Viña del Mar International Song Festival

The Viña del Mar International Song Festival (Spanish: Festival Internacional de la Canción de Viña del Mar) is an annual international music festival held every 3rd week of February in Viña del Mar, Chile. Started in 1960 it is the oldest and largest music festival in Latin America, and one of the longest running music festivals in the world.[1][2][3][4][5] It was cancelled in 2021 and 2022 due to COVID.[6]

Viña del Mar International Song Festival
Overture to the closing night of LI Viña del Mar International Song Festival (2010)
Dates3rd week of February
Location(s)Viña del Mar, Chile
Years active1960-present
WebsiteViña del Mar city website

The festival takes place for six days at the Quinta Vergara Amphitheater, a stage that has a capacity for 15,000 spectators,[7] and is broadcast live on radio, television, streaming and online video platforms, regularly breaking viewing records with an estimated audience of around 250 million of people.[8][9] Through television, the event reaches the entire American continent, a large part of Europe, North Africa and Australia; while via streaming to the whole world. It moves millions of dollars in sponsorships, associated television programs, advertising and tourism; and it receives extensive media coverage.[7]

Although popular and folk music competitions were the origin of the festival, during the last decades they have been relegated to the background, giving preference to guest music stars, who are the true highlight of the event.[10][11] Leading latin pop, ballad, bolero and latin rock artists have headlined, alongside hundreds of others who have appeared over the past six decades on stage encompassing such diverse genres as latin R&B, latin trap, cumbia, salsa, reggaetón, bachata among others.

History edit

Background and early years (1960-1970) edit

The origin of the Viña del Mar International Song Festival was modest. Thanks to the initiative of the mayor Gustavo Lorca[12] and Carlos Ansaldo, director of the Department of Tourism and Public Relations of the Municipality of Viña del Mar, between February 21 and 28, 1960, a unique competition was organized, in which the contestants had to present an original song whose theme was the city of Viña del Mar; the winner would opt for a prize of 500 escudos in cash and an award called Lira de Oro.[13] Six compositions competed, and the winner was "Viña" by José Goles and Manuel Lira. In the show, the event was animated by Ricardo García and enlivened by nine local invited artists.[14][12] In February 1961, a folkloric contest was incorporated.

In 1963, Channel 9 of Television of the University of Chile, experimentally broadcast the Festival for Santiago.[15]

At the beginning of the festival, a stage was improvised next to the Vergara Palace, a place where the audience sat on wooden chairs, or directly on the grass or dirt floor.[16] In turn, many spectators sat They were located on the hills adjacent to the Quinta and on the tops of the nearby trees, giving the contest a provincial air.[15]

In 1963, the architect Hernando López designed an open-air amphitheater with a paraboloid shape and crowned by an acoustic shell,[17] receiving the collaboration of the civil builder Juan Pinto Delgado. The structure was built in stages and its design was inspired by the Hollywood Bowl, the main amphitheater of the city of Los Angeles in the United States.[18] The roof of the stage, which helped both to project the sound towards the audience[19] and to protect the artists of the cold Viñamarina nights, debuted in 1967.[18] Built of wood and steel, it imitated the flight of a seagull, becoming the most distinctive detail of the construction, which over the years, became an icon of the Festival, and in the image of the contest before the world. It stood for nearly four decades until its demolition and replacement in 2002.[18]

1970s and 1980s edit

In the 1970s, the Festival began to spread to the masses, especially from 1971, when the broadcast rights were granted to Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN),[20] with coverage in much of the country.

