Vehicle registration plates of Germany

German vehicle registration plates (German: Kraftfahrzeug-Kennzeichen or, more colloquially, Nummernschilder) are alphanumeric plates in a standardized format, issued officially by the district authorities to motorized vehicles of German residents. The legal requirements for these licence plates are laid down in a federal law titled Verordnung über die Zulassung von Fahrzeugen zum Straßenverkehr (Ordinance on the admission of vehicles for road traffic), or in the shortened version Fahrzeug-Zulassungs-Verordnung, FZV[1] which replaced part of an older law named Straßenverkehrszulassungsordnung, StVZO[a] in 2011. The law distinguishes between Kennzeichen meaning a specific combination of letters and digits, and Kennzeichenschilder which are the physical licence plates.[1]: §10  In everyday language, these terms are often replaced indifferently by Nummernschild and rarely is the difference emphasized by restricted use of either Nummer or Schild.

Germany
KFZmod.png
German number plate, current format (FE-style)
Country Germany
Country codeD
Current series
Size520 mm × 110 mm
20.5 in × 4.3 in
Serial formatNot standard (max 8 characters)
Colour (front)Black on white
Colour (rear)Black on white
Zwickau licence plate, 1-letter code Z
Trier licence plate, 2-letter code TR
Cuxhaven licence plate, 3-letter code CUX

All motorized vehicles participating in road traffic on public space, whether moving or stationary, have to bear the plates allotted to them, displayed at the appropriate spaces at the front and rear. Additionally, the official seals on the plates show their validity which can also be proven by the documentation coming with them. Motorcycles and trailers carry only the rear plate. The system of number plates used on cars, buses, trucks, trailers and motorcycles is described below. Its most significant feature is the first part, an area code of one, two or three letters which used to tell the district of registration. It has developed into a widespread habit in Germany, even a children's game when travelling, to guess “where that vehicle is from”.[2][3]

A different system applies to smaller vehicles such as mopeds, cf. insurance plates.

FormatEdit

 
Number plate in post-1994 format (FE-style)[b]
 
Number plate in pre-1994 format (DIN-style), no longer issued but still in use.[c]
 
Number plate with few characters, hence shorter than standard 520×110
 
Number plate in two lines (340×200) [d]
 
Small number plate (280×200) [e]

German number plates are rectangular, with standard dimensions 520mm × 110mm (20½″×4⅜″). Plates bearing few characters may have reduced length but must retain the size and shape of the characters. Plates in two lines[f] measure 340mm × 200mm (13⅜″×7⅞″), while a special size of 280mm × 200mm (11″×7⅞″) may be used for motorcycles and for certain import cars, when a plate of regular size cannot be applied at the available space.

The characters on the licence plate, as well as the narrow rim framing it, are black on a white background.[1]: §10(1)  In standard size they are 75mm (3″) high and 47.5mm (1⅞″, letters) or 44.5mm (1¾″, digits) wide. The smaller plates bear characters of 49mm (2″) height and 31mm/29mm (1¼″/1⅛″) width, respectively. In the current system, introduced in 1956, they consist of an area code of one, two or three letters, followed by an identifier sequence of one or two letters and one to four digits. The total quantity of characters on the plate must not exceed eight. Identifiers consisting of one letter with one- or two-digit numbers are often reserved for motorcycle use since there is less space for plates on these vehicles, especially before the introduction of the special size 280×200, in 2011.[4]

TypefaceEdit

Modern German plates use a typeface called FE-Schrift (German: fälschungserschwerende Schrift, tamper-hindering script). It is designed so that the letter P cannot be altered to look exactly like an R, and vice versa; nor can the F or the L be forged to equal an E, etc. Another feature is the equal width of all characters, different from the old DIN 1451 script which had been in use since the introduction of the current system, in 1956. FE-Schrift can be read by OCR software for automatic number plate recognition more easily than DIN 1451.

The present style was introduced in 1994 and became mandatory in 2000, so the number of licence plates issued in the old style has become very rare. As with many plates for countries within the European Union, a blue strip on the left shows a shortened country code in white text (D for Deutschland = Germany) and the Flag of Europe (12 golden stars forming a circle on a blue background).

MaterialEdit

Traditionally, German licence plates are made of aluminium sheet, with embossed characters rising above background level. Over the years, however, various other materials have been used, albeit to a small extent only. Since 2013, a new style of plates made of plastic is allowed.[5] They are said to be less sensitive to mechanical damage and to cause less CO2 emission in their production, but are more expensive.[6]

Number plates are retroflective, but must not be mirroring, concealed or soiled, nor may they be covered by glass, foil or similar layers.[1]: §10(2)  Occasionally, drivers who adorn their licence plate with a badge of their favourite football club are fined and ordered to restore the original state.[7][8]

Constituent elementsEdit

 
Map of German districts and their licence plate codes

Area CodeEdit

The first part or Unterscheidungszeichen consists of one, two or three letters representing the district where the car was registered, such as B for Berlin or HSK for Hochsauerlandkreis. These letters formerly coincided with the German districts. They were assigned unambiguously, as each district had one abbreviation only. Whenever a district changed its name or was merged with another, the area code would be redefined and any vehicle registered henceforth could only be issued the current code. Since 2013, however, this rule was revoked and area codes long abolished were re-introduced.[9][10] In consequence, many districts use more than one code,[g] and certain codes, on the other hand, are not assigned to one district only.

In some cases an urban district and the surrounding non-urban district share the same letter code. Usually, these are distinguished by different letter/digit patterns. For example, the urban district of Straubing has one letter after the area code (SR-A 123), whereas the surrounding district Straubing-Bogen has two letters (SR-AB 123) in this place. However, several cities that share their code with the surrounding rural districts have started using any available codes for both districts without any distinction; the city of Regensburg, for example, and the surrounding rural district of Regensburg used different systems with their code R only until 2007.

Germany includes diacritical marks in the letters of some codes, that is the letters Ö and Ü; formerly also Ä.[11][h] For a long time, German codes kept to the rule that a code with an umlaut would prohibit another code with the respective blank vowel, e.g. there could not be a district code FU as the code was already in use for Fürth. This rule was disregarded in 1996, when was introduced for Bördekreis in spite of BO existing for Bochum.

Development of the area codeEdit

When the area codes were introduced, they were intended mainly as a means for police officers to identify speeders and other traffic offenders. However, they soon developed into everyday abbreviations of people's home areas and were cherished or despised. Sometimes, the codes of neighbouring districts were given mocking or spiteful meanings.[example 1] When districts merged and only one of their codes could be continued, fierce battles might ensue about which one.[12]

The Büsingen exclaveEdit

 
Licence plate from the municipality of Büsingen, 1970s

Since 1968, a peculiar rule applies to the municipality of Büsingen am Hochrhein which is a German exclave completely surrounded by Swiss territory. Although Büsingen belongs to the German district of Konstanz, it is part of Swiss customs area. For this reason, a vehicle registered to a citizen of Büsingen does not bear KN for Konstanz but BÜS, signifying to Swiss customs officers that this is in fact a domestic vehicle. There are about 700 cars with this area code which makes Büsingen the smallest and least populated registration precinct of Germany and also the only municipality within a district which has an area code of its own.[13]

