nomination in Provencher, a rural riding in southeastern Manitoba. The riding was held by Liberal incumbent David Iftody, but had long had a socially conservative bent, typical of ridings in rural southern Manitoba. Toews defeated Iftody handily, with a nearly 7,000-vote margin in the general election. The Liberals won a national majority government, and Toews was appointed as Justice Critic in the opposition shadow cabinet.
The Canadian Alliance was weakened by internal divisions in mid-2001, with several MPs calling on party leader Stockwell Day to resign. Toews did not take a strong position for or against Day's leadership, but issued a call for party discipline pending a formal review. When Day resigned, Toews worked on Grant Hill's unsuccessful campaign to become the new party leader.
In 2003, Toews recommended that Alliance members purchase Progressive Conservative membership cards to support the leadership bid of Jim Prentice. He denied this constituted interference, and said that members of the two parties should be encouraged to work together.
The Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative parties merged to form the Conservative Party of Canada in 2003. Toews joined the new party, and was a Manitoba organizer in Stephen Harper's successful bid to become its first elected leader. He was easily returned in the 2004 federal election as the Liberals were reduced to a minority government, and was retained as Justice Critic in the parliament that followed.
On January 25, 2005, Toews pleaded guilty to the charge of exceeding his personal campaign expense limits in the 1999 provincial election. He claimed that the overspending resulted from a miscommunication between his campaign and the provincial party as to how some expenses were to be accounted. There were some calls for him to resign as Justice Critic, but nothing came of this. Toews received a $500 fine, and the charge remained on his record.
A Winnipeg Free Press poll taken in late December 2005 showed Toews as the most popular choice to replace Stuart Murray as leader of the Manitoba Progressive Conservatives. He declined to contest the position, and was returned without difficulty in the 2006 Canadian federal election.
As Justice Critic from 2001 to 2005, Toews frequently accused the Liberal government of being unfocused on crime issues. He supported the Chrétien government's decision to create a national sex offender registry in 2002, but criticized the government for not making the bill retroactive to include the names of previously convicted offenders. The non-retroactive approach followed the model of previous legislation in the United Kingdom.
Toews criticized some Supreme Court decisions, and on one occasion accused former Chief Justice Antonio Lamer of overseeing a "frenzy of constitutional experimentation". He also called for official reviews of judicial appointments, arguing that the policy views of judges should be known before they take office. In September 2004, he delivered a speech to the National Pro-Life Conference entitled "Abuse of the Charter by the Supreme Court". In this speech, Toews criticized judicial implementation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, suggested that judges were implementing social policy, and called on his audience to build organizations to challenge the courts.
Toews spoke favourably of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms on its twentieth anniversary in 2002, describing it as "a powerful check on the power of government to unreasonably intrude on our rights and freedoms". He also called for governments to demonstrate more willingness to use the Charter's Notwithstanding Clause to overrule court decisions. Toews specifically argued that the clause should have been used to overturn a court decision that he claimed weakened Canada's child pornography laws. (The Liberal government brought forward remedial legislation to address this decision, without resorting to a Constitutional strategy.)
Initially considered a moderate within the Canadian Alliance, Toews later became known for endorsing socially conservative causes. He was a vocal opponent of Bill C-250 (2003), which made sexual orientation a protected category under Canada's hate crime legislation. Toews stated that the bill could restrict freedom of expression and religion, and was quoted as saying that a "homosexual activist" could sue a hotel chain to remove Bibles as hate literature. He later emerged as a prominent opponent of same-sex marriage, and suggested that changing the definition of marriage in Canada could result in polygamy being legalized. In 2005, he launched an extended filibuster to delay committee work on the issue. Despite his efforts, same-sex marriage was legalized in the summer of 2005.
During this period, Toews also argued that religious organizations should be permitted to deny gay organizations the use of their facilities, supported increasing the age of sexual consent in Canada from fourteen to sixteen, and opposed the decriminalization of cannabis. He continued to oppose the federal gun registry.
Federal Minister of JusticeEdit
In mid-2006, Toews's department prepared draft legislation concerning religious rights and freedom of speech in relation to same-sex marriage. Some speculated that this legislation was intended to protect the "free speech" of religious leaders and others who criticize homosexual behaviour. The legislation was never brought forward. The House of Commons defeated a motion to reopen the debate on same-sex marriage in December 2006. While Toews remains personally opposed to same-sex marriage, he later indicated that the Harper government would not revisit the issue again.
In late October 2006, an Ontario Superior Court Judge struck down a part of Canada's Security of Information Act as unconstitutional. This law had previously been used by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to obtain search warrants for the home and office of Ottawa journalist Juliet O'Neill, after she received and published leaked information about Maher Arar. In the same week, an Ottawa judge struck down as unconstitutional a section of the Anti-terrorism Act that defined terrorism as crime motived by religion, politics or ideology. Toews later announced that the Harper government would not appeal the O'Neill decision.
In December 2006, Toews and Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Jim Prentice announced plans to repeal Section 67 of the Canadian Human Rights Act. The ministers argued that this provision sometimes prevented status aboriginals and on-reserve workers from registering human rights complaints, and said that its repeal would extend full rights protection to all First Nations people.