During those same years, the political tension of the moment was strongly present. In 1970, the presidential elections were held in which the socialist Salvador Allende was elected president, which would mark the country and divide it politically, also influencing the contest. In 1971, representatives of the Soviet Union were applauded for their support of the Popular Unity (UP), while in 1972, South African Miriam Makeba was booed by the conservative sector for praising President Salvador Allende and exclaiming "long live the Chilean revolution!".[21]

Following the 1973 Chilean coup d'etat, the dictatorship headed by Augusto Pinochet came to control the Viña del Mar International Song Festival, choosing to only promote and feature sympathetic artists, in particular those that were part of the Acto de Chacarillas in 1977.[22] In the first years of his dictatorship, Pinochet was a decidedly regular guest at the festival.[23] His advisor, Jaime Guzmán, was also spotted on several occasions at the festival.[23] On one occasion, Festival presenter Antonio Vodanovic publicly praised the dictator and his wife, Lucia Hiriart, on behalf of "the Chilean youth".[23] Supporters of the dictatorship appropriated the song Libre by Nino Bravo; the song was, ultimately, performed live by Edmundo Arrocet in the first post-coup Viña Del Mar Festival, with Pinochet being present in the audience.[24][25] Beginning in 1980, when the festival had gained popularity and started airing internationally, the regime took advantage of this opportunity to promote a favourable image of Chile to the rest of the world.[22] To that end, the 1981 festival committee had a larger budget with which to feature popular foreign artists, including Miguel Bosé, Julio Iglesias and Camilo Sesto.[22] The folk music portion of the festival had become increasingly politicized during the Allende years, and was suspended by organizers from the time of the coup until 1980.[22]

Between 1984 and 1989 Leonardo Schultz and Gary H. Mason, one of the pioneers of the reggaeton movement, teamed up to help revamp the festival and streamline its operations. They arranged for the appearance of artists including: The Police, Air Supply, Eddie Money, Sheena Easton, Jose Feliciano (the pair produced his Grammy-nominated album Escenas de Amor in 1982, as well as the Grammy-winning album Me enamoré in 1983), Andy Gibb, Neil Sedaka, Gloria Gaynor, Mr. Mister to name a few. In 1988 and 1989, Thomas Anders (of Modern Talking fame) was the festival's headliner, one of the first times an artist was invited back to perform two years in a row.

Schultz and Mason also arranged for major international jurors including: George Martin (the Beatles' producer), Maurice Jarre (scored the films such as Doctor Zhivago, Lawrence of Arabia, Witness, A Passage To India, and Ghost), Manoella Torres (Mason produced her hit duet, which was written by Schultz entitled "No me mires así"), Joey Travolta, Connie Stevens and many others.

1990s and 2000s edit

In the 1990s the broadcast rights to the Festival were given to Televisa and featured prominent Mexican Artists, as well as major Latin Artists.

In 2008, American rock music band Journey played their first concert with new vocalist Arnel Pineda at the festival. The 2008 Viña Festival was hosted by Sergio Lagos and Tonka Tomicic, and headlined by Nelly Furtado, Wisin & Yandel, and Earth, Wind & Fire.

In 2009, artists such as Latin sensation Daddy Yankee and the legendary British band Simply Red captivated the audience of Viña. For its 50th edition, the festival's hosts were the late Felipe Camiroaga and news reader Soledad Onetto.

The event has not been held in the years 2021 and 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[26][27]

In March 2022, the return of the 62nd edition of the Viña del Mar International Song Festival was confirmed for the year 2023.[28]

"El Monstruo" edit

Traditionally, the Festival's audience openly demonstrates its acceptance or displeasure with the established acts performing there, as well as contestants in the two competitions. As a result, the Chilean media has nicknamed the Festival's audience El Monstruo ("The Monster"). Earning acceptance from El Monstruo usually has a direct impact on an artist's popularity in the rest of Latin America. This is particularly true for Spanish speaking pop stars. Conversely, booing artists off the stage is not uncommon.

Artists compete in the Festival's regular competitions for one of three awards, given in this order: "Antorcha de Plata" (Silver Torch), "Antorcha de Oro" (Golden Torch) and "Gaviota de Plata" (Silver Seagull). However, audience response may demand that one of the three awards - or, progressively, all three- also be awarded to an established act as their performance progresses. An artist who "tames the "Monstruo"" by earning all three awards receives almost instant recognition as a major star by Chilean and Latin American media.

Awards' History edit

Artists perform in the Festival de Viña with the goal of receiving as many awards as possible, which will depend on their success with "El Monstruo." The awards have had multiple changes throughout the festival's history.