List of Area CodesEdit

List of License Plate Area Codes of Germany[14][15][16][17]
Codes starting with letter A
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
A Augsburg City Bavaria Augsburg From [A-AA 100 to 999]
To [A-ZZ 100 to 999]
(Excludes [A-PS 100 to 999], reserved for city Police)
From [A-AA 5000 to 9999] to [A-ZZ 5000 to 9999]
[A-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G
[A-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G
Augsburg District From [A-A 1000 to 9999]
To [A-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [A-AA 1000 to 4999] to [A-ZZ 5000 to 9999]
[A-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[A-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
AA Ostalb District Baden-Württemberg Aalen
AB Aschaffenburg District Bavaria Aschaffenburg From [AB-AA 100 to 9999] to [AB-ZZ 100 to 9999]
[AB-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[AB-'XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Aschaffenburg City From [AB-A 1000 to 9999] to [ AB-Z 1000 to 9999]
[AB-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[AB-'XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
ABG Altenburger Land Thuringia Altenburg
ABI Anhalt-Bitterfeld Saxony-Anhalt Anhalt-Bitterfeld
AC Aachen North Rhine-Westphalia Aachen
AE Vogtland District Saxony Auerbach Vogtland
AH Borken North Rhine-Westphalia Ahaus
AIB Munich District Bavaria Bad Aibling From [AIB-Q 1] to [AIB-Q 9999]
Rosenheim District Every other available combination
AIC Aichach-Friedberg Bavaria Aichach
AK Altenkirchen District Rhineland-Palatinate Altenkirchen
ALF Hildesheim District Lower Saxony Alfeld
ALZ Aschaffenburg District Bavaria Alzenau
ALZ Aschaffenburg District Bavaria Alzenau
AM Amberg City Bavaria Amberg From [AM-A 1 to 999] to [AM-Z 1 to 999]
From [AM-AA 1 to 99] to [AM-ZZ 1 to 99]
AN Ansbach District Bavaria Ansbach From [AN-AA 100 to 999] to [AN-ZZ 100 to 999]
[AN-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[AN-'XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Ansbach City [AN-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[AN-'XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
ANA Erzgebirge District Saxony Annaberg-Buchholz
ANG Uckermark District Brandenburg Angermünde
ANK Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Anklam
Altötting district Bavaria Altötting
AP Weimarer Land Thuringia Apolda
APD Weimarer Land Thuringia Apolda
ARN Ilm-Kreis Thuringia Arnstadt
ART Kyffhäuser Dristrict Thuringia Artern
AS Amberg-Sulzbach District Bavaria Amberg-Sulzbach
ASL Salzland District Saxony-Anhalt Aschersleben
ASZ Erzgebirge Disctrict Saxony Aue-Schwarzenberg
AT Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Altentreptow
AU Erzgebirge Disctrict Saxony Aue
AUR Aurich District Saxony Aurich
AW Ahrweiler District Rhineland-Palatinate Ahrweiler
AZ Alzey-Worms Rhineland-Palatinate Alzey
AZE Anhalt-Bitterfeld Rhineland-Palatinate Anhalt-Zerbst
Codes starting with letter B
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
B Berlin Berlin
BA Bamberg City Bavaria Bamberg From [BA-AA 100 to 9999] to [BA-ZZ 100 to 9999]
[BA-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is :B, F, G, I, O , Q
(Excludes [BA-P 1000 to 9999], reserved for City Police)
[BA-XY 1 to 999]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O , Q
Bamberg District [BA-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is not:B, F, G, I, O , Q
(Excludes [BA-P 1000 to 9999], reserved for District Police)
[BA-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O , Q
BAD Baden-Baden Baden-Württemberg Baden-Baden
BAR Barnim District Brandenburg Barnim
BB Böblingen District Baden-Württemberg Böblingen
BBG Salzland District Saxony-Anhalt Bernburg
BBL Brandenburg Government, Landtag, and Police Brandenburg Brandenburgische
Landesregierung
Code reserved for Brandenburg State-owned governmental vehicles
BC Biberach District Baden-Württemberg Biberach
BCH Neckar-Odenwald Distrit Baden-Württemberg Buchen
BD German Bundestag, Bundesrat, Office of the Federal President, Federal Government and Ministries, and Federal Constitutional Court Bundesebene Code reserved for Federally-owned governmental vehicles
BE Warendorf District North Rhine-Westphalia Beckum
BED Mittelsachsen District Saxony Brand-Erbisdorf
BER Barnim District Brandenburg Bernau bei Berlin
BF Steinfurt District North Rhine-Westphalia Burgsteinfurt
BGD Berchtesgadener Land District Bavaria Berchtesgaden
BGL Berchtesgadener Land District Bavaria Berchtesgadener Land
BH Ortenau District Baden-Württemberg Bühl [BH-OF 1 to 999] and [BH-OP 1 to 999]
From [BH-F 7000] to [BH-F 7999]
From [BH-N 8000] to [BH-N 8999]
From [BH-O 2000] to [BH-O 2999]
From [BH-OF 1000] to [BH-OF 6999]
From [BH-OG 9000] to [BH-OG 9999]
From [BH-OK 3000] to [BH-OK 3999]
From [BH-OP 1000] to [BH-OP 4999]
Rastatt District Every other available combination
BI Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia Bielefeld
BID Marburg-Biedenkopf District Hesse Biedenkopf
BIN Mainz-Bingen District Rhineland-Palatinate Bingen am Rhein
BIR Birkenfeld District Rhineland-Palatinate Birkenfeld
BIT Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm Rhineland-Palatinate Bitburg
BIW Bautzen District Saxony Bischofswerda
BK Rems-Murr Distict Baden-Württemberg Backnang From [BK-A 100 to 999] to [BK-M 100 to 999]
(Excluding Codes B, F, G, I)
From [BK-N 1] to [BK-Z 999]
(Excluding codes O and Q)
From [BK-AA 1 to 99] to [BK-PZ 1 to 99]
(Excluding Codes B, F, G, I, O, Q)
From [BK-A 1000 to 9999] to [BK-Z 1000 to 9999]
Schwäbisch Hall District [BK-A 1 to 99] to [BK-M 1 to 99]
(Excluding Codes B, F, G, I)
From [BK-RA 1 to 99] to [BK-ZZ 1 to 99]
(Excluding Codes B, F, G, I, O, Q)
From [BK-TA 1000 to 999] to [BK-ZZ 1000 to 999]
Börde District Saxony-Anhalt [BK-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[BK-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are : B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [BK-A 1000 to 9999] to [BK-Z 1000 to 999]
From [BK-AA 100 to 9999] to [BK-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [BK-AA 1000 to 999] to [BK-SZ 1000 to 999]
BKS Bernkastel-Wittlich District Rhineland-Palatinate Bernkastel
BL Zollernalb District Baden-Württemberg Balingen
BLB Siegen-Wittgenstein Rhineland-Palatinate Bad Berleburg
BLK Burgenland District Saxony-Anhalt Burgenlandkreis
BM Rhein-Erft District North Rhine-Westphalia Bergheim
BN Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia Bonn
BNA Leipzig District Saxony Borna
BO Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia Bochum
Börde District Saxony-Anhalt rde
BOG Straubing-Bogen District Bavaria Bogen
BOH Borken District North Rhine-Westphalia Bocholt
BOR Borken District North Rhine-Westphalia Borken
BOT Bottrop North Rhine-Westphalia Bottrop
BP German Federal Police Bundespolizei Code reserved for Vehicles of German Federal Police
BRA Wesermarsch Lower Saxony Brake
BRB Brandenburg an der Havel Brandenburg Brandenburg an der Havel
BRG Jerichower Land Saxony-Anhalt Burg bei Magdeburg
BRK Bad Kissingen District Bavaria Bad Brückenau
BRL Goslar District Lower Saxony Braunlage
BRV Rotenburg District Lower Saxony Bremervörde
BS Braunschweig (Brunswick) Lower Saxony Braunschweig
BSB Osnabrück District Lower Saxony Bersenbrück
BSK Oder-Spree District Brandenburg Beeskow
BT Bayreuth District Bavaria Bayreuth From [BT-AA 100 to 9999] to [BT-ZZ 100 to 9999]
[BT-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G
[BT-XY 1 to 99]
Where X or Y or both are: B, F, G
Bayreuth City [BT-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not : B, F, G, I, O, Q
[BT-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[BT-X 1000 to 9999]
Where X is not: B, F, G
BTF Anhalt-Bitterfeld Rhineland-Palatinate Bitterfeld
BÜD Wetterau Distrct Hesse Büdingen
BUL Amberg-Sulzbach District Bavaria Burglengenfeld [BUL-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G
Schwandorf District Every other available combination
BÜR Paderborn District North Rhine-Westphalia Büren
BÜS Büsingen am Hochrhein City
(A subdivision of Konstanz District)
Baden-Württemberg Büsingen am Hochrhein It is allocated its own code to facilitate cross-border travel, as it is a German exclave within Switzerland
BÜZ Rostock District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern tzow
BW Federal Waterways and Shipping Administration Bundes-Wasserstraßen und Schifffahrtsverwaltung Code reserved for Vehicles of German Federal Waterway and Shipping Admin.
BWL Baden-Württemberg Government, Landtag, and Police Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württembergischer
Landtag
Code reserved for Baden-Württemberg State-owned governmental vehicles
BYL Bavaria Government and Landtag Bavaria Bayerischer
Landesregierung und
Landtag
Code reserved for Bavaria State-owned governmental vehicles
BZ Bautzen District Saxony Bautzen
Codes starting with letter C
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
C Chemnitz Saxony Chemnitz From [C-AA 1 to 9999] to [C-ZZ 1 to 9999]
CA Oberspreewald-Lausitz District Brandenburg Calau
CAS Recklinghausen District North Rhine-Westphalia Castrop-Rauxel
CB Cottbus Brandenburg Cottbus From [CB-AA 1 to 999] to [CB-ZZ 1 to 999]
CE Celle District Lower Saxony Celle
CHA Cham District Bavaria Cham
CLP Cloppenburg District Lower Saxony Cloppenburg
CLZ Goslar District Lower Saxony Clausthal-Zellerfeld
CO Coburg City
Coburg District
Bavaria Coburg
COC Cochem-Zell District Rhineland-Palatinate Cochem
COE Coesfeld District North Rhine-Westphalia Coesfeld
CR Schwäbisch Hall District Baden-Württemberg Crailsheim
CUX Cuxhaven District Lower Saxony Cuxhaven
CW Calw District Baden-Württemberg Calw
Codes starting with letter D
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
D Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf
DA Darmstadt City Hesse 'D'armstadt From [DA-AA 100 to 999] to [DA-ZZ 100 to 999]
[DA-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[DA-X 1 to 99]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Darmstadt-Dieburg District From [DA-A 1000 to 9000] to [DA-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [DA-AA 1000 to 9999] to [DA-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
[DA-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[DA-X 1 to 99]
Where X is not: B, F, G, I, O, Q
DAH Dachau District Bavaria Dachau
DAN Lüchow-Dannenberg Lower Saxony Lüchow-Dannenber
DAU Vulkaneifel District Rhineland-Palatinate Daun
DBR Bad Doberan District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Bad Doberan District
DD Saxony Police Saxony Dresden From [DD-Q 1] to [DD-Q 9999]
Dresden From [DD-AA 1 to 9999] to [DD-ZZ 1 to 9999]
DE Dessau-Roßlau Saxony-Anhalt Dessau-Roßlau
DEG Deggendorf District Bavaria Deggendorf
DEL Delmenhorst Lower Saxony Delmenhorst
DGF Dingolfing-Landau Bavaria Dingolfing
DH Diepholz District Lower Saxony Diepholz
DIL Lahn-Dill District Hesse Dillenburg
DIN Wesel District Lower Saxony Dinslaken
DIZ Rhein-Lahn District Rhineland-Palatinate Diez
DKB Ansbach District Bavaria Dinkelsbühl
DL Mittelsachsen District Saxony Döbeln
DLG Dillingen an der Donau District Bavaria Dillingen
DM Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Demmin
DN Düren District North Rhine-Westphalia Düren
DO Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia Dortmund
DON Donau-Ries District Bavaria Donauwörth
DU Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia Duisburg
DUD Göttingen District Lower Saxony Duderstadt
DÜW Bad Dürkheim District Rhineland-Palatinate Bad rkheim an der Weinstraße
DW Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge District Saxony Dippoldiswalde
DZ Nordsachsen Saxony Delitzsch
Codes starting with letter E
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
E Essen North Rhine-Westphalia Essen
EA Eisenach
(in Wartburg District since July 2021)
Thuringia Eisenach Eisenach was an independent urban District until 1st July 2021, when it was merged in Wartburg District due to a budgetary crisis[18] License plate codes have not reflected this merger yet, and the city retains its independent code
EB Nordsachsen Saxony eilen'burg
EBE Ebersberg District Bavaria Ebersberg
EBN Haßberge District Bavaria Ebern
EBS Kulmbach District Bavaria Ebermannstadt From [EBS-A 1 to 999] to [EBC-M 1 to 999]
Bayreuth District From [EBS-N 1 to 999] to [EBC-Z 1 to 999]
Forchheim District Every other available combination
ECK Rendsburg-Eckernförde District Schleswig-Holstein Eckernförde
ED Erding District Bavaria Erding
EE Elbe-Elster District Brandenburg Elbe-Elster
EF Thuringia Police Thuringia Erfurt From [EF-LP 1000] to [EF-LP 9999]
Erfurt From [EF-AA 1 to 999] to [EF-ZZ 1 to 999]
EG Rottal-Inn district Bavaria Eggenfelden
EH Oder-Spree District Brandenburg Eisenhüttenstadt
EI Eichstätt District Bavaria Eichstätt
EIC Eichsfeld District Thuringia Eichsfeld
EIL Mansfeld-Südharz District Saxony-Anhalt Eisleben
EIN Northeim District Lower Saxony Einbeck
EIS Saale-Holzland District Thuringia Eisenberg
EL Emsland Lower Saxony Emsland
EM Emmendingen District Baden-Württemberg Emmendingen
EMD Emden Lower Saxony Emden
EMS Rhein-Lahn District Rhineland-Palatinate Bad Ems
EN Ennepe-Ruhr District North Rhine-Westphalia Ennepe-Ruhr
ER Erlangen Bavaria Erlangen
ERB Odenwald District Hessea Erbach
ERH Erlangen-Höchstadt District Bavaria Erlangen-Höchstadt
ERK Heinsberg District North Rhine-Westphalia Erkelenz
ERZ Erzgebirge Disctrict Saxony Erzgebirge
ES Esslingen District Baden-Württemberg Esslingen
ESB Bayreuth District Bavaria Eschenbach From [ESB-AT 1 to 99] to [ESB-ZT 1 to 99]
Amberg-Sulzbach District From [ESB-'B 1] to [ESB-X 999]
'
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Nürnberger Land District From [ESB-N 1] to [ESB-N 999]
Neustadt an der Waldnaab District Every other available combination
ESW Werra-Meißner Disctrict Hesse Eschwege
EU Euskirchen District North Rhine-Westphalia Euskirchen
EW Barnim District North Rhine-Westphalia Eberswalde
Codes starting with letter F
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
F Frankfurt am Main Hesse Frankfurt
FB Wetterau Distrct Hesse Friedberg
FD Fulda District Hesse Fulda
FDB Aichach-Friedberg Bavaria Friedberg
FEU Freudenstadt District Baden-Württemberg Freudenstadt
FF Frankfurt an der Oder Brandenburg Frankfurt
FFB Fürstenfeldbruck District Bavaria Fürstenfeldbruck
FG Mittelsachsen District Saxony Freiberg
FI Elbe-Elster District Brandenburg Finsterwalde
FKB Waldeck-Frankenberg Hesse Frankenberg
FL Flensburg Schleswig-Holstein Flensburg
FLÖ Mittelsachsen District Saxony Flöha
FN Bodensee (Lake Constance) District Baden-Württemberg Friedrichshafen
FO Forchheim District Bavaria Forchheim
FOR Spree-Neiße District Brandenburg Forst
FR Freiburg im Breisgau Baden-Württemberg FReiburg [FR-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[FR-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [FR-NA 1000 to 9999] to [FR-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald District [FR-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[FR-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [FR-AA 1000 to 9999] to [FR-MZ 1000 to 9999]