Toews called a judicial inquiry into the 1985 Air India bombing in February 2006. He abolished the Law Commission of Canada later in the year, saying that the government would commission other agencies to do its research work.
Toews introduced two bills in May 2006, requiring mandatory minimum prison sentences for persons convicted of gun crimes and eliminating house arrest as an option for various offenses. Opposition parties amended the second bill in October 2006, retaining the ban on house arrests for serious violent and sexual offenders but permitting it for non-violent property offenders. NDP Justice Critic Joe Comartin argued that this change addressed the legitimate concerns of Canadians, while removing what he described as "the radical, extreme over-reaction" of the Conservatives. Toews called for the bill to be passed in its original form.
In November 2006, Toews introduced a bill to toughen bail conditions for persons accused of gun-related crimes. The bill included a "reverse-onus" clause requiring the accused to demonstrate why they should not be held in custody. Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty and Toronto Mayor David Miller indicated their support for the bill.
Age of consent
In June 2006, Toews introduced a bill (Bill C-2) to raise the age of sexual consent from fourteen to sixteen. The bill included an exemption for adolescents who have relations with persons no more than five years older than themselves. Under Canadian law, "sexual consent" covers all activities from kissing to intercourse. Liberal MP Irwin Cotler argued that the Conservative Party was misrepresenting the issue to the Canadian public, and noted that the sexual exploitation of persons under eighteen is already illegal under Canadian law. Toew's proposed changes were supported by other interested parties, including Manitoba Justice Minister Gord Mackintosh. The bill became law in February 2008, over a year after Toews left the Justice portfolio.
Dangerous offender status
Toews introduced a "three strikes" bill to the House of Commons in October 2006, stipulating that persons found guilty of three sexual or violent crimes will be automatically categorized as dangerous offenders unless they can convince a judge otherwise. Persons labeled as dangerous offenders under Canadian law may be kept in prison indefinitely. Critics argued that the proposed law was too broad in its scope, and included vaguely defined categories in its list of serious offenses. Civil libertarian groups also argued that the bill threatened the constitutional principle of accused persons being presumed innocent until proven guilty, and suggested that it may not withstand a court challenge.
In August 2006, Toews told reporters that he was willing to consider lowering the age of criminal responsibility in Canada from twelve to ten. He indicated that his focus was on treatment rather than jail time, although he did not rule out jail sentences for ten-year-olds. A Justice Department spokesman later clarified that there were no plans to bring forward such legislation. In October 2006, Toews announced plans to introduce more severe sentencing provisions under the Youth Criminal Justice Act.
In June 2006, Toews brought forward amendments to expand Canada's collection of DNA samples from convicted criminals, and later proposed amendments to ensure convicted sex offenders are automatically included in this registry. He also confirmed that his government would arm guards at the Canada-United States border, and would not revive plans by the previous Liberal administration to decriminalize simple possession of cannabis.
MPs from all parties agreed to fast-track passage of a bill toughening penalties for street racing in November 2006. In the same month, Toews introduced a bill to give the police extra powers against persons who drive while under the influence of drugs.
Some provincial justice ministers expressed concern about the costs of Toews's proposed sentencing reforms. Toews acknowledged that his government's gun sentencing laws would cost $246 million per year for new prison space and $40 million for operating costs, but argued that the changes were necessary and were requested by police and provincial officials.
Liberal MP Michael Ignatieff criticized Toews's approach to crime, arguing that adding thousands of people to Canada's prison system will lead to young offenders becoming hardened adult criminals, and will not make Canada safer in the long term. Former Ontario Chief Justice Patrick LeSage also criticized Toews's approach to crime issues, arguing that the country was not experiencing a crime wave and did not need "draconian" laws to ensure its safety.
Soon after he assumed office, Toews announced that public hearings would be held for the next justice appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada. This policy was criticized by Supreme Court Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin and former justice John Major, who expressed concern that these hearings could foment the "political warfare" associated with American judicial appointments. In late February, Prime Minister Harper nominated Marshall Rothstein from a shortlist prepared by the previous Liberal administration. MPs were permitted to ask questions of Rothstein, although the ultimate power of appointment continued to rest with the prime minister. Rothstein was supported by Liberal members of the judicial committee, and was quickly confirmed to the bench.
In November 2006, Toews announced that police representatives would be appointed to the provincial judicial advisory committees that review the qualifications of potential judges. This proposal was widely criticized by the Canadian media and by opposition MPs, some of whom argued that Toews's intent was to stack the courts with right-wing judges. In an unprecedented move, Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin and the Canadian Judicial Council issued a statement that Toews's proposal would "compromise the independence of the Advisory Committees", and called for the minister to consult with judicial and legal representatives before making any changes. The Federation of Law Societies of Canada has also criticized Toews's plan, arguing that the government had "politicized" the judicial appointments process. Ontario Chief Justice Roy McMurtry and Attorney General Michael Bryant added their opposition in early 2007, with Bryant arguing that "the forces of legal populism" were threatening to "tear asunder the basic principle of judicial independence". Toews indicated that he would proceed with his changes despite the opposition, though he was removed from the Justice portfolio before the new system could be implemented. In January 2007, the Conservatives appointed two powerful Ontario police union leaders to an advisory committee.