The first two awards ever given were the Golden Lyre and Golden Harp in 1961. However, these two awards would be replaced by the Silver and Golden Seagull in 1969.[29]

In 1983, the Festival's commissioners decided to create the Silver and Golden Torch as a "second tier" award. This decision was made in order to add more variety to the awards, and make the Seagull the most prestigious award in the festival.[30]

For over 30 years, no changes were made to the awards. However, in 2015, the production team and Viña's municipality decided to eliminate the Silver and Golden Torch, leaving the Silver and Golden Seagull as the only awards that performers could aspire to get. The reason for this decision was all the critiques that the event was receiving about the high numbers of awards that an artist could receive.[31]

Finally, the Platinum Seagull was added in 2012 as a special award for performers with long influence throughout the festival's history. Only 3 artists have received it up to date.[32]

The Stage edit

Each year the TV companies try to improve on the previous year's set. Millions are invested in creating elaborate stages.

Winner songs edit

International contest edit

Before 1968, the contest only allowed Chilean composers.
In 2000 the contest included the best songs in the history of the festival.
In 2009, the contest included former winners between 2001 and 2008.
In 2010 had a contest with the most representative songs of the participant countries.
Event Country Song Title Composer Artist
I 1960   Chile "Viña" José Goles and Manuel Lira Mario del Monte
II 1961   Chile "Sin tu amor" Óscar Olivares and Gilberto Ávila Los Cuatro Duendes
III 1962   Chile "Dime por qué" María Pilar Larraín Los Cuatro Duendes
IV 1963   Chile "Tan sólo una mirada" Juan Vásquez Marco Aurelio
V 1964   Chile "Está de más" Ricardo Jara Ginette Acevedo
VI 1965   Chile "Como una ola" María Angélica Ramírez Cecilia
VII 1966   Chile "Por creer en ti" Marco Aurelio and Jaime Atria Isabel Adams
VIII 1967   Chile "Cuando rompa el alba" Willy Bascuñán Fresia Soto
IX 1968   Spain "Palabras" Jorge Domingo, Enrique Carnicer and Carmen Pons de Carnicer Luz Eliana
X 1969   Chile "Mira, mira" Scottie Scott Gloria Simonetti
XI 1970   Chile "Canción a Magdalena" Julio Zegers Julio Zegers
XII 1971 Void contest by plagiarism
XIII 1972   Netherlands "Julie" Julio Bernardo Euson Euson
XIV 1973   Chile "Los pasajeros" Julio Zegers Julio Zegers
XV 1974   Italy "Immagina" Giancarlo de Bellis Annarita Spinaci
XVI 1975   Greece "Love Song" H. Ballin, N. Ellineos and Kostas Karagiannopoulos Elpida
XVII 1976   Chile "Una noche de amor" Carlos Baeza Roberto Viking Valdés
XVIII 1977   Israel "Canción de amor" Boaz Sharabi Nava Baruchin
XIX 1978   Chile "El tiempo en las bastillas" Fernando Ubiergo Fernando Ubiergo
XX 1979   Spain "A tu regreso a casa" Braulio Braulio
XXI 1980   Spain "Dudando, dudando" Julio Seijas and Augusto Algueró Juan Sebastián
XXII 1981   West Germany "Esperando" Karl-Heinz Merkel and Cherry Laine Cherry Laine
XXIII 1982   Chile "Ausencia" Juan Carlos Duque Juan Carlos Duque