FRG Freyung-Grafenau District Bavaria Freyung-Grafenau
FRI Friesland District Lower Saxony Friesland
FRW Märkisch-Oderland District Brandenburg Bad Freienwalde
FS Moosburg an der Isar City
(A subdivision of Freising District)
Bavaria Freising [FS-I 1 to 999]
[FS-X 1000 to 999]
Where X is: H, I, M, P, R
[FS-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: I
Freising District
(Excluding Moosburg an der Isar City)
[FS-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not: I, O, Q
[FS-XY 1 to 999]
Where neither X nor Y are: I, O, Q
FT Frankenthal Rhineland-Palatinate Frankenthal
FTL Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge District Saxony Freital
Fürth City Bavaria rth [FÜ-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[FÜ-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [FÜ-AA 100 to 9999] to [FÜ-ZZ 100 to 9999]
Fürth District
(Excluding Moosburg an der Isar City)
[FÜ-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[FÜ-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [FÜ-A 1000 to 9999] to [FÜ-Z 1000 to 9999]
FÜS Ostallgäu District Bavaria Füssen
FW Oder-Spree District Brandenburg Fürstenwalde
FZ Schwalm-Eder District Hesse Fritzlar
Codes starting with letter G
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
G Gera Thuringia Gera
GA Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Saxony-Anhalt Gardelegen
GAN Northeim District Lower Saxony Bad Gandersheim
GAP Garmisch-Partenkirchen District Bavaria Garmisch-Partenkirchen
GC Zwickau District Saxony Glauchau
GD Ostalb District Baden-Württemberg Schwäbisch Gmünd
GDB Nordwestmecklenburg District
(Excluding Wismar City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Gadebusch
GE Gelsenkirchen North Rhine-Westphalia Gelsenkirchen
GEL Kleve District North Rhine-Westphalia Geldern
GEO Haßberge District Bavaria Gerolzhofen [GEO-A 1000 to 9990]
[GEO-B 1000 to 9990]
Schweinfurt District Every other available combination
GER Germersheim District Rhineland-Palatinate Germersheim
GF Gifhorn District Lower Saxony Gifhorn
GG Groß-Gerau District Hesse Groß-Gerau
GHA Leipzig District Saxony Geithain
GHC Wittenberg District Saxony-Anhalt Gräfenhainichen
GI Gießen District Hesse Gießen
GK Heinsberg District North Rhine-Westphalia Geilenkirchen
GL Rheinisch-Bergischer District North Rhine-Westphalia Bergisch Gladbach
GLA Recklinghausen District North Rhine-Westphalia Gladbeck
GM Oberbergischer District North Rhine-Westphalia Gummersbach
GMN Vorpommern-Rügen District
(Excluding Stralsund City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Grimmen
GN Main-Kinzig District
(Excluding Hanau City)
Hesse Gelnhausen
GNT Jerichower Land Saxony-Anhalt Genthin
Göttingen District Lower Saxony ttingen [GÖ-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, O, Q
[GÖ-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, O, Q
From [GÖ-AA 100 to 999] to [GÖ-ZZ 100 to 999]
Göttingen City [GÖ-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[GÖ-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [GÖ-A 1000 to 9999] to [GÖ-Z 1000 to 9999]
GOA Rhein-Hunsrück District Rhineland-Palatinate Sankt Goar
GOH Rhein-Lahn District Rhineland-Palatinate Sankt Goarshausen
GP Göppingen District Baden-Württemberg Göppingen
GR Görlitz District Saxony Görlitz
GRA Freyung-Grafenau District Bavaria Grafenau
GRH Meißen District Saxony Großenhain
GRI Rottal-Inn District Bavaria Bad Griesbach [GRI-XY 100 to 999]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, I, O, Q
GRZ Greiz District Thuringia Greiz
GS Goslar District Lower Saxony Goslar
GT Gütersloh District North Rhine-Westphalia Gütersloh
GTH Gotha District Thuringia Gotha
Rostock District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern strow
GUB Spree-Neiße District Brandenburg Guben
GUN Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen District Bavaria Gunzenhausen
GV Rhein-Kreis Neuss North Rhine-Westphalia Grevenbroich
GVM Nordwestmecklenburg District
(Excluding Wismar City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Grevesmühlen
GW Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Greifswald
GZ Günzburg District Bavaria Günzburg
Codes starting with letter H
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
H Hanover City
(A subdivision of Hanover Region)
Lower Saxony Hanover [H-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[H-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [H-A 1000 to 9999] to [H-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [H-BA 1000 to 9999] to [H-BZ 1000 to 9999]
From [H-FA 1000 to 9999] to [H-GZ 1000 to 9999]
Hanover Region
(Excluding Hanover City)
[H-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is not: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[H-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [H-AA 1000 to 9999] to [H-AZ 1000 to 9999]
From [H-CA 1000 to 9999] to [H-EZ 1000 to 9999]
From [H-HA 1000 to 9999] to [H-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
HA Hagen North Rhine-Westphalia Hagen
HAB Bad Kissingen District Bavaria Hammelburg
HAL Halle (Saale) Saxony-Anhalt Halle
HAM Hamm North Rhine-Westphalia Hamm
HAS Haßberge District Bavaria Hassfurt
HB Bremen City State of Bremen Hansestadt Bremen From [HB-A 1 to 999] to [HB-Z 1 to 999]
From [HB-AA 1 to 999] to [HB-ZZ 1 to 999]
Bremerhaven From [HB-A 1000 to 9999] to [HB-Z 1000 to 9999]
HBN Hildburghausen District Thuringia Hildburghausen
HBS Harz District Saxony-Anhalt Halberstadt
HC Mittelsachsen District Saxony Hainichen
HCH Freudenstadt District Baden-Württemberg Hechingen [HCH-QY 1000 to 999], [HCH-VY 1000 to 999]
[HCH-YQ 1000 to 999], [HCH-YV 1000 to 999]
[HCH-ZQ 1000 to 999]
Zollernalb District Every other available combination
HD Rhein-NeckarDistrict Baden-Württemberg Heidelberg [HD-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[H-HD-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [HD-AA 100 to 9999] to [HD-ZZ 100 to 9999]
Heidelberg [HD-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[HD-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
From [HD-A 1000 to 9999] to [HD-Z 1000 to 9999]
HDH Heidenheim District Baden-Württemberg Heidenheim
HDL Börde District Saxony-Anhalt Haldensleben
HE Helmstedt District Lower Saxony Helmstedt
HEB Nürnberger Land District Bavaria Hersbruck
HEF Hersfeld-Rotenburg Hesse Bad Hersfeld
HEI Dithmarschen District Schleswig-Holstein Heide
HEL Hesse Government and Landtag Hesse Hessischer Landtag Code reserved for Hesse State-owned governmental vehicles
HER Herne City North Rhine-Westphalia Herne
HET Mansfeld-Südharz District Saxony-Anhalt Hettstedt
HF Herford District North Rhine-Westphalia Herford
HG Hochtaunuskreis Hesse Bad Homburg
HGN Ludwigslust-Parchim District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Hagenow
HGW Greifswald City
(A subdivision of Vorpommern-Greifswald District)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Hansestadt Greifswald
HH Hamburg Hansestadt Hamburg
HHM Burgenland District Saxony-Anhalt Hohenmölsen
HI Hildesheim District Lower Saxony HildesDKim
HIG Eichsfeld District Thuringia Heiligenstadt
HIP Roth District Bavaria Hilpoltstein
HK Heidekreis Bavaria Heidekreis
HL Lübeck City Schleswig-Holstein Hansestadt Lübeck
HM Hameln-Pyrmont District Lower Saxony Hamelin
HMÜ Göttingen District
(Excluding Göttingen City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Hann. nden
HN Heilbronn District Baden-Württemberg Heilbronn From [HN-AA 100 to 999] to [HN-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [HN-AA 1000 to 9999] to [HN-MZ 1000 to 9999]
[HN-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[HN-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Heilbronn City From [HN-A 1000 to 9999] to [HN-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [HN-NA 1000 to 9999] to [HN-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
[HN-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[HN-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
HO Hof District Bavaria Hof From [HO-AA 100 to 999] to [HO-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [HO-AA 1000 to 9999] to [HO-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
(Shared)
[HO-B 1 to 999]
[HO-G 1 to 999]
[HO-F 1 to 99]
Hof City From [HO-AA 1000 to 9999] to [HO-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
(Shared)
[HO-F 100 to 999]
[HN-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[HO-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
HOG Kassel District Hesse Hofgeismar
HOH Haßberge District Bavaria Hofheim
HOL Holzminden District Lower Saxony Holzminden
HOM Saarpfalz District
(Excluding Sankt Ingbert City)
Saarland Homburg
HOR Freudenstadt District Baden-Württemberg Horb am Neckar
HÖS Erlangen-Höchstadt District Bavaria chstadt
HOT Zwickau District Saxony Hohenstein
HP Bergstraße District Hesse Heppenheim
HR Schwalm-Eder District Hesse Homberg
HRO Rostock City Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Hansestadt Rostock
HS Heinsberg District North Rhine-Westphalia Heinsberg
HSK Hochsauerlandkreis North Rhine-Westphalia HochSauerlandKreis
HST Stralsund City
(A subdivision of Vorpommern-Rügen District)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Hansestadt Stralsund From [HST-AA 1 to 999] to [HST-ZZ 1 to 999]
[HST-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, G, I, O, Q
HU Main-Kinzig District Hesse Hanau
HV Stendal District Saxony-Anhalt Havelberg
HVL Havelland District Brandenburg Havelland
HWI Wismar City
(A subdivision of Nordwestmecklenburg District)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Hansestadt Wismar
HX Höxter District North Rhine-Westphalia Höxter
HY Bautzen District Saxony Hoyerswerda
HZ Harz District Saxony-Anhalt Harz
Codes starting with letter I
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
IGB Sankt Ingbert City
(A subdivision of Saarpfalz District)
Saarland Saknt Ingbert
IK Ilm-Kreis Thuringia Ilm-Kreis
IL Ilm-Kreis Thuringia Ilmenau
ILL Neu-Ulm District Bavaria Illertissen
IN Ingolstadt City Bavaria Ingolstadt
IZ Steinburg District Schleswig-Holstein Itzehoe
Codes starting with letter J
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
J Jena City Thuringia Jena
JE Wittenberg District Saxony-Anhalt Jessen
JL Jerichower Land Saxony-Anhalt Jerichower Land
JÜL Düren District North Rhine-Westphalia Jülich
Codes starting with letter K
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
K Köln City North Rhine-Westphalia Köln
KA Karlsruhe City Baden-Württemberg Karlsruhe From [KA-AA 1 to 999] to [KA-ZZ 1 to 999]
From [KA-NA 1000 to 9999] to [KA-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
[KA-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, Q
[KA-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, Q
Karlsruhe District From [KA-A 1000 to 9999] to [KA-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [KA-AA 1000 to 9999] to [KA-MZ 1000 to 9999]
[KA-X 1 to 999]
Where X is not: B, F, G, Q
[KA-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, Q
KB Waldeck-Frankenberg Hesse Korbach
KC Kronach District Bavaria Kronach
KE Kempten City Bavaria Kempten From [KE-A 1 to 999] to [KE-Z 1 to 999]
From [KE-AA 1 to 99] to [KE-ZZ 1 to 99]
KEH Kelheim District Bavaria Kelheim
KEL Ortenau District Baden-Württemberg Kehl
KEM Bayreuth District Bavaria Kemnat From [KEM-AT 1 to 99] to [KEM-ZT 1 to 99]
Tirschenreuth District Every other available combination
KF Kaufbeuren City Bavaria Kaufbeuren
KG Bad Kissingen District Bavaria Bad Kissingen
KH Bad Kreuznach District
(Excluding Bad Kreuznach City)
Rhineland-Palatinate Bad Kreuznach From [KH-AA 1 to 999] to [KH-ZZ 1 to 999]
Bad Kreuznach City
(A subdivision of Bad Kreuznach District)
From [KH-A 1 to 9999] to [KH-Z 1 to 9999]
KI Kiel City Schleswig-Holstein Kiel
KIB Donnersbergkreis Rhineland-Palatinate Kirchheimbolanden
KK Viersen District North Rhine-Westphalia Kempen-Krefeld
KL Kaiserslautern District
(Excluding Bad Kreuznach City)
Rhineland-Palatinate Kaiserslautern From [KL-AA 100 to 999] to [KL-ZZ 100 to 999]
[KL-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[KL-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Kaiserslautern City [KL-X 1 to 9999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[KL-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
KLE Kleve District North Rhine-Westphalia Kleve
KLZ Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Saxony-Anhalt Klötze
KM Bautzen District Saxony Kamenz
KN Konstanz District
(Excluding Büsingen am Hochrhein City)
Baden-Württemberg Konstanz
KO Koblenz City Rhineland-Palatinate Koblenz
KÖN Rhön-Grabfeld District Bavaria Bad Königshofen
KÖT Anhalt-Bitterfeld District Saxony-Anhalt Köthen
KÖZ Cham District Bavaria Bad tzing
KR Krefeld City North Rhine-Westphalia Krefeld
KRU Günzburg District Bavaria Krumbach
KS Kassel District
Kassel City
Hesse Kassel
KT Kitzingen District Bavaria Kitzingen
KU Kulmbach District Bavaria Kulmbach
KÜN Hohenlohe District Baden-Württemberg Künzelsau
KUS Kulmbach District Rhineland-Palatinate Kusel
KW Dahme-Spreewald District Brandenburg Königs Wusterhausen
KY Ostprignitz-Ruppin District Brandenburg Kyritz
KYF Kyffhäuser Dristrict Thuringia Kyffhäuser
Codes starting with letter L
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
L Leipzig City Saxony Leipzig From [L-A 1 to 9999] to [L-T 1 to 9999]
From [L-AA 1 to 9999] to [L-TZ 1 to 9999]
Leipzig District From [L-U 1 to 9999] to [L-Z 1 to 9999]
From [L-UA 1 to 9999] to [L-ZZ 1 to 9999]
LA Landshut District Bavaria Landshut From [LA-AA 5000 to 9999] to [LA-ZZ 5000 to 9999]
From [LA-AA 100 to 999] to [LA-ZZ 100 to 999]
[LA-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[LA-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Landshut City From [LA-AA 1000 to 4999] to [LA-ZZ 1000 to 4999]
[LA-X 1 to 9999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[LA-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
LAN Dingolfing-Landau Bavaria Landau
LAU Nürnberger Land District Bavaria Lauf
LB Ludwigsburg District Baden-Württemberg Ludwigsburg
LBS Saale-Orla District Thuringia Bad Lobenstein
LBZ Ludwigslust-Parchim District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Lübz
LC Dahme-Spreewald District Brandenburg Luckau
LD Landau in der Pfalz City Rhineland-Palatinate[Brandenburg]] Landau
LDK Lahn-Dill District
(Excluding Wetzlar City)
Hesse Lahn-Dill-Kreis
LDS Dahme-Spreewald District Brandenburg Landkreis Dahme-Spreewald
LEO Böblingen District Baden-Württemberg Leonberg
LER Leer District Lower Saxony Leer
LEV Leverkusen City North Rhine-Westphalia Leverkusen
LF Altötting District Bavaria Laufen [LF-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: C, I, J, L, M, O, Q, V
[LF-E 1 to 599]
Traunstein District [LF-XY 100 to 999]
Where XY is: FZ, GH, KQ, RW, TS, WW,XX, ZZ
[LF-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G
[LF-XY 1 to 99]
Where XY is: DH, FZ, GH, KQ, LU, RW, TK, TS ,WW, XX, ZZ