President of the Treasury BoardEdit
Prime Minister Stephen Harper shuffled his cabinet on January 4, 2007, and appointed Toews as President of the Treasury Board. Some commentators argued that Toews's hardline approach to law-and-order issues was damaging the Conservative Party's image among centrist voters, and described his replacement Rob Nicholson as presenting a more moderate image.
In his first major speech after the shuffle, Toews announced increased penalties and longer jail terms for bureaucrats who commit fraud against the government. In the same month, he announced that the Canadian Wheat Board would be subject to the Access to Information Act.
As Treasury Board President, Toews was responsible for overseeing the Federal Accountability Act, which was passed into law in 2006. In January 2008, he introduced a Lobbying Act to replace Canada's Lobbyists Registration Act. The new act created a category of senior public officials called "designated public office holders", whose interactions with lobbyists would need to be reported. It also created a Commissioner of Lobbying (to replace the Registrar of Lobbyists), and increased penalties for violations. The coordinator of the group Democracy Watch was strongly critical of the changes, noting that the new rules only covered "oral and arranged communication" between ministers and government officials while exempting written correspondence and chance encounters. After the act officially became law in July 2008, it was discovered that some arranged meetings between ministers, government officials and lobbyists' clients would not have to be reported at all, if the lobbyist who arranged the meeting was not actually present. Lobbyists were not required to report such meetings, and the clients would only be required to do so if they were themselves registered under the act.
In February 2008, Toews and Minister of Public Works Michael Fortier announced that the Harper government would spend $10 million less on public opinion research in its next budget. This decision followed criticism that the government was spending far more on polls than the previous Liberal administrations. Toews' department also shut down the Co-ordination of Access to Information Requests System (CAIRS) in April 2008. Critics argued that the system provided a vital resource for citizens attempting to investigate previously released documents. Toews argued that it was expensive, and slowed access to government information.
During a June 2008 parliamentary debate, Toews described Canadian jurist Louise Arbour, the retiring United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, as a "disgrace". He indicated that he made the remarks with respect to her past statements on Israel (during the 2006 Lebanon War, Arbour argued that the killing of innocent civilians by any party could amount to war crimes). This statement was widely criticized. Liberal MP Martha Hall Findlay responded that Toews had taken Arbour's remarks "completely out of context", and described his comments as an "appalling" personal attack. Claire L'Heureux-Dubé also criticized Toews' comments, writing that Arbour had avoided taking sides in the Middle East conflict.
Toews was invited to speak at an event marking the 25th anniversary of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, but declined.
In November 2007, disgraced businessman and lobbyist Karlheinz Schreiber filed an affidavit in Ontario Superior Court that contained serious accusations against former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. The Canadian media subsequently reported that Justice officials had prepared a briefing note on Schreiber the previous year, while Toews was still minister. Bureaucrats indicated that neither Toews nor his successor, Rob Nicholson, had read the material. Some columnists suggested that the Conservative ministers may have intentionally avoided briefings on the subject.
Minister responsible for ManitobaEdit
In late 2007, Toews indicated that the Harper government would not prioritize funding for a new football stadium proposed by Winnipeg media mogul David Asper. He later modified his position, and announced in June 2008 that he was interested in moving forward with a revised stadium plan.
Toews's public visibility declined after his reassignment as Treasury Board President, and the Winnipeg Free Press reported in May 2008 that he was not playing a prominent role in discussions about the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in Winnipeg or the proposed football stadium.
Federal Minister of Public SafetyEdit
On January 19, 2010, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that Toews would replace Peter Van Loan as the new Public Safety Minister. The Adult Entertainment Association of Canada released a statement in 2010 that the government's crackdown on sex industry worker visas had resulted in a stripper shortage, and Toews responded by saying that the strip clubs that were short on strippers because of the crackdown were engaging in human trafficking.
In February 2012, as Minister, Toews introduced the Protecting Children from Internet Predators Act (also known as Bill C-30). The bill, which made no mention of children or "Internet predators" outside of its title, would have granted police agencies expanded powers, mandate that internet service providers (ISPs) provide subscriber information without a warrant and compel providers to reveal information transmitted over their networks with a warrant. When criticised about privacy concerns, Toews responded that people "can either stand with us or with the child pornographers." Public response followed, with an anonymous Twitter account posting personal information of Toews' court proceedings during his divorce, and around this time Conservative support appeared to back away from the bill and open up to amendments. Toews later denied that he had made the "child pornographers" reference, despite his comments being available in Hansard and on video. In February 2013 the government announced Bill C-30 would be scrapped entirely in favor of changes in Canada's warrant-less wiretap law. Vic Toews resigned from his position on July 8, 2013 and retired from politics.