XXIV 1983   Uruguay "Alma, corazón y pan" Gervasio Gervasio
XXV 1984   Chile "Se te olvida" Héctor Penrós Bañas Cristóbal
XXVI 1985   Australia "Ya no puedo más" K. C. Porter, Chris Turner and Lorenzo Toppano Lorenzo Toppano
XXVII 1986   Dominican Republic "Para quererte" José Antonio Rodríguez and Manuel Tejada Maridalia Hernández
XXVIII 1987   Italy "Kiss me" Antonio and Anna Maria de Salvatore Desà
XXIX 1988   Italy "Senza te" Maurizio Piccoli and Gino Mescoli Marco Del Freo
XXX 1989   Colombia "Te propongo" Fernando Garavito Edna Rocio
XXXI 1990   Italy "Non devi abbandonarmi mai" Angela Tarenzzi Piero Cotto
XXXII 1991   Chile "Tira la primera piedra" Edgardo Riquelme and Sergio Bravo Javiera Parra and Pedro Foncea
XXXIII 1992   Chile "Parece tan sencillo" Juan Carlos Duque Fernando Casas
XXXIV 1993   Italy "In questo mondo" Giuseppe Garibo Claudio Cirimele
XXXV 1994   Argentina "Como ayer" Claudia Brant and Daniel Tarrab Claudia Brant
XXXVI 1995   Chile "Si tú te vas" Cristian Fissore and René Calderón Jossé
XXXVII 1996   Italy "Aria Ario" Paolo Meneguzzi, Dino Melotti, M. Botoni and C. Isgro Paolo Meneguzzi
XXXVIII 1997   Argentina "Para vivir un dulce amor" Víctor Heredia and Carlos Nilson Carlos Elías
XXXIX 1998   Chile "Soy tal cual soy" Álvaro Scaramelli Álvaro Scaramelli
XL 1999   Colombia "El aguacero" Alejandro Gómez Cáceres Carolina Sabino
XLI 2000   France "Laisse-moi le Temps" / "Let Me Try Again" M. Jourdan and Caravelli / Paul Anka and Sammy Cahn Peabo Bryson
XLII 2001   Argentina "Ayer te vi" Víctor Heredia Raly Barrionuevo
XLIII 2002   Argentina "Soy tu ángel" Ricardo Pald and Valeria Lynch Oscar Patiño
XLIV 2003   Spain "Este amor es tuyo" Chema Purón Gisela
XLV 2004   Chile "Tus ojos" Alexis Venegas Alexis Venegas
XLVI 2005   Peru "Mi alma entre tus manos" Jessica Sarango, Jorge Pardo and Andrés Landavere Jorge Pardo
XLVII 2006   Costa Rica "Dilo de una vez" Humberto Vargas Valerio Humberto Vargas Valerio
XLVIII 2007   Spain "Cuando quieras volver" Pedro Fernández and Valderrama Díaz Materia Prima
XLIX 2008   Italy "La guerra dei trent' anni" Domenico Protino Domenico Protino
L 2009   Argentina "Ayer te vi" Víctor Heredia Emiliano Ríos
LI 2010   Italy "Volare" Domenico Modugno and Franco Migliacci Simona Galeandro
LII 2011   Canada "Try Anything" Chris Burke-Gaffney, Christopher Ward and Sierra Noble Sierra Noble
LIII 2012   Italy "Grazie a te" Bruno Rubino, Giusseppe di Tella and Denise Faro Denise Faro
LIV 2013   Iceland "Because You Can" Jonas Gladnikoff, Christina Schilling, Camilla Gottschalck, Örlygur Smári and Hera Björk Hera Björk
LV 2014   Canada "Hypnotized" Jeffery Straker Jeffery Straker
LVI 2015   Italy "Per fortuna" Franco Simone Michele Cortese
LVII 2016   Chile "Te quiero" Lucía Covarrubias Cristián & Lucía
LVIII 2017   Spain "Dónde estabas tú" Salvador Beltrán Salvador Beltrán
LIX 2018   Chile "Cobarde" Gabriela Pulgar Gabriela Pulgar
LX 2019   Peru "Ya no más" Susan Ochoa Susan Ochoa
LXI 2020   Chile "Chillán" Vicente Cifuentes Vicente Cifuentes
LXII 2023   Chile "Viento" Yorka Yorka
LXIII 2024   Mexico "El Maestro" Adrián Navarro and Eddy Valenzuela Eddy Valenzuela