[LF-DH 100 to 199]
[LF-LU 100 to 299]
[LF-TK 100 to 199]
[LF-VW 200 to 499]
Berchtesgadener Land District Every other available combination
LG Lüneburg District Lower Saxony Lüneburg
LH Coesfeld District
Unna District
North Rhine-Westphalia Lüdinghausen
LI Lindau District Bavaria Lindau
LIB Elbe-Elster District Brandenburg Bad Liebenwerda
LIF Lichtenfels District Bavaria Lichtenfels
LIP Lippe District North Rhine-Westphalia Lippe
LL Landsberg District Bavaria Lippe
LM Limburg-Weilburg District Hesse Limburg
LN Dahme-Spreewald District Brandenburg Lübben
Lörrach District Baden-Württemberg rrach
LÖB Görlitz District Saxony Löbau
LOS Oder-Spree District Brandenburg Fürstenwalde
LP Soest District North Rhine-Westphalia Lippstadt
LR Ortenau District Baden-Württemberg Lahr
LSA Saxony-Anhalt Government, Landtag, and Police Saxony-Anhalt Land Sachsen-Anhalt Code reserved for Saxony-Anhalt State-owned governmental vehicles
LSN Saxony Government and Landtag, Saxony Landtag Sachsen Code reserved for Saxony State-owned governmental vehicles
LÜN Unna District North Rhine-Westphalia Lünen
LUP Ludwigslust-Parchim District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Ludwigslust-Parchim
LWL Ludwigslust-Parchim District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Ludwigslust
Codes starting with letter M
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
M Munich City Bavaria München [M-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G
[M-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G
[M-XY 100 to 9999]
Where neither X nor Y are: I, O, Q
Unless either X or Y is: B, F, G
In addition, XY can be any other combination of letters.
Munich District [M-X 1 to 9999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G
[M-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y: B, F, G
[M-XY 100 to 9999]
Where either X or Y or both are: I, O, Q
But nither X or Y are: B, F, G
MA Mannheim Baden-Württemberg Mannheim
MAB Erzgebirge District Saxony Marienberg
MAI Landshut District Bavaria Mainburg [MAI-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Kelheim District Every other available combination
MAK Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge District Bavaria Marktredwitz
MAB Erzgebirge District Saxony Marienberg
MAL Landshut District Bavaria Mainburg [MAL-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Straubing-Bogen District Every other available combination
MB Miesbach District Bavaria Miesbach
MC Mecklenburgische Seenplatte District
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Malchin
MD Magdeburg Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg
ME Mettmann District North Rhine-Westphalia Mettmann
MED Dithmarschen District Schleswig-Holstein Meldorf
MEG Schwalm-Eder District Hesse Melsungen
MEI Meißen District Saxony Meißen
MEK Erzgebirge District Saxony Mittlerer Erzgebirgskreis
MEL Osnabrück District Lower Saxony Melle
MER Saalekreis Saxony-Anhalt Merseburg
MET Rhön-Grabfeld District Bavaria Mellrichstadt
MG Mönchengladbach City North Rhine-Westphalia Mönchengladbach
MGH Main-Tauber District Baden-Württemberg Bad Mergentheim
MGN Schmalkalden-Meiningen District Thuringia Meiningen
MH Mülheim an der Ruhr City North Rhine-Westphalia Mülheim
MHL Unstrut-Hainich District Thuringia Mühlhausen
MI Minden-Lübbecke District North Rhine-Westphalia Minden
MIL Miltenberg District Bavaria Miltenberg
MK Märkischer Kreis North Rhine-Westphalia Märkischer Kreis
MKK Main-Kinzig District Hesse Main-Kinzig-Kreis
ML Mansfeld-Südharz District Saxony-Anhalt Mansfeld
MB Miesbach District Bavaria Miesbach
MM Memmingen City Bavaria Memmingen
MN Unterallgäu District Bavaria Mindelheim
MO Wesel District Lower Saxony Moers
MOD Ostallgäu District Bavaria Marktoberdorf
MOL Märkisch-Oderland District Brandenburg Märkisch-Oderland
MON Aachen
Düren District
North Rhine-Westphalia Monschau
MOS Neckar-Odenwald Distrit Baden-Württemberg Mosbach
MQ Saalekreis Saxony-Anhalt Merseburg-Querfurt
MR Marburg-Biedenkopf District Hesse Marburg
MS Münster City North Rhine-Westphalia Münster
MSE Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
MSH Mansfeld-Südharz District Saxony-Anhalt Mansfeld-Südharz
MSP Main-Spessart District Bavaria Main-SpessartMain-Spessart
MST Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg-Strelitz
MSP Main-Spessart District Bavaria Main-SpessartMain-Spessart
MTK Main-Taunus District Hesse Main-Taunus-Kreis
MTL Leipzig District Saxony Muldental
Mühldorf am Inn District Bavaria hldorf
MÜB Bayreuth District Bavaria nchberg From [MÜB-A 100 to 999] to [MÜB-M 100 to 999]
From [MÜB-N 1 to 999] to [MÜB-Z 1 to 999]
Hof District Every other available combination
MÜR Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Müritz
MVL Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Government, Landtag, and Police Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg-Vorpommerscher Landtag Code reserved for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern State-owned governmental vehicles
MW Mittelsachsen District Saxony Mittweida
MY Mayen-Koblenz District Rhineland-Palatinate Mayen
MYK Mayen-Koblenz District Rhineland-Palatinate Mayen-Koblenz
MZ Mainz City Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz From [MZ-AA 100 to 999] to [MZ-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [MZ-AA 1000 to 9999] to [MZ-KY 1000 to 9999]
[MZ-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[MZ-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Mainz-Bingen District From [MZ-A 1000 to 9999] to [MZ-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [MZ-LA 1000 to 9999] to [MZ-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
[MZ-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[MZ-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
MZG Merzig-Wadern District Saarland Merzig
Codes starting with letter N
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
N Nuremberg City Bavaria Nürnberg From [N-A 1000 to 9999] to [N-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [N-AA 100 to 9999] to [N-ZZ 100 to 9999]
[N-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[N-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Nürnberger Land District [N-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q, S
NAB Schwandorf District Bavaria Nabburg [NAB-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G
Amberg-Sulzbach District Every other available combination
NAI Hof District Bavaria Naila
NAU Havelland District Brandenburg Nauen
NB Neubrandenburg City
(A subdivision of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Neubrandenburg From [NB-AA 1 to 999] to [NB-ZZ 1 to 999]
ND Neuburg-Schrobenhausen District Bavaria Neuburg an der Donau
NDH Nordhausen District Thuringia Nordhausen
NE Rhein-Kreis Neuss North Rhine-Westphalia Neuss
NEA Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim District Bavaria Neustadt an der Aisch
NEB Burgenland District Saxony-Anhalt Nebra
NEC Coburg City
Coburg District
Bavaria Neustadt bei Coburg
NEN Schwandorf District Bavaria Neunburg
NES Rhön-Grabfeld District Bavaria Bad Neustadt n. er. Saale
NEW Neustadt an der Waldnaab District Bavaria Neustadt an der Waldnaab
NF Nordfriesland District Schleswig-Holstein Nordfriesland
NH Sonneberg District Thuringia Neuhaus am Rennweg
NI Nienburg/Weser District Lower Saxony Nienburg
NK Neunkirchen District Saarland Neunkirchen
NL Lower Saxony Government and Landtag Lower Saxony Niedersächsischer Landtag Code reserved for Lower Saxony State-owned governmental vehicles
NM Neumarkt District Bavaria Neumarkt
NMB Burgenland District Saxony-Anhalt Naumburg
NMS Neumünster City Schleswig-Holstein Neumünster
Donau-Ries District Bavaria rdlingen
NOH Grafschaft Bentheim District Lower Saxony Nordhorn
NOL Görlitz District Saxony Niederschlesische OberLausitz
NOM Northeim District Lower Saxony Northeim
NOR' Aurich District Saxony Norden
NP Ostprignitz-Ruppin District Brandenburg Neuruppin
NR Neuwied District
(Excluding Neuwied City)
Rhineland-Palatinate Neuwied am Rhein From [NR-AA 1 to 999] to [NR-ZZ 1 to 999]
Neuwied City
(A subdivision of Neuwied District)
From [NR-A 1 to 9999] to [NR-Z 1 to 9999]
NRW North Rhine-Westphalia Government, Landtag, and State Police North Rhine-Westphalia Nordrhein-Westfalen Code reserved for North Rhine-Westphalia State-owned governmental vehicles
NT Esslingen District Baden-Württemberg Nürtingen
NU Neu-Ulm District Bavaria Neu-Ulm
NVP Vorpommern-Rügen District
(Excluding Stralsund City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Nordvorpommern
NW Neustadt an der Weinstraße City Rhineland-Palatinate Neustadt an der Weinstraße
NWM Nordwestmecklenburg District
(Excluding Wismar City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Nordwestmecklenburg
NY Görlitz District Saxony Niesky
NZ Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Neustrelitz
Codes starting with letter O
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
OA Oberallgäu District Bavaria Oberallgäu
OAL Ostallgäu District Bavaria Ostallgäu
OB Oberhausen City North Rhine-Westphalia Oberhausen
OBB Miltenberg District Bavaria Obernburg
OBG Stendal District Saxony-Anhalt Osterburg
OC Börde District Saxony-Anhalt Oschersleben
OCH Würzburg District Bavaria Ochsenfurt
OD Stormarn District Schleswig-Holstein Bad Oldesloe
OE Olpe District North Rhine-Westphalia Olpe
OF Offenbach District
Offenbach am Main City
North Rhine-Westphalia Offenbach
OG Ortenau District Baden-Württemberg Offenburg
OH Ostholstein District Schleswig-Holstein Ostholstein
OHA Göttingen District
(Excluding Göttingen City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Osterode am Harz
ÖHR Hohenlohe District Baden-Württemberg Öhringen
ÖHR Hohenlohe District Baden-Württemberg Öhringen
OHV Oberhavel District Brandenburg Oberhavel
OK Börde District Saxony-Anhalt Ohrekreis
OL Oldenburg City Lower Saxony Oldenburg From [OL-AA 100 to 999] to [OL-ZZ 100 to 999]
[OL-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[OL-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, Q
Oldenburg District From [OL-A 1000 to 9999] to [OL-Z 1000 to 9999]
[OL-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[OL-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
OP Leverkusen City North Rhine-Westphalia Opladen
OPR Ostprignitz-Ruppin District Brandenburg Ostprignitz-Ruppin
OS Osnabrück District Lower Saxony Osnabrück From [OS-AA 100 to 999] to [OS-ZZ 100 to 999]
(Excludes [OS-PD 100 to 999], reseved for District Police)
From [OS-AA 3000 to 9999] to [OS-ZZ 3000 to 9999]
[OS-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[OS-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Osnabrück City From [OS-AA 1000 to 2999] to [OS-ZZ 1000 to 2999]
[OS-X 1 to 9999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
(Excludes [OS-P 1 to 9999], reserved for City Police)
[OS-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
OSL Oberspreewald-Lausitz District Brandenburg Oberspreewald-Lausitz
OTW Neunkirchen District Saarland Ottweiler
OVI Schwandorf District Bavaria Oberviechtach
OVL Vogtland District Saxony Obervogtland
OZ Nordsachsen Saxony Oschatz
Codes starting with letter P
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
P Potsdam City North Rhine-Westphalia Potsdam
PA Passau City Bavaria Passau From [PA-A 1 to 9999] to [PA-Z to 9999]
Passau District From [PA-AA 1 to 999] to [PA-ZZ 1 to 999]
PAF Pfaffenhofen District Bavaria Pfaffenhofen
PAN Rottal-Inn District Bavaria Pfarrkirchen
PAR Kelheim District Bavaria Parsberg [PAR-Q 1 to 999], [PAR-Y 1 to 999]
[PAR-BB 1 to 999], [PAR-CC 1 to 9999]
Neumarkt District Every other available combination
PB Paderborn District North Rhine-Westphalia Paderborn
PCH Ludwigslust-Parchim District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Parchim
PE Peine District Lower Saxony Peine
PEG Nürnberger Land District Bavaria Pegnitz [PEG-A 1 to 999]
Bayreuth District From [PEG-B 1 to 999] to [PEG-Z 1 to 999]
Forchheim District From [PEG-AA 1 to 99] to [PEG-ZZ 1 to 99]
From [PEG-A 1000 to 9999] to [PEG-Z 1000 to 9999]
PF Pforzheim City Baden-Württemberg Pforzheim From [PF-AA 100 to 999] to [PF-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [PF-NA 1000 to 9999] to [PF-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
[PF-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[PF-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Enz District From [PF-A 1000 to 9999] to [PF-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [PF-AA 1000 to 9999] to [PF-MZ 1000 to 9999]
[PF-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[PF-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
PI Pinneberg District Schleswig-Holstein Pinneberg
PIR Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge District Saxony Pirna
PL Vogtland District Saxony Plauen
PLÖ Plön District Schleswig-Holstein Plön
PM Potsdam-Mittelmark District Brandenburg Potsdam-Mittelmark
PN Saale-Orla District Thuringia Pößneck
PR Prignitz District Brandenburg Prignitz
PRÜ Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm Rhineland-Palatinate Prüm
PS Pirmasens City Rhineland-Palatinate Pirmasens From [PS-A 1 to 9999] to [PS-Z 1 to 9999]
Südwestpfalz District From [PS-AA 1 to 999] to [PS-ZZ 1 to 999]
PW Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Pasewalk
PZ Uckermark District Brandenburg Prenzlau
Codes starting with letter Q
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
QFT Saalekreis Saxony-Anhalt Querfurt
QLB Harz District Saxony-Anhalt Quedlinburg
Codes starting with letter R
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
R Regensburg City Bavaria Regensburg From [R-AA 100 to 999] to [R-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [R-MN 1000 to 9999] to [R-ZZ 1000 to 9999]
[R-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[R-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
(Excludes [R-PR 100 to 999], reserved for City Police)
Regensburg District From [R-A 1000 to 9999] to [R-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [R-AA 1000 to 9999] to [R-MM 1000 to 9999]
[R-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[R-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
RA Rastatt District Baden-Württemberg Rastatt
RC Vogtland District Saxony Reichenbach
RD Rendsburg-Eckernförde District Schleswig-Holstein Rendsburg
RDG Vorpommern-Rügen District
(Excluding Stralsund City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Ribnitz-Damgarten
RE Recklinghausen District North Rhine-Westphalia Recklinghausen
REG Regen District Bavaria Regen
REH Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge District Bavaria Rehau [REH-AU 900 to 999]
[REH-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: A, E, F, H, J, M, N, P, R, S, V, X
[REH-XY 100 to 999]
Where XY is: AA, FF, GG, OO, ZZ
Hof City Every other available combination
REI Berchtesgadener Land District Bavaria Bad Reichenhall
RG Meißen District Saxony Riesa-Großenhain
RH Roth District Bavaria Roth
RI Schaumburg District Lower Saxony Rinteln