|2011 Canadian federal election|
|New Democratic||Al Mackling||7,043||17.9%||+4.2%||--|
|Christian Heritage||David Reimer||506||1.3%||-1.9||--|
|2008 Canadian federal election|
|New Democratic||Ross Martin||4,947||13.7%||0.0%||$6,406|
|Christian Heritage||David Reimer||1,170||3.2%||–||$10,130|
|Total valid votes/Expense limit||36,040||100.0%||$87,213|
|2006 Canadian federal election: Provencher|
|New Democratic||Patrick O'Connor||5,259||13.71||+4.70||$2,266.71|
|Total valid votes||38,365||100.00|
|Total rejected ballots||157||0.41||−0.02|
|Electors on the lists||59,216|
|Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.|
|2004 Canadian federal election: Provencher|
|New Democratic||Sarah Zaharia||3,244||9.01||+2.90||$1,472.79|
|Total valid votes||36,013||100.00|
|Total rejected ballots||155||0.43||+0.07|
|Electors on the lists||60,617|
|Percentage change figures are factored for redistribution. Conservative Party percentages are contrasted with the combined Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative percentages from 2000.|
|Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.|
|2000 Canadian federal election: Provencher|
|Progressive Conservative||Henry C. Dyck||2,726||6.73||−9.59||$7,780.05|
|New Democratic||Peter Hiebert||1,980||4.89||−3.71||$210.45|
|Total valid votes||40,483||100.00|
|Total rejected ballots||148||0.36||−0.10|
|Electors on the lists||58,020|
|Sources: Official Results, Elections Canada and Financial Returns, Elections Canada.|
|1999 Manitoba general election: Rossmere|
|New Democratic||Harry Schellenberg||5,097||49.21||$25,409.00|
|Progressive Conservative||Vic Toews||4,803||46.37||$30,765.70|
|Total valid votes||10,358||100.00|
|Rejected and discarded votes||54|
Note: A subsequent investigation by Elections Manitoba found that Toews overspent by $7,500
in the 1999 campaign.
|1995 Manitoba general election: Rossmere|
|Progressive Conservative||Vic Toews||4,318||45.97||$20,855.00|
|New Democratic||Harry Schellenberg||4,201||44.72||$22,807.00|
|Total valid votes||9,394||100.00|
|Rejected and discarded votes||37|
|1990 Manitoba general election: Elmwood|
|New Democratic||Jim Maloway||4,127||46.98|
|Progressive Conservative||Vic Toews||3,035||34.55|
|Total valid votes||8,785||100.00|
All electoral information is taken from Elections Canada and Elections Manitoba. Provincial election expenditures refer to individual candidate expenses. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted totals, and are presented when the final reviewed totals are not available.
In March 2015, Toews had his judicial paycheque garnished to pay rent he owned while he lived in Gatineau during his time as a federal politician. His former landlord won an order from the Quebec Rental Board for Toews to pay $3,900 plus interest that had been unpaid for more than a year. Toews argued that he did not understand the judicial document that had been sent to him by the collections agency because it was only written in French. However, the judge overseeing the case did not accept this argument, saying that given Towe's legal experience, including his time as Justice Minister, meant he should have been aware of the issue when receiving a judicial document marked "DÉCISION".
In March 2017, Toews ruled that R v Jordan's 18-month limit before a provincial court case could be thrown up for unreasonable delay did not apply to the speeding case he was deciding. He overturned the decision below because while the delay between the speeding incident and the day the case went to trial was exactly 18 months, the ticket was issued eight days after the speeding incident and the trial was therefore held within the 18-month limit.
Ethics commissioner's ruling of conflict of interestEdit
In April 2017, Canada's ethics commissioner found that Toews had broken the Conflict of Interest Act by providing advice and meeting public officials on behalf of the Peguis First Nation for the Kapyong Barracks land transfer issue. In 2007, Toews, then President of the Treasury Board, had approved the transfer of the barracks to the Canada Lands Company. The Peguis First Nation, among others, filed suit against the government and named Toews as a respondent. Toews was barred by the Conflict of Interest Act from acting for any other party in the case as a formerly involved cabinet minister. Toews also breached the two-year cooling off period for public office holders by consulting for Norway House Cree Nation through his wife's company. After receiving a private complaint, the Canadian Judicial Council, announced that it would review Toew's actions. Toews challenged the ethics commissioner's finding to the Federal Court of Canada, which prompted the judicial council to suspend its review pending the outcome of the challenge. Toews then suspended his challenge in November 2017, saying that he wanted the judicial council proceedings to be resolved as soon as possible.
- "Mennonites won't lose citizenship over 80-year-old glitch: Toews" Archived June 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, January 26, 2007, 9:18 report. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
- Vic Toews, Parliament of Canada Archived October 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Toews, Victor David 1918-1993, Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online Archived October 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 5, 2012
- "Toews, Victor David (1918-1993) - GAMEO". gameo.org. Archived from the original on November 10, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- "Toews accuses Liberals of insulting unilingual anglophones". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. May 5, 2009. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Mary Nersessian, "Key players who may form a Conservative cabinet", CTV News report, 2006. Archived February 19, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- Members of the Advisory Committee on Supreme Court of Canada Appointments. Department of Justice, Canada, October 2005. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "Toews denies judicial interest". The Calgary Herald. May 21, 2008. Archived from the original on February 10, 2016.