Winning countries

Folk contest edit

Between 1974 and 1980 this contest was cancelled by the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.
Before 2000, the contest only allowed Chilean composers.
In 2009, the contest included the former winners between 2001 and 2008.
Event Country Song Title Composer Artist
II 1961   Chile "La consentida" Jaime Atria Olga Escobar and Estampas Criollas
III 1962   Chile "El loro aguafiestas" Manuel Lira and José Goles Silvia Infantas and Los Cóndores
IV 1963   Chile "Álamo huacho" Clara Solovera Los Huasos Quincheros
V 1964   Chile "Qué bonita va" Francisco Flores del Campo Los Huasos Quincheros
VI 1965   Chile "Mano nortina" Hernán Álvarez Los Cuatro Cuartos
VII 1966   Chile "La burrerita" Sofanor Tobar Los Paulos
VIII 1967   Chile "Voy pa' Mendoza" Willy Bascuñán Los Solitarios
IX 1968   Chile "Camanchaca y polvareda" Ricardo de la Fuente Los Ponchos Negros
X 1969   Chile "Cuando tomo la guitarra" Orlando Muñoz and Alsino Fuentes Los Alfiles Negros
XI 1970   Chile "El hombre" Rolando Alarcón Rolando Alarcón and Los Emigrantes
XII 1971   Chile "La torcacita" Óscar Cáceres and Luis Barragán Ginette Acevedo
XIII 1972   Chile "Viejo puente" Ariel Arancibia and Fernando Pavez Los Lazos
XIV 1973   Chile "Mi río" Julio Numhauser Charo Cofré
XXII 1981   Chile "Ay, Fernanda" Ricardo de la Fuente Santiago Cuatro
XXIII 1982   Chile "La tejedora" Sandra Ramírez Pedro Messone
XXIV 1983   Chile "En los tiempos de mi abuelo" Roberto Rojas and Juan Castillo Juan Carlos Méndez
XXV 1984   Chile "Chile, una postal" Teresa Rodríguez Los Chacareros de Paine
XXVI 1985   Chile "La reina del Tamarugal" Manuel Veas and Luis Miranda Calichal
XXVII 1986   Chile "Sube a mi lancha" Ignacio Millán Chilote Peñaloza and Los Huillincanos
XXVIII 1987   Chile "Rapa Nui, mi amor" Ignacio Millán and María Teresa Díaz Lorena and Manu Rere
XXIX 1988   Chile "Camino a Socoroma" Danny Rodríguez Los Yanacochas
XXX 1989   Chile "Maja en Aldachildo" Ricardo de la Fuente Ricardo de la Fuente
XXXI 1990   Chile "No habrá verso que me alcance" Yayo Castro and Hugo Castillo Los Surcadores del Viento
XXXII 1991   Chile "De chingana" Héctor Molina Héctor Molina
XXXIII 1992   Chile "Tejiendo está la manque" Cecilia González Leticia and Cantarauco
XXXIV 1993   Chile "Canto del agua" Agustín Moncada Kal
XXXV 1994   Chile "Mirando pa' la bahía" José Luis Hernández José Luis Hernández and Cantamérica
XXXVI 1995   Chile "María Leonor Lucía" Magdalena Matthey Magdalena Matthey
XXXVII 1996   Chile "Cueca tristona" Edson Guerrero Clarita Parra
XXXVIII 1997   Chile "Cartagena" Claudio Guzmán Tito Fernández
XXXIX 1998   Chile "La noche de Chillán" Pablo Neruda and Vicente Bianchi Santiago Cuatro
XL 1999   Chile "Cueca pulenta" Víctor Hugo Campusano Altamar
XLI 2000   Chile "El corralero" Sergio Sauvalle Los Huasos Quincheros
XLII 2001   Chile "Whipala" Danny Rodríguez Danny Rodríguez
XLIII 2002   Peru "Juramento" Carlos Rincón Eduardo del Perú
XLIV 2003   Argentina "Pintadita" Fernando Barrientos Fernando Barrientos
XLV 2004   Argentina "Bailando con tu sombra (Alelí)" Víctor Heredia Abel Pintos
XLVI 2005   Chile "Cueca al sol" Isabel Parra Camila Méndez
XLVII 2006   Chile "Canción de agua y viento" Elizabeth Morris Elizabeth Morris and group
XLVIII 2007   Colombia "Me duele el alma" Leonardo Gómez and Diana Hernández Maria Mulata
XLIX 2008   Peru "Tusuy Kusun" Damaris Mallma Damaris and group
L[33] 2009   Chile "Cueca al sol" Isabel Parra Camila Méndez
LI 2010   Argentina "El cantar es andar" César Isella César Isella
LII 2011   Chile "De Pascua Lama" Patricio Manns Valentina Sepúlveda and Diapazón Porteño
LIII 2012   Chile "Caprichosa" Gogo Muñoz and Lucas Saavedra Mauro Zapata and Fiesta Andina
LIV 2013   Chile "Con el zapatito, con el zapatón" Paula Herrera Paula Herrera
LV 2014   Chile "La retirada" La Pájara Javiera Bobadilla
LVI 2015   Chile "La mejicana" Elizabeth Morris Elizabeth Morris
LVII 2016   Panama "Viene de Panamá" Afrodisiaco
LVIII 2017   Chile "Carnavalito de la esperanza" Juan Andrés Soko and Francisco Flores Trifussa
LIX 2018   Chile "Mundo al revés" Astrid Veas Astrid Veas
LX 2019   Argentina "Justo ahora" Destino San Javier Paolo Rogone, Bruno Rogone and Franco Favini
LXI 2020   Argentina "Avanzar" Nahuel Pennisi
LXII 2023   Peru "Warmisitay" Milena Warthon
LXIII 2024   Argentina "La Luna" Juan José Vasconcellos Ahyre