RID Kelheim District Bavaria Riedenburg
RIE Meißen District Saxony Riesa
RL Mittelsachsen District Saxony Rochlitz
RM Mecklenburgische Seenplatte
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Röbel/Müritz
RN Havelland District Brandenburg Rathenow
RO Rosenheim District Bavaria Rosenheim From [RO-A 1000 to 9999] to [RO-Z 1000 to 9999]
From [RO-AA 10 to 9999] to [RO-ZZ 100 to 9999]
[RO-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[RO-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Rosenheim City [RO-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[RO-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
ROD Schwandorf District Bavaria Roding [RO-B 1 to 599], [RO-F 1 to 799]
[RO-G 50 to 499]
[RO-I 100 to 1999]
(Excludes [RO-P 100 to 999], reserved for City Police)
Cham District Every other available combination
ROF Hersfeld-Rotenburg Hesse Rotenburg an der Fulda
ROK Donnersbergkreis Rhineland-Palatinate Rockenhausen
ROL Landshut District Bavaria Rottenburg an der Laaber From [ROL-AA 1 to 999] to [ROL-ZZ 1 to 999]
[ROL-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Kelheim District Every other available combination
ROS Rostock District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Rostock
ROT Ansbach District Bavaria Rothenburg ob der Tauber
ROW Rotenburg District Lower Saxony Rotenburg an der Wümme
RP Rhein-Pfalz District Rhineland-Palatinate Rhein-Pfalz
RPL Rhineland-Palatinate Government, Landtag, and State Police Rhineland-Palatinate Rheinland-Pfälzischer Landtag Code reserved for Rhineland-Palatinate State-owned governmental vehicles
RS Remscheid City North Rhine-Westphalia Remscheid
RSL Dessau-Roßlau City Saxony-Anhalt Rosslau
RT Reutlingen District Baden-Württemberg Reutlingen
RU Saalfeld-Rudolstadt District Thuringia Rudolstadt
RÜD Rheingau-Taunus District Hesse Rüdesheim
RÜG Vorpommern-Rügen District
(Excluding Stralsund City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Rügen
RV Ravensburg District Baden-Württemberg Ravensburg
RW Rottweil District Baden-Württemberg Rottweil
RZ Herzogtum Lauenburg District Baden-Württemberg Ratzeburg
Codes starting with letter S
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
S Stuttgart City Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart
SAB Trier-Saarburg District Rhineland-Palatinate Saarburg
SAD Schwandorf District Bavaria Schwandorf
SÄK Waldshut District Baden-Württemberg Bad ckingen
SAL Saarland Government, Landtag, and State Police Saarland Saarländischer Landtag Code reserved for Saarland State-owned governmental vehicles
SAN Kronach District Bavaria Stadtsteinach From [SAN-S 1 to 999] to [SAN-V 1 to 999]
From [SAN-AA 1 to 99] to [SAN-FZ 1 to 99]
Kulmbach District From [SAN-A 1 to 999] to [SAN-R 1 to 999]
From [SAN-JA 1 to 99] to [SAN-ZZ 1 to 99]
Hof District From [SAN-W 1 to 999] to [SAN-Z 1 to 999]
From [SAN-GA 1 to 999] to [SAN-IZ 1 to 999]
SAW Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Saxony-Anhalt Salzwedel
SB Saarbrücken District
(Excluding Völklingen City)
Saarland Saarbrücken
SBG Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Strasburg
SBK Salzland District Saxony-Anhalt Schönebeck
SC Schwabach City Bavaria Schwabach
SCZ Saale-Orla District Thuringia Schleiz
SDH Kyffhäuser Dristrict Thuringia Sondershausen
SDL Stendal District Saxony-Anhalt Stendal
SDT Uckermark District Brandenburg Schwedt
SE Segeberg City Schleswig-Holstein Segeberg
SEB Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge District Saxony Sebnitz
SEE Märkisch-Oderland District Brandenburg Seelow
SEF Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim District Bavaria Scheinfeld
SEL Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge District Bavaria Selb
SFB Oberspreewald-Lausitz District Brandenburg Senftenberg
SFT Salzland District Saxony-Anhalt Staßfurt
SG Segeberg City North Rhine-Westphalia Solingen
SGH Mansfeld-Südharz District Saxony-Anhalt Sangerhausen
SH Schleswig-Holstein Government, Landtag, and Schleswig-Holstein Police Schleswig-Holstein Code reserved for Schleswig-Holstein State-owned governmental vehicles
SHA Schwäbisch Hall District Baden-Württemberg Schwäbisch Hall
SHG Schaumburg District Lower Saxony Stadthagen
SHK Saale-Holzland District Thuringia Saale-Holzland-Kreis
SHL Suhl City Thuringia Suhl
SI Siegen-Wittgenstein Rhineland-Palatinate Siegen
SIG Sigmaringen District Bavaria Sigmaringen
SIM Rhein-Hunsrück District Rhineland-Palatinate Simmern
SK Saalekreis Saxony-Anhalt Saalekreis
SL Schleswig-Flensburg District Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig
SLE Düren District
Euskirchen District
North Rhine-Westphalia Schleiden
SLF Saalfeld-Rudolstadt District Thuringia Saalfeld
SLG Ravensburg District Baden-Württemberg Bad Saulgau [SLG-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: A, M, P, Q, W
From [SLG-AX 1 to 999] to [SLG-ZX 1 to 999]
Where X is: U, Y
Sigmaringen District [SLG-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, D, F, H, N, O, R, S, T, Y
From [SLG-AX 1 to 999] to [SLG-ZX 1 to 999]
Where X is: From A to J
SLK Salzland District Saxony-Anhalt Salzlandkreis
SLN Altenburger Land Thuringia Schmölln
SLS Saarlouis District Saarland Saarlouis
SLÜ Main-Kinzig District
(Excluding Hanau City)
Hesse Schchtern
SLZ Wartburg District Thuringia Bad Salzungen
SM Schmalkalden-Meiningen District Thuringia Schmalkalden
SLS Saarlouis District Saarland Saarlouis
SMÜ Augsburg District Bavaria Schwabnchen
SN Schwerin City Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin
SO Soest District North Rhine-Westphalia Soest
SOB Neuburg-Schrobenhausen District Bavaria Schrobenhausen
SOG Weilheim-Schongau District Bavaria Schongau
SOK Saale-Orla District Thuringia Saale-Orla-Kreis
SÖM Sömmerda District Thuringia Sömmerda
SON Sonneberg District Thuringia Sonneberg
SP Speyer City Rhineland-Palatinate Speyer
SPB Spree-Neiße District Brandenburg Spremberg
SPN Spree-Neiße District Brandenburg Spree-Neiße
SR Straubing City Bavaria Straubing From [SR-A 1 to 9999] to [SR-Z 1 to 9999]
(Excludes [SR-P 1000 to 9999], reserved for City Police)
Straubing-Bogen District From [SR-AA 1 to 999] to [SR-ZZ 1 to 999]
SRB Märkisch-Oderland District Brandenburg Strausberg
SRO Saale-Holzland District Thuringia Stadtroda
ST Steinfurt District North Rhine-Westphalia Steinfurt
STA Starnberg District Bavaria Starnberg
STB Ludwigslust-Parchim District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Sternberg
STD Stade District Lower Saxony Stade
STE Lichtenfels District Bavaria Bad Staffelstein
STL Erzgebirge District Saxony Stollberg
STO Sigmaringen District Baden-Württemberg Stockach [STO-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, D, F, H, N, O, R, S, T, Y
From [STO-AX 1 to 999] to [STO-ZX 1 to 999]
Where X is: From A to J
Konstanz District
(Excluding Büsingen am Hochrhein City)
[STO-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: C, E, G, I, J, K, L, V, X, Z
From [STO-AX 1 to 999] to [STO-ZX 1 to 999]
Where X is: From K to T
SU Rhein-Sieg District North Rhine-Westphalia Siegburg
SUL Amberg-Sulzbach District Bavaria Sulzbach-Rosenberg
SÜW Südliche Weinstraße District Rhineland-Palatinate dliche Weinstraße
SW Schweinfurt District Baden-Württemberg Schweinfurt From [SW-AA 100 to 9999] to [SW-ZZ 100 to 9999]
[SW-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[SW-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Schweinfurt City [SW-X 1 to 9999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[SW-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
SWA Rheingau-Taunus District Hesse Bad Schwalbach
SY Diepholz District Lower Saxony Syke
SZ Salzgitter City Lower Saxony Salzgitter
SZB Erzgebirge District Saxony Schwarzenberg
Codes starting with letter T
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
TBB Main-Tauber District Baden-Württemberg Tauberbischofsheim
TDO Nordsachsen Saxony Torgau-Delitzsch-Oschatz
TE Steinfurt District North Rhine-Westphalia Tecklenburg
TET Rostock District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Teterow
TF Teltow-Fläming District Brandenburg Teltow-Fläming
TG Nordsachsen Saxony Torgau
THL Thuringia Government and Landtag Thuringia Thüringer Landtag Code reserved for Thuringia State-owned governmental vehicles
THW Federal Agency for Technical Relief Technisches Hilfswerk Code reserved for Vehicles of German Federal Agency for Technical Relief.
TIR Tirschenreuth District Bavaria Tirschenreuth
TO Nordsachsen Saxony Torgau-Oschatz
TÖL Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen District Bavaria Bad Tölz
TP Uckermark District Brandenburg Templin
TR Trier-Saarburg District
Trier City
Rhineland-Palatinate Trier
TS Traunstein District Bavaria Traunstein
TT Bodensee (Lake Constance) District Baden-Württemberg Tettnang
Tübingen District Baden-Württemberg bingen
TUT Tuttlingen District Baden-Württemberg Tuttlingen
Codes starting with letter U
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
ÜB Sigmaringen District Baden-Württemberg Überlingen [ÜB-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: K, N, P, Q, U, W, Y, Z
[ÜB-X 1000 to 9999]
Where X is : A, E
From [ÜB-XA 1 to 99] to [ÜB-XZ 1 to 99]
Where X is: A, C, E
[ÜB-XY 100 to 999]
Where XY is: BB, HH, II, MM, NN, OO, XX
[ÜB-XY 1000 to 9999]
Where XY is: FF, GG, PP, RR, VV
Ravensburg District [ÜB-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: A, C, E, G, I, J, L
[ÜB-X 1000 to 9999]
Where X is: B, X
From [ÜB-XA 1 to 99] to [ÜB-XZ 1 to 99]
Where X is: U, V, W, Y, Z
[ÜB-XY 100 to 999]
Where XY is: AA, DD, FF
[ÜB-XY 1000 to 9999]
Where XY is: KK, OO, TT, RV
Bodensee (Lake Constance) District [ÜB-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, D, F, H, M, O, R, S, T, V, X
[ÜB-X 1000 to 9999]
Where X is not: A, B, E, X
From [ÜB-XA 1 to 99] to [ÜB-XZ 1 to 99]
Where X isn't: A, C, E, U, V, W, Y, Z
[ÜB-XY 100 to 999]
Where XY is not: AA, BB, DD, FF, HH, II, MM, NN, OO, XX
[ÜB-XY 1000 to 9999]
Where XY is not: FF, GG, KK, OO, PP, RR, RV,TT, VV
UE Uelzen District Lower Saxony Uelzen
UEM Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Ueckermünde
UFF Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim District Bavaria Uffenheim
UH Unstrut-Hainich District Thuringia Unstrut-Hainich
UL Alb-Donau District Baden-Württemberg Ulm From [UL-AA 100 to 999] to [UL-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [UL-NA 1000 to 9999] to [UL-ZZ1000 to 9999]
[UL-X 1 to 999]
Where X is: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[UL-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Ulm City [UL-A 1000 to 4999], [UL-A 6000 to 9999]
From [UL-B 1000 to 9999] to [UL-Z 1000 to 9999]
[UL-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't: B, F, G, I, O, Q
[UL-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
UM Uckermark District Brandenburg Uckermark
UN Unna District North Rhine-Westphalia Unna
USI Hochtaunuskreis Hesse Usingen
Codes starting with letter V
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
V Vogtland District Saxony Vogtlandkreis
VAI Ludwigsburg District Baden-Württemberg Vaihingen
VB Vogelsberg District Hesse Vogelsbergkreis
VEC Vechta District Lower Saxony Vechta
VER Verden District Lower Saxony Verden
VG Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Vorpommern-Greifswald
VIB Rottal-Inn district Bavaria Vilsbiburg [VIB-X 1 to 9999]
Where X is: B, I, O, Q]
Mühldorf am Inn District [VIB-G 1 to 9999]
Landshut District Every other available combination
VIE Viersen District North Rhine-Westphalia Viersen
VIT Regen District Bavaria Viechtach
VK Völklingen City
(A subdivision of Saarbrücken District)
Saarland Völklingen
VOH Neustadt an der Waldnaab District Bavaria Vohenstrauß
VR Vorpommern-Rügen District
(Excluding Stralsund City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Vorpommern-Rügen
VS Schwarzwald-Baar District Baden-Württemberg Villingen-Schwenningen
Codes starting with letter W
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
W Wuppertal City North Rhine-Westphalia Wuppertal
WA Waldeck-Frankenberg District Hesse Waldeck
WAF Warendorf District North Rhine-Westphalia Warendorf
WAK Wartburg District Thuringia Wartburgkreis
WAN Herne City North Rhine-Westphalia Wanne-Eickel
WAR Höxter District North Rhine-Westphalia Warburg
WAT Bochum City North Rhine-Westphalia Wattenscheid
WB Wittenberg District Saxony-Anhalt Wittenberg
WBS Eichsfeld District Thuringia Worbis
WDA Zwickau District Saxony Werdau
WE Weimar City Thuringia Weimar
WEL Limburg-Weilburg District Hesse [[|Weilburg|Weilburg]]
WEN Weiden in der Oberpfalz City Bavaria Weiden
WER Augsburg District Bavaria Wertingen [WAR-YA 1 to 999] to [WAR-YZ 1 to 999]
From [WAR-A 7000 to 9999] to [WAR-Z 7000 to 9999]
Dillingen an der Donau District Every other available combination
WES Wesel District Lower Saxony Wesel
WF Wolfenbüttel District Lower Saxony Wolfenbüttel
WG Ravensburg District Baden-Württemberg Wangen im Allgäu
WHV Wilhelmshaven City Lower Saxony Wilhelmshaven
WI Wiesbaden City Hesse Wiesbaden (Excludes [WI-HP 100 to 9999], reserved for City Police)
WIL Bernkastel-Wittlich District Rhineland-Palatinate Wittlich
WIS Nordwestmecklenburg District Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Wismar
WIT Ennepe-Ruhr District North Rhine-Westphalia Witten
WIZ Werra-Meißner Disctrict Hesse Witzenhausen
WK Ostprignitz-Ruppin District Brandenburg Wittstock
WL Harburg District Lower Saxony Winsen (Luhe)
WLG Vorpommern-Greifswald District
(Excluding Greifswald City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Wolgast
WM Weilheim-Schongau District Bavaria Weilheim in Oberbayern
WMS Börde District Saxony-Anhalt Wolmirstedt
WN Rems-Murr Distict Baden-Württemberg Waiblingen
WND Sankt Wendel Distict Saarland Sankt Wendel
WO Worms City Rhineland-Palatinate Worms
WOB Wolfsburg City Lower Saxony Wolfsburg
WOH Kassel District Hesse Wolfhagen
WOL Freudenstadt District Baden-Württemberg Wolfach From [WOL-A 9000 to 9999] to [WOL-E 9000 to 9999]
Ortenau District Every other available combination
WOR Munich District Bavaria Wolfratshausen [WOL-F 1 to 9999]
[WOL-O 1 to 9999]
Starnberg District [WOL-B 1 to 9999]
[WOL-G 1 to 9999]
Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen District Every other available combination
WOS Freyung-Grafenau District Bavaria Wolfstein
WR Harz District Saxony-Anhalt Wernigerode
WRN Mecklenburgische Seenplatte District
(Excluding Neubrandenburg City)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Waren (Müritz)
WS Mühldorf am Inn District Bavaria Wasserburg am Inn [WS-Q 1 to 9999]
From [WS-QA 1 to 9999] to [WS-QZ 1 to 9999]
Rosenheim District Every other available combination
WSF Burgenland District Saxony-Anhalt Weissenfels
WST Ammerland District Lower Saxony Westerstede
WSW Görlitz District Saxony Weisswasser
WT Waldshut District Baden-Württemberg Waldshut
WTL Osnabrück District Lower Saxony Wittlage
WTM Wittmund District Lower Saxony Wittmund
Würzburg City Bavaria rzburg From [WÜ-AA 100 to 999] to [WÜ-ZZ 100 to 999]
From [WÜ-AA 1000 to 9999] to [WÜ-ZZ 1000 to 9999]