- Lett, Dan (January 19, 2010). "Rumours of his departure will likely always dog Toews". Winnipeg Free Press. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012.
- "Couillard affair puts spotlight on MP travel". CTV.ca. The Canadian Press. June 16, 2008.[permanent dead link]
- Winnipeg Free Press (May 20, 2008). "Toews insists he's running in next federal election". Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008.
- Chase, Steven (February 15, 2012). "Anonymous Twitter user turns tables on Tory champion of e-snooping bill". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on February 15, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- Martin, Russ (February 15, 2012). "Vikileaks attacks Vic Toews on Twitter". Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012.
- Staff Writer (February 15, 2012). "Tweets about Toews sharpen privacy debate". Winnipeg Free Press. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012.
- "Vic Toews' 'Messy Secret' was No Secret at all ~ But he Plays the Victim". donaskimleaman.blogspot.ca. Archived from the original on May 12, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- Ottawa Citizen (2012). "Vic Toews: Election-law violator becomes top lawmaker". canada.com. Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- Rabson, Mia (2012). "Lot of hot air under glass dome - Winnipeg Free Press". winnipegfreepress.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- He was also given responsibility for the Civil Service Act, the Civil Service Superannuation Act, the Civil Service Special Supplementary Severance Benefit Act, the Public Servants Insurance Act and the Workers Compensation Act.
- Manitoba Hansard, "Orders of the Day", 36th parliament, Second day of Throne Speech Debate. Archived April 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Toews was quoted as saying, "Having been influenced by the social concerns articulated by leaders in the social democratic movement and by my late father, Reverend Victor Toews, a minister of the Mennonite Brethren Church in Rossmere, my political philosophies may not square in all respects with what political scientists consider to be within the mainstream of Progressive Conservatism."
- Paul McKie, "Labour leaders withhold judgment", Winnipeg Free Press, January 28, 1997, B9.
- Paul McKie, "Strike funds secret", Winnipeg Free Press, May 27, 1996, A4; Alice Krueger, "PCs plan to raise pay veil", Winnipeg Free Press, December 6, 1995, A1.
- Alice Krueger, "Union workers can say no", Winnipeg Free Press, April 13, 1996, A4.
- Alice Krueger, "Home care plan deserts workers", Winnipeg Free Press, April 18, 1996, A1.
- "Tories agenda for '96", Winnipeg Free Press, December 31, 1996, A8.
- Paul Samyn, "Tories kill wage life raft", Winnipeg Free Press, July 3, 1996, A1.
- Alice Krueger, "Corrections crackdown called minor tinkering", Winnipeg Free Press, January 29, 1997, A4.
- David Kuxhaus, "Tories to keep more offenders behind bars", Winnipeg Free Press, August 15, 1998, A3.
- "Law holds Manitoba parents responsible for kids' crimes", Toronto Star, September 23, 1997, A2.
- In early 1998, the Filmon government proclaimed a Victims' Rights Act. See "Victims' rights better protected with proclamation of new Act", Manitoba government publication, January 11, 1998. Both the Justice Ministry and the opposition New Democrats subsequently endorsed the principle of a Victims' Bill of Rights, which was passed into law later in the year. See David Kuxhaus, "NDP pushing for victims' bill of rights", Winnipeg Free Press, March 3, 1998, A7. See also "Victim Impact Statement Program introduced", Manitoba government document, September 22, 1998.
- Alice Krueger, "Manitoba blanks gun-control law", April 25, 1997, A3.
- David Kuxhaus, "New YOA ineffective, too costly, Toews says", Winnipeg Free Press, June 9, 1999.
- Kevin Rollason, "Natives get new justice", Winnipeg Free Press, March 10, 1998, A1. He later supported a proposal for the integration of an aboriginal healing lodge into the provincial prison system. See John Lyons, "Justice minister likes idea of aboriginal healing lodge", Winnipeg Free Press, October 16, 1998, A6.
- David Roberts, "Manitoba bar raps justice minister", Winnipeg Free Press, May 8, 1998, A17. The appointment ultimately went to a bilingual judge with connections to the Progressive Conservative Party. See Paul Samyn, "War with judges no-brainer for Toews", Winnipeg Free Press, November 12, 2006, A9.
- Carol Harrington, "Manitoba minister riles justice conference", Globe and Mail, January 30, 1999, A16.
- Paul McKie, "Top judge takes shot at justice boss", June 10, 1999, City Page.
- Paul Samyn, "Manitoba to follow same-sex", Winnipeg Free Press, May 21, 1999, A1.
- Doug Nairne and David Kuxhaus, "Manitoba crushing Crowns", Winnipeg Free Press, June 7, 1998, A1.
- Douglas Nairne, "Filmon calls Toews' actions 'inappropriate'", June 22, 1999, City Page.
- Bud Robertson, "Toews decides to play wait-and-see with unite-the-right movements", Winnipeg Free Press, February 15, 1999, A6.