Winning countries (since 2001, start of International Folk Contest)

  •   Chile: 11 times (and 33 years of National Folk Contest, between 1961-1973 and 1981–2000)
  •   Argentina: 6 times
  •   Peru: 3 times
  •   Colombia: once
  •   Panama: once

Performing Artists edit

Every year international artists are invited to perform at the Festival. in the 2003 edition the Italian singer-songwriter Franco Simone received the "Lifetime Achievement Award" for having strung together thirty years of success in South America with his songs translated into Spanish,

Festival Queen edit

Every year the festival selects a queen. Popular personalities apply to be queen, often offering outrageous stunts to win.

The queen is chosen by a vote organized by the newspaper La Cuarta.[34] Journalists accredited to the Festival express their preferences through a secret ballot.

The day after the election there is a coronation and the delivery of a band and a ring as a prize by the relevant authorities. Since 2001, on the day of the coronation the Queen of the Festival has to dive into the pool at the Hotel O'Higgins in Viña del Mar in front of the media.[35]

Some of the women chosen as Queen include: Celia Cruz, Diana Bolocco, Thalía, Sigrid Alegría, Yuri, Raffaella Carrà, Tonka Tomicic, and Gloria Trevi.

In February 2023, the definitive elimination of the Reina de Viña was announced (assuming the election of the Rey would never take place), before the refusal of the municipality headed by the mayor Macarena Ripamonti, due to the «stigmatization of the woman» and the farandulización of the event. In this way, the Reyes de Viña will be replaced by the «Festival Ambassadors», which will be elected by the general public and the press accredited in the place, in addition to having the purpose of returning to the tradition of awarding the official artists of the Festival and generate awareness about issues that contribute to society.

