St. Petri Church in Versmold
|• Mayor||Michael Meyer-Hermann (CDU)|
|• Total||84.81 km2 (32.75 sq mi)|
|Elevation||70 m (230 ft)|
|• Density||250/km2 (660/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Dialling codes||0 54 23|
In 1096 Versmold was first mentioned in a document, and is thus one of the oldest known settlements in the region. The name "-mold" alludes to "melle", "mal" a location of a court.
Situated between the bishoprics Osnabrück and Münster, the possession of Versmold was disputed for a long time in the high Middle Ages. The population tried to protect themselves as well as they could. The St. Petri church was built as a "Wehrkirche" for defense.
After 1277, when the counts of Ravensberg acquired possession of the region of Versmold, the situation changed. Versmold formed the western most town of the historic county of Ravensberg with its capital Bielefeld. After the War of the Jülich Succession in 1614 the county came to Brandenburg and later to Prussia. Within predominantly Catholic Westphalia, the county of Ravensberg became Protestant. In 1719 the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm I granted city rights in order to raise more taxes. As consequence linen merchants settled in the city, and Vermold developed as a local center for the linen and yarn-spinning, especially the production of sailing canvasas.
Nevertheless until the late nineteenth century the county remained poor and subsistence oriented. Between 1650 and 1914, during the harvest season many men who did not find any other source of income in the county looked for seasonal employment in the Netherlands. These men were called 'Hollandgänger'. For the same reasons and to avoid Prussian conscriptions, especially during the 1850s and 1860s, the city and its neighboring villages saw an extensive emigration to America because of the weak economic situation. Many of them settled in the Midwest, especially in Missouri and Texas.
After 1871 when the newly united Germany built up a navy, the linen and sailing canvas industry became very prosperous. Most notably engaged in that industry was the family Delius. In the 1820s some members of the family emigrated to Mexico where they established a flourishing import-export business. By the late nineteenth century they had representations in Berlin and Hamburg.
The 1930s saw an almost unnoticed cultural change. The language of the county and Versmold was for centuries Westphalian Platt, a language closer to Dutch than to Standard German. The 'Hollandgänger' conversed in their own vernacular when they were abroad. Through compulsory school attendance, a pressure by the state on 'responsible' parents, and the spread of the new medium of radio, parents began to talk to their children (born between 1925 and 1935) only in standard German, earlier in Versmold, later also in the neighboring villages and farmsteads. As in many regions under Prussian rule, Ravensberg and Versmold lost its native language almost within one generation. Westphalian Platt is currently only preserved in circle of local preservation societies [Heimatverein] and some children's rhymes of the local Halloween tradition.
Since World War II the city flourished mainly due to its meat-packing factories, which had grown out of the rural art of sausage-making. After World War II larger companies and factories sold what they could not process often to small one-man meat dealers and small scale butchers. They in turn sold it on weekly markets mostly in the underprovisioned but prosperous industrial region of the Ruhrgebiet. Sometimes they created also their own specialties. This profession was called Kleinfleischhaendler (small scale meat dealer) which became typical profession for Versmold in the 1950s and 1960s. This peculiarity faded out during the 1980s and 1990s. Supply industries evolved around meat processing. Several forwarding companies specialized in food transportation. The largest of them, Kraftverkehr Nagel operates today in many countries. Its headquarters remains in Versmold.
The industry diversified after World War II. A major factory for bottle crown caps Brueninghaus developed out of a factory for bicycle saddles, called Metall und Leder. It is still one of the main industries in Versmold. In the late 1940s just neighboring the saddle factory a local entrepreneur Gustav Baumhoefer established a shoe factory producing under the brand name Ravensberger Schuhe. The company closed in 1980 due to shifts in the world market for shoes and the lack of competitiveness. In 1949 a wood processing factory producing window and door frames was opened, the Wirus Werke; but it also shut down during the 1980s. Its mother company resides still in Guetersloh.