- Paul Samyn, "Long borrows Tory office for mailout", Winnipeg Free Press, June 18, 2000, A1; David Kuxhaus, "Pallister continues hunt for way to unite the right", Winnipeg Free Press, July 27, 2000, A8.
- Helen Fallding, "Ex-PC Toews wins Alliance bid", Winnipeg Free Press, October 31, 2000, A1. The other candidates were Roy Rempel, Calvin Vaags, Denis Simard and Henry Beaumont.
- Greg Joyce, "Canadian Alliance Leader Stockwell Day announces shadow cabinet", Canadian Press, January 5, 2001, 17:57 report.
- Paul Samyn, "Alliance revolt escalates", Winnipeg Free Press, May 16, 2001, B1.
- Bruce Cheadle, "Day stepping down as Alliance leader", Canadian Press, December 11, 2001, 18:24 report.
- Bill Curry and Sheldon Alberts, "MP calls on party to join with Tories", National Post, March 8, 2003, A12.
- Daniel Lett, "Stronach firing up the right", Winnipeg Free Press, January 22, 2004, A1.
- Helen Fallding, "Toews charged in election financing", Winnipeg Free Press, December 5, 2001, A3.
- David Kuxhaus, "Toews guilty of overspending in provincial election", Winnipeg Free Press, January 26, 2005, A3.
- Alexander Panetta, "Liberals demand resignation of Tory critic who broke election rules", Canadian Press, January 26, 2005, 21:36 report.
- "Toews fined for breaking election rule", Winnipeg Free Press, February 5, 2005.
- Mia Rabson, "Toews, Pallister for Murray's job: poll", Winnipeg Free Press, December 27, 2005, B2.
- For example, Tonda MacCharles, "Liberal bill to reform Young Offenders Act", Toronto Star, February 6, 2001, p. 1.
- Mia Rabson, "Convicted pedophiles will have to enter their addresses", Winnipeg Free Press, February 14, 2002, A5; Sue Bailey, "Sex offender registry law introduced", Canadian Press, December 11, 2002, 18:53 report.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Lamer attacks Alliance 'yelping'", National Post, April 14, 2001, A01.
- Nahlah Ayed, "Charter at 20 still brews a storm in Canadian politics as it did at birth", Canadian Press, April 11, 2002, 16:07 report.
- Frances Russell, "Toews is Conservatives' weak link", Winnipeg Free Press, February 8, 2006, A13.
- Luiza Chwialkowska, "Charter's anniversary stokes familiar debate: Courts v. Parliament", National Post, April 18, 2002, A04.
- Sharon Boase, "Protection of gays pits the Bible vs. Bill C-250", Hamilton Spectator, February 8, 2003, A01.
- Sandra Cordon, "Gays, lesbians slam Ottawa for appeal of same-sex marriage ruling", Canadian Press, July 29, 2002, 16:31 report.
- "Parties may unite to end Conservative same-sex filibuster", Edmonton Journal, May 30, 2005, A5.
- Paul Samyn, "Pot bill fate confronts lethal mix of dissent", Winnipeg Free Press, May 29, 2003, A11; Helen Fallding, "Camp should have right to deny gays: Alliance MP", Winnipeg Free Press, November 22, 2002, A5, "Drawing the line at 16", National Post, March 11, 2005, A18.
- Bill Curry, "Tories drafted law on religious rights", Globe and Mail, April 2, 2007, A7.
- Gloria Galloway, "Same-sex marriage file closed for good, PM says", Globe and Mail, December 8, 2006, A1.
- Don Butler, "Security law violates charter, judge rules", Montreal Gazette, October 20, 2006, A12; Ian Macleod, "Anti-terror law suffers new setback", October 25, 2006, A4; Alex Dobrota and Gloria Galloway, "Portion of law on terror struck down", Globe and Mail, October 25, 2006, A1.
- Ian MacLeod, "Ottawa won't appeal anti-terror law ruling", National Post, November 4, 2006, A2.
- "Introduction of legislation to repeal Section 67 of the Canadian Human Rights Act" [media advisory], Canada NewsWire, December 13, 2006, 05:16; "Canada's new Government introduces legislation to strengthen human rights protection for Aboriginal Canadians", Canada NewsWire, December 13, 2006, 10:19.
- "Air India inquiry will go ahead: report", Edmonton Journal, March 1, 2006, A5.
- "Toews defends turfing law commission", Edmonton Journal, November 7, 2006, A7.
- [During Toews tenure as Minister of Public Safety, Mark Holland the Liberal Opposition critic stated that the CBSA should be subject to independent oversight, something that Toews has not advocated or sought to legislate. Toews did not comment for the story when requested by the media or the family of the alleged victim. This was highlighted in the case of a young woman alleging sexual abuse, that her family felt was not properly investigated. Mark Holland stated, “It's like a black hole that people fall through all the time,” he said the case highlights the need for greater transparency and independence in CBSA's complaints process.]