List of Queens edit

Year Queen Country TV Channel Notes
2020 Rosita Piulats   Chile TVN  
2019 Chantal Gayoso   Chile TVN  
2018 Betsy Camino   Cuba Canal 13  
2017 Kika Silva   Chile Canal 13  
2016 Nicole "Luli" Moreno   Chile Canal 13  
2015 Jhendelyn Nuñez   Chile Canal 13   Known for participating in Vedette shows.
2014 Sigrid Alegría   Chile Canal 13   Film and TV actress
2013 Dominique Gallego   Chile Canal 13   Star on numerous reality shows
2012 Valeria Ortega   Chile Canal 13   Journalist.
2011 Andrea Dellacasa   Argentina Canal 13   Vedette.
2010 Carolina Arregui   Chile Canal 13   Actress in TV Series, 2010 festival juror
2009 Catherine Fulop   Venezuela Canal 13   Actress in TV Series, 2009 festival juror
2008 Pilar Ruiz   Colombia Reality show participant
2007 Diana Bolocco   Chile Canal 13   Journalist, Cecilia Bolocco's Sister, TV show host.
2006 Tonka Tomicic   Chile TVN   Miss World Chile 1995
2005 Luciana Salazar   Argentina Chilevisión Showbiz Queen from Argentina
2004 Carolina "Pampita" Ardohain   Argentina Benjamín Vicuña's wife.
2003 María Eugenia Larraín   Chile Canal 13   Showbiz Queen from Chile.
2002 Patricia Manterola   Mexico Artist invited to the festival that year, crowned for the second time.
2001 Natalia Oreiro   Uruguay Artist invited
2000 Celia Cruz   Cuba   United States Invited the same year, as part of the festival show.
1999 Carla Perez   Brazil Dancer of É o Tchan ! as invited artist.
1998 Sofía Franco   Peru Presenter
1997 Thalía   Mexico Invited artist
1996 Paola Falcone   Chile Miss Chile 1995
1995 Patricia Manterola   Mexico Artist invited
1994 Sofía Vergara   Colombia Presenter
1993 Gloria Trevi   Mexico Artist invited
1992 Lucero   Mexico Had a romance with Felipe Camiroaga
1991 Yuri   Mexico Invited artist
1990 Xuxa   Brazil Invited artist
1989 Myriam Hernández   Chile Invited artist
1988 Marcela "Mache" Sánchez   Peru
1987 Irene Llano   Chile Invited artist
1986 Cindy Valentine   Canada Participated in the "competencia internacional"
1985 María Conchita Alonso   Venezuela Invited artist
1984 Gianina Matei   Romania Participated in "competencia internacional"
1983 Lucía Méndez[n 1]   Mexico Formed part of the festival judging panel
1982 Raffaella Carrà[n 1]   Italy Invited artist
1979 María Graciela Gómez[n 1]   Chile Presenter
  1. ^ a b c Unofficial election

Queens per country edit

Country # Year
  Chile 16 1979, 1987, 1989, 1996, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019, 2020
  Mexico 7 1983, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1997, 2002
  Argentina 3 2004, 2005, 2011
  Venezuela 2 1985, 2009
  Colombia 2 1994, 2008
  Brazil 2 1990, 1999
  Peru 2 1988, 1998
  Uruguay 1 2001
  Cuba 2 2000, 2018
  Canada 1 1986
  Romania 1 1984
  Italy 1 1982

