Verbal abuse (also known as reviling or "verbal bullying") is described as a negative defining statement told to the victim or about the victim, or by withholding any response, thereby defining the target as non-existent. If the abuser does not immediately apologize and retract the defining statement, the relationship may be a verbally abusive one. Anger underlies, motivates and perpetuates verbally abusive behavior.
In schools and in everyday life, a person may indulge in verbal abuse—bullying (which often has a physical component)—to gain status as superior to the person targeted and to bond with others against the target. Generally the bully knows no other way to connect emotionally with others.
In romantic relationships, the verbal abuser may be responding to the partner's "separateness", i.e., independent thoughts, views, desires, feelings, expressions (even of happiness) which the abuser views as a threat, irritant or attack. Some people believe the abuser has low self-esteem and so attempts to place their victim in a similar position, i.e., to believe negative things about themselves. Because of the abuser's need for dominance and unwillingness to accept his partner as an equal, the verbal abuser is compelled to negate the perceptions of the partner, about the abuse, which causes more psychological pain to the victim. This is also known as gaslighting or Jekyl and Hyde-like behavior, because the abuser keeps the target of his abuse off-balance with his hot-and-cold unpredictable behavior. This confusion adds to the pain caused by psychological abuse and keeps the victim off-balance.
Anyone can experience verbal abuse. Typically, in romantic or family relationships, verbal abuse increases in intensity and frequency over time. After exposure to verbal abuse, victims may develop clinical depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. The person targeted by verbal abuse over time may succumb to any stress-related illness. Verbal abuse creates emotional pain and mental anguish in its target.
Despite that verbal abuse does not leave bruising, verbal abuse can be as detrimental to a person's health as physical abuse.
Verbal abuse includes the following:
- The Verbally Abusive Relationship, Patricia Evans. Adams Media Corp 1992, 1996, 2010
- Controlling People: How to Recognize, Understand, and Deal with People Who Try to Control You, Patricia Evans pg. 191. 2002 by Adams Media Corp
- Controlling People: How to Recognize, Understand, and Deal with People Who Try to Control You, Patricia Evans, Adams Media Corp 2002
- name="Forword">Men Who Hate Women and the Women Who Love Them, Susan Foreword, Bantam,2002
- Why Does He Do That?, Lundy Bancroft. Berkley Books, 2003
- When Words Are Used As Weapons: Verbal Abuse, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Extension