As in many small German towns part of its modern history had become a visible expression within the cityscape. A small unimposing stone cross of the eleventh century in the middle of a traffic circle had been once the sign for a medieval rural court.
A bronze medallion of Otto von Bismarck, a bronze bust of the German emperor Wilhelm I and his popular but short reigning successor Friedrich III were signs of the patriotism and the Bismarck-cult in the 1880s and the early 1900s. In 1909, the Bismarck pyramid was built up with natural granite stone blocks centrally located in city's park (Stadtpark) and topped by a Prussian eagle. The latter became a victim of vandalism after World War I. In 1942, the bust of the liberal, but among the Nazis unpopular, emperor Friedrich III was melted down. Wilhelm's bust was transferred into the Stadtpark, which had become a haven for unwanted history. The bust is since more than 30 years damaged by vandalism and hard to find, hidden behind bushes. The Bismarck-medallion was removed from its central location and attached to one red granite stone block which was leisurely placed under trees in a distance but still visible from the walkway.
The names of the fallen soldiers of World War I from the municipality of Versmold are remembered on a monument in front of the Protestant St. Petri church, a column crowned by an eagle (see image). The victims of World War II found in September 1961 a place of commemoration in a small park, which is now behind the town hall in the form of six meter high bronze crosses on a granite pedestal and a bronze flambeaux. It was designed by the sculptor Bernhard Kleinhans. In difference to the then common memorials, it does not name the victims. This small park with a bronze lectern is staged for official ceremonies.
In September 2000, a memorial for the murdered Jewish population was set up in the middle of the town, very prominently, right in front of the town hall. It lists the names of the local victims of the Holocaust. Most prominent among them figures the family Spiegel. The design was developed by two students and their teacher from the local highschool. The historian Reinhart Koselleck cited the difference in the naming of the murdered Jewish citizens and the anonymity of memory for the fallen soldiers and immediate victims of World War II in Versmold as example of how the Germans deal with their recent history in the collective memory.
The new blossoming of the town after World War II is visualized by a bronze statue of a worker with a pig passing under his right leg. He carries in both hands a stick with six sausages dangling from it. It stands across the Protestant St.-Petri church on a modern (1980s) Italian style 'piazza'. This statue is locally known as "Schweinebrunnen" (pig's fountain)".
Communities forming the townEdit
- Haller Kreisblatt (with a daily page on local events). Oldest traditional newspaper for the western part of the county of Ravensberg.
- Westfalenblatt, with a daily local page Versmolder Anzeiger
- Vinke, Wilhelm, Heimatgeschichte der Stadt Versmold und Umgebung, Self-published, 1924
- Vinke, Wilhelm, Versmold – Ein Volks- und Heimatbuch, Amtsverwaltung, 1962
- Vinke, Wilhelm, 250 Jahre Stadt Versmold 1719–1969, Stadt Versmold, 1969
- Westheider, Rolf, Versmold – Eine Stadt auf dem Weg ins 20. Jahrhundert, Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 1994; ISBN 3-89534-276-9
- Westheider, Rolf, 900 Jahre kirchliches Leben in Versmold 1096–1996, Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 1996; ISBN 3-89534-165-7
- Westheider, Rolf, Arbeit und Freizeit in Versmold, Erfurt:Suttan, 2001; ISBN 3-89702-314-8
- Beckmann, Volker, Jüdische Bürger im Amt Versmold – Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte im westlichen Ravensberger Land, Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, 1998; ISBN 3-89534-248-3
- Heimatverein Versmold e.V., Das Versmolder Bürgerstättenbuch, 2nd ed., March 2006.
- "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2017" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) retrieved April 23, 2014
- Anonymous. "CJD Versmold Aktionen". Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Koselleck, Reinhart. "Ich war weder Opfer noch befreit". Berliner Zeitung 2005-05-07. Retrieved 25 November 2012.