(Excludes [WÜ-PP 1 to 9999], reserved for Police)
[WÜ-X 1 to 999]
Where X is B, F, G, I, O, Q
[WÜ-XY 1 to 99]
Where either X or Y or both are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
Würzburg District From [WÜ-A 1000 to 9999] to [WÜ-Z 1000 to 9999]
[WÜ-X 1 to 999]
Where X isn't B, F, G, I, O, Q
[WÜ-XY 1 to 99]
Where neither X nor Y are: B, F, G, I, O, Q
WUG Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen District Bavaria Weißenburg
WÜM Cham District Bavaria Waldnchen
(Rearranged letter orders)
WUN Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge District Bavaria Wunsiedel
WUR Leipzig District Saxony Wurzen
WW Westerwald District Rhineland-Palatinate Westerwald
WZ Lahn-Dill District Hesse Wetzlar
WZL Börde District Saxony-Anhalt Wanzleben
Codes starting with letter X
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
X NATO Headquarters in Germany Arbitrarily chosen [X-1000] Format
Codes starting with letter Y
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
Y Bundeswehr (German Federal Military) Arbitrarily chosen [Y-100 123] Format
Codes starting with letter Z
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
Z Zwickau District Saxony Zwickau
ZE Anhalt-Bitterfeld District Saxony-Anhalt Zerebst
ZEL Cochem-Zell District Rhineland-Palatinate Zell
ZI Görlitz District Saxony Zittau
ZIG Schwalm-Eder District Hesse Ziegenhain
ZP Erzgebirge District Saxony Zschopau
ZR Greiz District Thuringia Zeulenroda
ZW Zweibrücken City Rhineland-Palatinate Zweibrücken From [ZW-A 1 to 9999] to [ZW-Z 1 to 9999]
From [ZW-AA 100 to 9999] to [ZW-ZZ 100 to 9999]
Südwestpfalz District From [ZW-AA 1 to 99] to [ZW-ZZ 1 to 99]
ZZ Burgenland District Saxony-Anhalt Zeitz
Codes starting with Numbers, 0 to 9
Code City / Rural District State Namesake Notes
0 [0-1] Vehicle of the Federal President
[0-2] Vehicle of the Federal Chancellor
[0-3] Vehicle of the Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs
[0-4] Vehicle of the State Secretary of the Federal Foreign Office
[0-## 1 to 999]
[0-### 1 to 999]
Diplomatic License plate
Where ## or ### is a numerical code associated with each country.
1 [1-1] Vehicle of the President of the Bundestag