- Scott Deveau, "Crime bill sets mandatory minimum sentences", Globe and Mail, May 4, 2006 (breaking news); See Jeffrey Simpson, "The real crime's the Tories' take on sentencing", Globe and Mail, May 5, 2006, A25; Dan Gardner, "Tories have 'faith' in get-tough gun sentences, but no evidence they'll work", Ottawa Citizen, May 11, 2006, A1. See Jim Brown, "New sentencing rules will put more criminals in jail, at hefty cost", Canadian Press, May 4, 2006, 13:14 report [Day].
- Jim Brown, "Tory crime-fighting bill gutted by combined opposition forces", Canadian Press, October 24, 2006, 16:11 report.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Harper to announce gun-crime bill in Toronto", National Post, November 23, 2006, A16.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Tory bill makes exceptions for teen romance", Montreal Gazette, June 2, 2006, A1.
- "Tory government to raise age of consent to 16 to target sex predators", Canadian Press, February 7, 2006, 21:31 report. See also Kate Heartfield, "Age, sex, consent -- and the facts", Vancouver Sun, February 21, 2006, A11; "The age of consent" [editorial], Globe and Mail, April 21, 2006, A20.
- Mia Rabson, "New crime bill is now law, after 2 years", Winnipeg Free Press, February 29, 2008, A8.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Three-strike law will start Tory attack on crime", Montreal Gazette, September 21, 2006, A12; Chris Wattie, "PM pushes three-strikes law", Montreal Gazette, October 13, 2006, A1.
- Jim Brown, "Three-strike legislation draws heat from critics", Toronto Star, October 18, 2006, A8.
- Tracey Tyler, "Minister: Goal is treatment, not jail", Toronto Star, August 15, 2006, A1.
- Alexander Panetta, "Toews retreats on kid convicts", Calgary Herald, August 16, 2006, A4.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Young offenders to face tougher treatment", Vancouver Sun, October 18, 2006, A4.
- "Federal justice minister proposes changes to national DNA databank", Canadian Press, June 9, 2006, 19:52 report.
- Tracey Tong, "Reining in sex offenders", Metro news, March 18, 2010 front page article.
- "Border guards renew call to carry guns", Edmonton Journal, February 12, 2006, A7.
- "Conservatives not interested in relaxing marijuana laws", Winnipeg Free Press, March 8, 2006, A11; Peter Edwards, "Police crack down on marijuana users", Toronto Star, April 3, 2006, A1. Arrests for cannabis possession were reported to have increased following the Conservative Party's 2006 victory.
- Peter O'Neil, "MPs speed passage of anti-racing laws", Vancouver Sun, November 2, 2006, A3.
- Carly Weeks, "New legislation 'unfairly targets marijuana users'", Vancouver Sun, November 23, 2006, A9.
- "New tough-on-crime laws will require new funding", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, October 14, 2006, A3.
- "Tougher gun laws will mean $246 million needed for new prison space: minister", Canadian Press, November 7, 2006, 17:19 report.
- Bartley Kives, "Ignatieff targets Toews on crime", Winnipeg Free Press, October 31, 2006, B1. Ignatieff was quoted as saying, "If the net effect of (federal Justice Minister) Vic Toews' criminal justice measures is to add 3,000 or 4,000 people to the federal prison system in Canada, then a whole bunch more to the provincial system, can we honestly say we're going to be safer?"
- Tracey Tyler, "There is no crime epidemic, says former chief justice", Toronto Star, November 4, 2006, A23.
- Susan Delacourt and Sean Gordon, "Shock and awe, Tory style", Toronto Star, February 7, 2006, A1.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Public scrutiny of nominees risks 'warfare': former judge", National Post, February 8, 2006, A5.
- Terry Weber, "Rothstein tapped as Supreme Court nominee", Globe and Mail, February 23, 2006 (Breaking News).
- "The judges were right to slam Toews's plan" [editorial], Globe and Mail, November 13, 2006, A18; "Justice seen to be done", Ottawa Citizen, November 14, 2006, A14; "Toews should at least be honest about his attacks on judicial independence" [editorial], Vancouver Sun, November 14, 2006, A14; "Ottawa's justice fiasco" [editorial], Toronto Star, November 15, 2006, A22.
- Kirk Makin, "Top judges rebuke Tories", Globe and Mail, November 10, 2006, A1.
- Kirk Makin, "Senior lawyers criticize Toews", Globe and Mail, November 16, 2006, A10.
- "Meddling with courts", Toronto Star, January 12, 2007, A18.
- Alex Dobrota, "Lawyers want minister to review plan allowing police to help select judges", Globe and Mail, January 12, 2007, A4.
- John Duncanson, "Police officers on panels picking judges seen as 'political' move", Toronto Star, January 22, 2007.
- Andrew Coyne, "The man sent to kill the issue: Baird posting is all about appearances", National Post, January 5, 2007, A1; Paul Vieira, "Nicholson is New Face Of Law And Order: Likely to be more Moderate Than outgoing Toews", National Post, January 5, 2007, A5. Generally, opposition parties often complained that Toews's proposed reforms were too ideological and confrontational. Only two of Toews's bills were passed by parliament during his tenure as Justice Minister. See Paul Vieira, "Nicholson is New Face Of Law And Order: Likely to be more Moderate Than outgoing Toews", National Post, January 5, 2007, A5.
