Viburnum is a genus of about 150–175 species of shrubs or (in a few species) small trees in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae. Its current classification is based on molecular phylogeny. It was previously included in the family Caprifoliaceae.
|Viburnum opulus fruit|
The member species are native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with a few species extending into tropical montane regions in South America, Ukraine, Russia, and southeast Asia. In Africa, the genus is confined to the Atlas Mountains.
The leaves are opposite, simple, and entire, toothed or lobed; cool temperate species are deciduous, while most of the warm temperate species are evergreen. Some species are densely hairy on the shoots and leaves, with star-shaped hairs.
The flowers are produced in corymbs 5–15 cm across, each flower white to cream or pink, small, 3–5 mm across, with five petals, strongly fragrant in some species. The gynoecium has three connate carpels with the nectary on top of the gynoecium. Some species also have a fringe of large, showy sterile flowers around the perimeter of the corymb to act as a pollinator target.
The fruit is a spherical, oval, or somewhat flattened drupe, red to purple, blue, or black, and containing a single seed; some are edible for humans, but many others are mildly poisonous. The leaves are eaten by the larvae of many Lepidoptera species.
About 150 species are known, including:
- V. acerifolium – maple-leaf viburnum
- V. atrocyaneum
- V. arboreum
- V. australe – Mexican arrowwood
- V. betulifolium
- V. bitchiuense
- V. bracteatum – bracted arrowwood, limerock arrowwood
- V. buddleifolium
- V. burejaeticum
- V. calvum
- V. carlesii – Korean spice viburnum
- V. cassinoides – Witherod viburnum, wild raisin, Appalachian tea
- V. cinnamomifolium – cinnamon-leaved viburnum
- V. cordifolium
- V. corylifolium
- V. costaricanum
- V. cotinifolium
- V. cylindricum
- V. dasyanthum
- V. davidii – David viburnum
- V. dentatum – arrowwood viburnum
- V. dilatatum – linden viburnum
- V. divaricatum
- V. edule – squashberry, mooseberry, pembina, pimbina, lowbush cranberry, moosomin (Cree language)
- V. elatum
- V. ellipticum – common viburnum, oval-leaved viburnum
- V. erosum
- V. erubescens
- V. farreri – Farrer's viburnum
- V. foetens
- V. foetidum
- V. furcatum – forked viburnum, scarlet leaved viburnum
- V. grandiflorum – Himalayan viburnum
- V. harryanum
- V. henryi
- V. hirtum
- V. hondurense
- V. hupehense
- V. ichangense
- V. japonicum
- V. kansuense
- V. koreanum – Korean viburnum
- V. lantana – wayfaring tree, hoarwithy
- V. lantanoides – hobble-bush, American wayfaring tree
- V. lentago – nannyberry
- V. lobophyllum
- V. macrocephalum – Chinese viburnum (琼花)
- V. maculatum
- V. molinae
- V. molle – softleaf arrowwood
- V. mongolicum
- V. mortonianum
- V. mullaha
- V. nudum – possumhaw
- V. odoratissimum – sweet viburnum
- V. opulus – Guelder-rose
- V. orientale
- V. phlebotrichum
- V. plicatum – Japanese snowball
- V. propinquum
- V. prunifolium – blackhaw
- V. rafinesquianum – downy arrowwood
- V. recognitum – smooth arrowwood
- V. rhytidophyllum – wrinkled viburnum
- V. rigidum
- V. rufidulum – rusty blackhaw
- V. sargentii – Tianmu viburnum (天目琼花)
- V. schensianum
- V. sempervirens
- V. setigerum – tea viburnum
- V. sieboldii – Siebold's viburnum
- V. stellatotomentosum
- V. subpubescens
- V. suspensum – Sandankwa viburnum
- V. sympodiale
- V. ternatum
- V. tinus – Laurustinus
- Viburnum treleasei
- V. tridentatum
- V. trilobum – high bush viburnum
- V. urceolatum
- V. utile – service viburnum
- V. veitchii
- V. venosum
- V. wilsonii
- V. wrightii – Wright's viburnum
Formerly placed hereEdit
Cultivation and usesEdit
Many species of viburnum have become popular as garden or landscape plants because of their showy flowers and berries, fragrance, and good autumn colour of some forms. Some popular species, hybrids, and cultivars include:
- The hybrid Viburnum × bodnantense (V. farreri × V. grandiflorum) is particularly popular for its strongly scented pink flowers on the leafless deciduous shoots in mid- to late winter.