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Torres, Cristián (21 December 2022). "El Festival de Viña del Mar reveló quiénes competirán por su premio mayor". Infobae. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  2. ^ Elassar, Alaa (1 March 2020). "Adam Levine apologizes after fans criticize Maroon 5's performance at Viña del Mar festival in Chile". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on September 8, 2023. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  3. ^ "Paul Anka cerró con gran éxito, la primera jornada de Viña del Mar". CNN México. 23 Feb 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-01-29. El Festival Internacional de la Canción de Viña del Mar es el evento musical más importante del continente
  4. ^ Floras, Stella (18 Feb 2013). "Iceland: Hera Björk in the final of Viña del Mar International Song Contest 2013". [T]he Viña del Mar International Song Contest [is] the oldest and biggest music festival in Latin America
  5. ^ "Tom Jones 'ruge' en la segunda noche del Festival de Viña del Mar"[permanent dead link] Agence France-Presse, accessed February 23, 2007
  6. ^ "Chilean organizers cancel Viña del Mar 2022 Festival yet again due to COVID-19". 16 Sep 2021.
  7. ^ a b Perasso, Valeria (25 Feb 2009). "Viña del Mar, "El Monstruo" cumple 50".
  8. ^ Urrejola, José (26 February 2020). "Chile: el estallido social se toma el Festival de Viña" (in Spanish). Deutsche Welle (DW). Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  9. ^ Munizaga, Rodrigo (28 February 2020). "Rating: el difícil Viña 2020 es el más visto en nueve años" (in Spanish). La Tercera. Retrieved 8 September 2023.
  10. ^ Fortuño, Sergio (26 January 2002). "Latin - Stage Is Set For Viña Del Mar". Billboard. Vol. 114, no. 4. p. 41.
  11. ^ John, Lanert (6 March 1993). "Artists & Music, Latin Notas". Billboard. Vol. 105, no. 10. p. 38.
  12. ^ a b "Escenario de cholguán, 9 artistas y apenas 3 carabineros: así fue el primer Festival de Viña del Mar" (in Spanish). T13. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  13. ^ Moreno, Víctor Hugo; Palma, Rodrigo (2007). "Historia del Festival de Viña - 1960-1969: El comienzo - 1960" (in Spanish). El Mercurio on line. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  14. ^ "Festival de Viña del Mar: Recordemos cómo fue su primera edición". Radio Oasis - Rock & Pop. 21 February 2022. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  15. ^ a b Moreno, Víctor Hugo; Palma, Rodrigo. "Historia del Festival de Viña - 1960 - 1969 El Comienzo". El Mercurio on line. p. es. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  16. ^ Cabrera, Natalia (2 March 2019). "Así nació el Festival de Viña del Mar" (in Spanish). France 24. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  17. ^ Liberal de Castro, José; da Silveira Derenji, Jussara (1993). Arquitetura do ferro: memória e questionamento (in Portuguese). Universidade Federal do Pará. ISBN 978-8-5338-0-2025. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  18. ^ a b c "La evolución que ha tenido el escenario del Festival de Viña". 24 Horas. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  19. ^ Varas, José Miguel; González, Juan Pablo (2005). En busca de la música chilena: Crónica y antología de una historia sonora. Editorial Catalonia. ISBN 978-9-56-3242-652.
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  22. ^ a b c d Vargas Rojas, Vanessa (February 18, 2015). "Censura, aplausos al dictador y propaganda de derecha: Los días oscuros del Festival de Viña del Mar". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c Contreras, Marcelo (February 26, 2021). "Viña bizarro: 20 historias del lado B del Festival". La Tercera (in Spanish). Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  24. ^ Vega Martínez, César (February 21, 2020). "Bajo un clima de tensión: las veces que el Festival de Viña del Mar aludió e incomodó a la Dictadura". Radio Bío-Bío (in Spanish). Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  25. ^ Ceberio, Jesús (12 September 1980). "Pinochet: "Hemos demostrado al mundo que Chile es una nación democrática"". El País. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  26. ^ (10 Nov 2020). "El Festival de Viña del Mar suspende su edición 2021".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  27. ^ Granger, Anthony (2021-11-07). "🇨🇱 Viña del Mar International Song Festival 2022 Cancelled". Eurovoix World. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  28. ^ "¡Viña volverá a tener festival! Municipio y canales fijaron la fecha de la edición 2023" (in Spanish). March 16, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  29. ^ Canal 13 (February 7, 2017). "La historia detras de los premios del Festival de Viña del Mar". T13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  30. ^ Tendencias, LR (February 17, 2020). "Viña del Mar 2020: la diferencia entre las gaviotas de oro, plata y platino". LaRepublica.
  31. ^ Emol (February 17, 2015). "Festival de Viña del Mar elimina la entrega de Antorchas". Emol.
  32. ^ Tendencias, LR (February 17, 2020). "Viña del Mar 2020: la diferencia entre las gaviotas de oro, plata y platino". LaRepublica.
  33. ^ "2009 Song Folk Winner". Archived from the original on 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2009-02-28.
  34. ^ "Revisa la historia de las reinas de Viña del Mar". 9 Feb 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
  35. ^ Núñez, Leonardo (27 Feb 2012). "Los "Piscinazos" que incendiaron el Festival de Viña".

External links edit

33°01′47″S 71°33′09″W / 33.02972°S 71.55250°W / -33.02972; -71.55250