- Kathryn May, "MPs consider perjury charges for sponsorship witnesses", Ottawa Citizen, February 8, 2007, A1.
- "Agents of Parliament, Canadian Wheat board and foundations brought under Access to Information" [press release], Canada NewsWire, February 22, 2007, 09:30.
- Kathryn May, "Toews' appointment 'scary thought' for PS: Get-tough approach worries bureaucrats", Ottawa Citizen, January 5, 2007, A1.
- Jennifer Allen, "New lobby rules mean more work for lawyers", Globe and Mail, August 13, 2008, B5.
- Andrew Mayeda, "Tories introduce new reporting rules for lobbyists; Must detail meetings with public officials, but not correspondence", Ottawa Citizen, January 5, 2008, A5.
- See Tim Naumetz, "Major loophole in new federal lobbying law even surprises lobbyists", Canadian Press, August 18, 2008, 2:45 pm.
- "Conservatives promise to cut spending on federal polls and surveys", Canadian Press, February 13, 2008, 18:22.
- Bruce Cheadle, "Expert cited by PM questions how Tories tracking info now that registry dead", Canadian Press, May 5, 2008, 17:07.
- Tonda MacCharles, "Tory minister's comment on jurist slammed", Toronto Star, June 18, 2008, A15.
- Claire L'Heureux-Dubé, "A disgraceful attack; It is shameful that a federal cabinet minister would make an unwarranted verbal assault on one of Canada's most accomplished citizens, Louise Arbour", Ottawa Citizen, June 21, 2008, B7. See also Bob Hepburn, "The snubbing of a Canadian hero", Toronto Star, June 26, 2008, A4; William M. Trudel, "Louise Arbour: a colleague we have failed" Archived December 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Law Times, September 22, 2008, October 3, 2008.
- Janice Tibbetts, "Conservatives skip out on Charter events", Montreal Gazette, April 11, 2007, A4.
- Dan Lett, "Minister needs to answer some dreaded questions", Winnipeg Free Press, November 14, 2007; Mia Rabson, "Toews dragged into scandal: Resurgence of Airbus affair puts Tories in hot seat", Winnipeg Free Press, November 14, 2007; "Conservative ministers may have intentionally avoided Airbus briefings", Canadian Press, November 8, 2007, D7.
- Mary Agnes Welch, "Get ball rolling on stadium: Doer", Winnipeg Free Press, December 7, 2007, A3. The Winnipeg media subsequently reported that Joy Smith, a Conservative MP from Winnipeg, opposed Toews on this matter. See Daniel Lett, "Is Toews part of the problem?", Winnipeg Free Press, January 8, 2008, A3. Smith denied that she in Toews were in disagreement. See Joy Smith, "I agree with Vic Toews" [letter], Winnipeg Free Press, January 9, 2008, A10. See also Allan MacLeod, "MP spoke out of turn" [letter], Winnipeg Free Press, January 12, 2008, A18.
- Bartley Kives, "Toews' touchdown pass? Feds open to funding downtown site over Polo Park", Winnipeg Free Press, June 21, 2008, A1.
- Mary Agnes Welch, "Political futures spur debate Legislature abuzz over Toews, Maloway", Winnipeg Free Press, May 16, 2008, A3.
- "Harper moves 10 in cabinet shakeup". CBC News. January 19, 2010. Archived from the original on January 21, 2010.
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- "Protecting Children from Internet Predators Act". LEGISinfo. Parliament of Canada. February 14, 2012. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- Ibbitson, John (February 13, 2012). "Tories on e-snooping: 'Stand with us or with the child pornographers'". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
- Online surveillance bill could change, Harper signals, CBC.ca, February 15, 2012, archived from the original on February 21, 2012
- "41st Parliament, 1st Session". Edited Hansard. 079. February 13, 2012. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015.
- "Online surveillance bill teaches Tories tough social-media lesson". Winnipeg Free Press =. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012.
- "Vic Toews denies himself". Macleans.ca =. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012.
- The Canadian Press (2013). "Conservatives scrapping controversial Internet surveillance bill". leaderpost.com. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
Canada's warrantless wiretap law.[permanent dead link]
- Alison Crawford (March 7, 2014). "Vic Toews appointed judge in Manitoba". CBC News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Ha, Tu Thanh; Fine, Sean (March 26, 2015). "Pay of judge, former Tory minister Toews' withheld over back rent". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
- Glowacki, Laura (March 7, 2017). "Manitoba judge overturns precedent-setting decision on traffic ticket delays". CBC News. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
- R v Grant, 2017 MBQB 39
"Manitoba Judge Vic Toews drops court challenge of ethics commissioner ruling". CBC News. November 24, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
Federal ethics commissioner Mary Dawson ruled in April that Toews violated the Act when he received money for consulting services he performed just after leaving office in July 2013.
- Harris, Kathleen (April 21, 2017). "Vic Toews broke conflict of interest rules after leaving office, ethics commissioner rules". CBC News. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
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