- Viburnum × burkwoodii (V. carlesii × V. utile)
- Viburnum × carlcephalum (V. carlesii × V. macrocephalum)
- Viburnum carlesii has round white flowerheads, strong fragrance, dense structure, and reddish leaves in autumn.
- Viburnum davidii is an evergreen species from China with blue fruit.
- Viburnum dentatum has flat-topped flowers, bluish fruit, and reddish leaves in autumn. It is somewhat salt-tolerant. The cultivar 'Blue Muffin' is more compact than the species and has fruit that are a deeper blue than the species.
- Viburnum dilatatum has flat-topped flowers, reddish leaves in autumn, and bright red fruit that persist into winter.
- V. × jackii – Jack's viburnum
- Viburnum × juddii (V. bitchiuense × V. carlesii)
- Viburnum plicatum has white flowers, textured leaves, reddish-black fruit, and can grow quite large under ideal conditions. The species can tolerate shade, but not drought.
- Viburnum × pragense (V. rhytidophyllum × V. utile)
- Viburnum × rhytidophylloides (V. lantana × V. rhytidophyllum)
- Viburnum rhytidophyllum is a popular evergreen species, grown mainly for its foliage effect of large, dark green leathery leaves with strongly wrinkled surface. This is the parent species of two popular hybrid cultivars known as 'Alleghany' and 'Pragense'. 'Alleghany' was selected from a hybrid between V. rhytidophyllum and V. lantana 'Mohican' (in 1958, at the US National Arboretum).
- Viburnum setigerum has upright, coarse structure and orange to reddish-orange fruit.
- Viburnum sieboldii has coarse, open structure, flat-topped flowers, reddish-black fruit, and can grow as a small tree.
- Viburnum tinus is a widely grown garden and landscape shrub.
The fruit of some species (e.g. V. lentago) are edible and can be eaten either raw or for making jam, while other species (e.g. V. opulus) are mildly toxic and can cause vomiting if eaten in quantity.
In Russia and Ukraine Viburnum opulus is a important element of their traditional folk cultures. In Ukraine, Viburnum opulus (kalyna) is seen as a national symbol, an emblem for both the Koliada festivities and the concept of young girl’s love and tenderness. It is the key element of the Ukrainian traditional wreath. In Russia the Viburnum fruit is called kalina (калина) and is considered a national symbol. Kalina derived in Russian language from kalit' or raskalyat', which means "to make red-hot". The red fiery color of the berries represents beauty in Russian culture and together with sweet rapsberries it symbolise the passionate love of a beautiful maiden, since berries were always an erotic symbol in Russia. The name of the Russian song Kalinka is a diminutive of Kalina. Viburnum opulus is also a important symbol of Russian national ornamental wood painting handicraft style called Khokhloma.
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- "Genus: Viburnum L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-11-03. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- Winkworth, R. C.; Donoghue, M. J. (2005). "Viburnum phylogeny based on combined molecular data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography". American Journal of Botany. 92 (4): 653–66. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.4.653. PMID 21652443.
- Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. IV R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2793. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3.
- "GRIN Species Records of Viburnum". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
- Plants for a future: Viburnum lentago
- Plants for a future: Viburnum opulus
- Верба и калина - символы Украины. Verba and kalyna are Ukraine’s national symbols. - kievcolours.com. - "Калина… символизировала праздник Коляды, Рождества мира. Надругательство над ней покрывало человека позором, также как и убийство аиста." – Kalyna symbolized the Kolyada festivities. Somebody who’d kill a stork or abuse kalyna was considered forever disgraced.
- The herbs. Myths and Legends. - myphs.jimdo.com. – «Без верби і калини нема України» // «Without verba [pussy-willow] & kalyna [viburnum], there is no Ukraine.»
- 1946-, Prokhorov, Vadim, (2002). Russian folk songs : musical genres and history. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 149. ISBN 0810841274. OCLC 47208585.