StickersEdit

Registration plates become valid with the official seal of registration.[1]: §10(3)  This is a sticker of 45 mm (1¾”) diameter, following the area code and bearing, in colours, the seal of the respective German Bundesland with the name of the state and the issuing district authority added in print. Older stickers were monochrome, black on silver or white, and smaller (35 mm / 1⅜”), depicting the seal of either the Bundesland or the city district. Vehicles used by federal institutions, such as Bundespolizei, carry the German Bundesadler instead of a Bundesland seal.

The rear plate bears, above the official seal, the vehicle safety test sticker. This test is obligatory three years after the first registration, and every two years after that. The expiration date can be seen at one glance, as the sticker is attached with the month of expiration pointing upwards. The black marking, covering the sectors on either side of 12, thus makes it easy for the police to read the expiration month from a distance. Like the hand on a clock, the marking shows the position of a number on the face of a clock. The year when the next safety test is due is printed in the centre of the sticker and also indicated by the colour of the sticker which is repeated every six years.

Between 1985 and 2010, a similar yet hexagonal sticker was applied to the front plate, certifying the emission test. Since that year, the emission test was incorporated into the safety test and was not performed separately any more, so the emission sticker became obsolete.[19]

Colours of the emission test (before 2010) and vehicle safety test stickers
Colour Year
   RAL 2000 (Gelborange, Yellow-orange) 1979 1983 1989 1995 2001 2007 2013 2019 2025 2031
   RAL 5015 (Himmelblau, Sky blue) 1978 1984 1990 1996 2002 2008 2014 2020 2026 2032
   RAL 1012 (Zitronengelb, Lemon yellow) 1977 1985 1991 1997 2003 2009 2015 2021 2027 2033
   RAL 8004 (Kupferbraun, Copper brown) 1974 1980 1986 1992 1998 2004 2010 2016 2022 2028 2034
   RAL 3015 (Hellrosa, Light pink) 1975 1981 1987 1993 1999 2005 2011 2017 2023 2029 2035
   RAL 6018 (Gelbgrün, Yellow-green) 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 2006 2012 2018 2024 2030 2036
 
Bus with repeater plate, due to the bike carrier

All these stickers are specially treated to be easily transferred onto the licence plates, but hard to be removed without damaging the plate itself, making them relatively counterfeit-proof. The only licence plates which do not need to carry either seal are repeaters. These are obligatory when the original rear plate is covered, in part or whole, by cargo or attached parts, such as bicycle carriers.[1]: §10(9) 

Serial letters and digitsEdit

The final identifier or Erkennungsnummer of the licence plate consists of one or two letters, followed by a number of up to four digits. Thus, basically any combination from A1 to ZZ9999 is possible, yet restricted by the maximum length of eight characters, including the area code. All 26 letters of the Latin alphabet may be used, yet this was not always so. In order to avoid confusion between B and 8, F and E, G and 6, I and 1, O and Q and 0, those six letters were excluded from the middle part of registration plates. In 1992, the letters B, F and G were permitted, and in 2000 the alphabet was completed as I, O and Q have been allowed. In the very first months of the numbering system, between July and November 1956, the letter I was used but J was not. This was soon reversed, but single vintage cars kept sporting their letter I between 1956 and 2000 when it was re-introduced.

 
This plate from Frankfurt am Main bears the letters F ST, whereas FS T may be found on a vehicle from Freising

.

In the style used until 1994, a hyphen following the area code was used to separate the two groups of letters. This does no longer appear in the new format but is often retained,[i] as the space between the geographic identifier and serial letters is a significant character and must be considered when writing down or transmitting a number. For example, F ST 683 is different from FS T 683. The risk of confusion can be avoided by writing a hyphen after the city code, like F-ST 683. For this reason, the police will usually radio the location name and spell out the next letters, using the German telephone alphabet. Thus, F ST 683 would be radioed as Frankfurt, Siegfried, Theodor, sechs-acht-drei and FS T 683 as Freising, Theodor, sechs-acht-drei. If the officer should not know the meaning of the area code, he would spell it out too, such as Friedrich, Siegfried, Trennung (separation), Theodor, etc.

While the number is issued by each district authority separately, a probable split between two or more districts sharing the same area code has to be considered.[example 2] Further restrictions are caused by “prohibited” combinations (see below).

Personalised platesEdit

 
Very old example of a personalised plate, from Kiel

For an extra charge of €10.20, vehicle owners can register a personalised identifier, keeping to the above rules. In most cases of personalised plates, owners choose their initials and a number reflecting their date of birth. In this fashion, fictional Mrs Ulrike Mustermann, born 2 May 1965 and living in Essen, might choose E-UM 2565 for her car. By combining area code and random letters, further possibilities arise, such as a man from Oldenburg named Olaf, born on Christmas Eve, could choose OL-AF 2412. A resident of the town of Pirna might choose PIR-AT 77, Pirat meaning “pirate” in German. Kiel is one of few places where the number plate can spell out all of the city name.

BMW, owner of Mini, registers all Mini press/marketing cars in the district of Minden-Lübbecke which holds the code MI, to get “MI-NI” number plates for the cars. BMW itself is based in Munich, yet M-INI plates are not possible to issue, as three letters after the district code are not permitted.

From 1970s up to 1994, Essen city buses owned by city transport company EVAG (Essener Verkehrs-AG) were registered with E-AT number plates, essen means "to eat" in German.[20][21]

These vanity plates can only be made up of the available prefixes and numbers, within the general rules. A James Bond fan from Hamburg would not be allowed the plate HH-JB 007 because leading digits 0 (or even double-0) are not possible; however, he might strive for HH-J 8007 or HH-OO 7, imitating digits by letters or vice versa. The owner of a Volkswagen Polo can certainly show VW in the middle section, but neither PO-LO 1995 nor VW-P0 L01 would be possible, as these prefixes are not issued nor may letters and digits be mixed at will. Nonetheless, a notable variety of personalised number plates can be spotted on German roads.

Prohibited combinationsEdit

Combinations that are regarded as a Verstoß gegen die guten Sitten, which means “offence to moral and customs”, are disallowed or otherwise avoided.[1]: §10(9)  This refers mostly to abbreviations relating to Nazi Germany, such as NS (National Socialism), KZ (Konzentrationslager, concentration camp), HJ (Hitlerjugend, Hitler Youth), SS (Schutzstaffel) and SA (Sturmabteilung). Therefore, these two-letter combinations are generally not issued in any district, nor do the city districts of Nuremberg, Cologne and Stuttgart issue one-letter plates which would result in the combinations N-S, K-Z, S-A, S-D and S-S.[22][23][24]

Those prefixes which will not be issued as middle letters were also excluded from the list of possible area codes with the introduction of the current system, although between 1945 and 1949 the French occupation force had used the combination SA followed by the double-digit numbers 01 to 08 for the then seven rural districts in the Saar Protectorate and its capital Saarbrücken. Nor were these codes later taken into consideration for newly formed districts in former GDR: The district Sächsische Schweiz used the name of its capital, Pirna, in its code PIR, to avoid the use of SS. When the districts of Torgau, Delitzsch and Oschatz merged into Nordsachsen, they combined their initials into TDO, instead of abbreviating Northern Saxony as NS.[j]

 
Example of banned combination (NS) which was issued accidentally.

On the other hand, the area codes HH and AH were chosen for Hansestadt Hamburg and former district Ahaus, although they could be interpreted as Heil Hitler and Adolf Hitler, respectively. In everyday German, the letters AH are not regarded as an obvious abbreviation for that name,[k] even less so in the 1950s when the lists were created.[l] Nonetheless, these two-letter codes and the respective numerals 18 and 88, signifying the first and eighth letter of the alphabet, obviously have developed into Nazi symbols. They are therefore generally avoided in the serial part of licence plates, although they may be found sometimes.[25] Generally, the decision whether or not a certain combination is permitted lies with the respective district authority. In Brandenburg, any plates that are related to Hitler, the Hitler salute, etc. cannot be issued, especially if they would be bearing digits 1888, 8818, 8888 or ending in 88, 888, 188. Nor can the combinations AH 18 and HH 18 be issued to new owners.[26] Some districts however allow these combinations if they are the owner's initials (for example, Norbert Schmidt might be able to get XX-NS 1234).[citation needed]

 
Example of permitted combination AC-AB

In 2004 in Nuremberg, a car owner was refused a number plate beginning N-PD because of the connection to the political party NPD.[27] After the terror group National Socialist Underground was uncovered in 2011, the city of Nuremberg refused number plates beginning with N-SU and even abolished the respective plates on their own vehicles of Stadtentwässerung und Umweltanalytik (sewage and environmental department).[28] In the 2010s, some districts started banning licence plates with the middle letters IS which resembled the Islamic State.[29]

The combinations STA-SI, S-ED,[24] HEI-L, IZ-AN and WAF-FE are also forbidden or discouraged, to avoid association with Stasi, the Sozialistische Einheitspartei of the GDR, the Nazi salute, NAZI backwards and the German word for weapon respectively. Other combinations affected are BUL-LE (German derogative for police, roughly comparable to pig),[30] MO-RD (German for murder)[31] and SU-FF (boozing).[32][33] On the other hand, plates that would seem offensive in other circumstances have been allowed, such as the infamous acronym AC-AB.

Reserved combinationsEdit

 
Licence plate of a police car in Saxony

For quite different reasons, some districts hold certain letter combinations reserved. The Saxon capital Dresden issues all DD-Q plates to the state police vehicles. Likewise, Erfurt uses EF-LP for the police in Thuringia. Munich and other Bavarian cities reserve certain combinations with P for the police units within their authorities, such as M-PM, N-PP or RO-P.[34] Cologne issues K-TX to taxis and K-LN to the city's own vehicles.[23] In various districts, firefighter vehicles will be issued the middle letters FW standing for Feuerwehr.[35]

Bogus licence platesEdit

 
Fake number plate, seemingly from Munich but obviously not correct, due to the umlaut and the leading digit 0

Sometimes, e.g. in movie films, it may be necessary to show licence plates which do not really belong to any vehicle. The easiest way would be to create a fictional area code, such as NN-XY 555. In the 1980s the West German TV series Der Fahnder [1] G was used for an imaginary large city in the Ruhrgebiet area. However, if the plot is supposed to take place in a defined town or region, the audience would expect cars to show codes of that area on their number plates. When James Bond was driving around Hamburg in Tomorrow Never Dies, the obviously fake Berlin licence plates on his BMW were soon pointed out.[36]

In the time before 2000, it had also been possible to use number plates with bogus identifiers containing the letters B, F, G, I, O and Q, which at that time were not issued in the middle group. Meanwhile, however, all these letters can appear on a real licence plate. In order to state clearly that the plate shown is a fictive one, the crew could use an impossible identifier, such as an umlaut in this middle section. Yet another way would be to have a valid registration issued (or at least reserved) by the district authority.

RegistrationEdit

ProceduresEdit

 
Several shops advertising Schilder (plates), in the street of the registration authority

Vehicles must be registered with their owner's name and current address. On proof of identity, vehicle documentation and liability insurance, the registration will take place in the district authority competent for the respective address.[1]: §6  An alphanumeric combination, which can be reserved according to personal wishes, will be issued to the vehicle. The physical plates, however, have to be acquired separately, either at a local store or online.[37] Both the dimensions of the plates and the typeface of letters and numbers are standardized. After purchasing the number plate, the official stamps must be applied, back at the registration office.[1]: §10(3)  A fee is payable for the registration, in addition to the expenses for the plates.

Changes, such as a vehicle being sold or its owner moving residence, must be registered to keep the vehicle documentation up to date.[1]: §13(1)  If the vehicle remains within the district, the licence plates may be retained. A vehicle being relocated outside of the district has to be registered at the authority now competent. Whilst it was mandatory to have the plates altered, according to the current address, this obligation was reduced in 2015 and has meanwhile been abolished. Since then, it is generally not possible any more to tell the owner's district of residence from the area code on the plates, as they may have registered it at a former residence e.g. in Hamburg yet moved to Frankfurt meanwhile.[38]

 
Example of a defaced plate – notice how the bottom seal is completely gone, due to scraping. From Kronach.

When owners choose to deregister their vehicle, the officer at the local authority will want to see the licence plates with defaced seals on them as proof that the plate can no longer be used in public. For this purpose, special machines are available for use at the registration office. Once defaced, the plates may only be used legally on public roads for one return journey to the owner's residence. If a vehicle is to be deregistered and a new one registered to the same owner, it is possible to swap the licence plate from old to new within the same process. Documentation and fees are necessary nonetheless, and neither vehicle should be used to reach the authority, as the assignment of the number changes by the minute.

It is general practice for owners to deregister their vehicles when selling them, typically when a sale is agreed. A sales contract is highly recommended, and various forms are available online for free.[39] A seller may hand over their vehicle with valid licence plates and papers still in their name to the new owner, and the owner will complete the registration transfer to their name. In a scenario without a proper sales contract, the seller may become liable when the buyer commits traffic violations or even criminal acts related to the car or plates. It is generally not recommended to sell used cars with licence plates.

A car whose owner has not paid their insurance premium and is reported to the police by the insurance company may get entstempelt, unstamped when found in a public place. The police will remove the official seal using a scratching tool like a screwdriver, leaving the plate without a valid seal. This renders the vehicle illegal to be used, or to be left in a public place, unless the insurance premium is paid and plates are fitted with a new official seal. A one-time journey to the relevant registration authorities is permitted to have the seal reinstated, once insurance is restored.

CostsEdit

As of 2020, the average registration fee is €26.00[40] whilst further fees may apply for choosing an individual identifier or for reservation of such. Whereas some of these amounts are ordained by federal laws, others vary slightly from one district to the next.[41] The prices for number plates, on the other hand, are subject to the free market and range from less than 10€ up to around 40€ per piece. Generally, it is cheaper to have the plates ordered online, but faster to walk across the street and have them made on the spot.

Further costs arise for motor vehicle tax (€194 on average[42] yet very much depending on engine and emissions) and mandatory liability insurance (€260 on average, in 2019;[43] depending on the model of the vehicle, age and residence of the owner, etc.). Comprehensive insurance is recommended but voluntary.

Special types of registrationEdit

Besides the most common way of registering a vehicle for everyday, all-year use indefinitely, it is possible to register for several months of each year, or for a few days in order to export the vehicle abroad. As well it is allowed, under certain restrictions, to register two vehicles (such as a car and a motorhome) under one number, with the same main licence plate. These variations may save expenses in tax and insurance. Further ways of saving apply to vintage cars and to electrically powered vehicles. Each of these special registrations are represented in the respective licence plate.

Special codes, colours and formatsEdit

Certain types of vehicle bear special codes.[m]

Different codesEdit

In deviating from the system described above, vehicles registered to federal, state or communal owners can bear licence plates not showing the district and sometimes omitting the middle letters.

 
Plate of the German Chancellor
  • Highest state offices: The President uses the licence plate 0-1, the Chancellor uses 0-2, the Foreign Minister uses 0-3 and the First State Secretary of the Foreign Office (i.e. the deputy Foreign Minister) uses 0-4. The President of the Parliament uses 1-1. This reflects the fact that the Parliament's President is not part of the executive branch but still ranks higher in (symbolic) importance than the Chancellor. These vehicles are tax-exempt and need not to be insured since the German government acts as insurer.
 
Bundeswehr (armed forces)
  • The military uses old style non-reflecting plates. The German flag is shown, instead of the blue EU strip. Military plates use the letter Y instead of a city code, as no German city has the initial Y. The Y is followed by a dash and a six-digit number (or five digits for motorcycles), for example Y-123 456. These vehicles are tax-exempt and need not to be insured since the German government acts as insurer. There is also no mandatory technical inspection required but the Armed Forces carry out a regular internal inspection on these vehicles similar to the official inspection.
  • Military vehicles which are used by the Nato headquarters in Germany use the same design as the Y-plates except they carry the letter X followed by a four-digit number, for example X-1234.
 
Bundesfinanzverwaltung (customs)
 
Vehicle of Baden-Württemberg state government
  • Both the federal government and federal state governments use special abbreviations instead of a city code. The code BD (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) applies to the federal government, ministries, parliament, presidential office, etc., whereas the state governments and diets use their respective codes. This difference is not made in the Stadtstaaten Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen, as they fulfil both district and state function in addition to their municipality's. In some Bundesländer, such as North Rhine-Westphalia, the state code is also used by the police.[example 3]
 
Bundespost vehicle, 1960s/70s, with old-style BP plate
  • Some branches and institutions of the federal government use the abbreviations of their names instead of a city code.
    • The Technisches Hilfswerk (German Federal Agency for Technical Relief) uses its abbreviation THW, so the plates read THW-80000, for example. All numbers on THW plates start either with the digit 8 or 9.
    • The Wasserstraßen- und Schifffahrtsverwaltung des Bundes (Federal Administration of Waterways and Navigation) uses BW followed by a digit identifying the region of the office (from 1=north to 7=south).
    • Before the Deutsche Bundesbahn (German Federal Railways) and the Deutsche Bundespost (German Federal Mail) were privatised, they used the abbreviations DB and BP (e.g. DB-12345, BP-12345).
    • The federal police uses the code BP for Bundespolizei instead of a local code. Before 2006 the code BG, for their former name Bundesgrenzschutz, was used in the scheme BG-12345. This old code still remains valid, but any new vehicles will get the new code BP.
 
Official registered vehicle (here: fire brigade)
 
Official registered vehicle for disaster relief
  • Until the legal reforms of 2006, official cars such as police, fire fighting and municipality vehicles did not carry a letter after the sticker, such as M-1234. These included:
    • vehicles of the district government: 1-199, 1000-1999, 10000-19999
    • vehicles of the local government (for example: fire brigade): 200-299, 2000-2999, 20000-29999, 300-399
    • police: 3000-3999, 7000-7999, 30000-39999, 70000-79999
    • disaster relief (mostly changed to "THW", see above): 8000-8999, 80000-89999
This style of plate is no longer issued in most states, but many official vehicles which were registered before 2006 still carry this type of plate.
A similar style of issue is used by some districts to consular or diplomatic vehicles in the form Aaa-9NNn (example: D-921). Unlike the other style of diplomatic/consular plates issued in Berlin and Bonn, this plate does not indicate the nationality of the mission.
  • Diplomatic plates: plates of cars covered by diplomatic immunity bear the digit 0 (Zero), followed by a two- or three-digit number which indicates the specific diplomatic mission,[example 4] a hyphen and another number counting within this mission. Traditionally, a digit 1 in this final place denotes the ambassador or chef de mission. Lower-ranking embassy or consular staff without full diplomatic status are issued plates with the regular city code (mostly B for the capital, Berlin, or BN for the former capital, Bonn). The following characters are identical to the 0-plates, e.g. B-19 256; however these are commonly mistaken for non-diplomatic plates. Further holders of diplomatic plates are certain international organizations, such as the UNHCR or the European Central Bank.[44]

Different coloursEdit

Very rarely, German licence plates bear characters in different colours than black. These exceptions are:

 
Plate for tax-exempt vehicles
  • Vehicles which are exempt from vehicle taxes (for example ambulances, tractors, agricultural trailers, trailers for boats or trailers for gliders) have green print on a white background plate.[1]: §9(2)  Regular trailers for lorries can be exempted from tax if the owner agrees to pay an increased tax on the vehicle which tows the trailer.
 
Plate for dealer′s cars (red colour, old DIN-style) for test drives.
  • Car dealers plates are in red print on a white background, and the code begins with 06.[1]: §16(3)  Red plates may be attached to cars which are changing hands, such as the test run of unregistered cars, and the liability insurance is connected to the plate, not a specific car.
 
Plate for vintage car collector
  • Car collectors: Red plates starting with the number 07 are reserved for collectors of vintage cars.[1]: §17  Originally, vintage cars had a required minimum age of 20 years from first registering. Since April 2007, the required minimum age has been 30 years. Plates issued under the old 20 years rule remained valid after this date. The collectors must get an official certificate of approval (such as no criminal records). They are allowed to use one set of plates on any of their cars under the condition that they keep a strict record of use. No day-to-day use of the cars is allowed. A valid official technical inspection is not mandatory but the cars have to be technically fit for use on public roads.

Different formats and stylesEdit

 
Plate for a specific vintage car
  • Classic cars (known in German by the pseudo-English expression Oldtimer) can get an H (historisch, historic) at the end of the plate, such as K-AA 100H in order to preserve the so-called "vehicle of cultural value" (kraftfahrtechnisches Kulturgut).[1]: §9(1)  This also implies a flat tax of around 190 per year. It is popular to choose the digits so that they indicate the car's year of manufacture. The requirements for a vehicle to receive an H-Plate are:
    • The first documented registration was at least 30 years ago.
    • The car must be in mostly original and preservation worthy condition. Preservation worthy means a grade C by popular car grading standards. The older the car, the more signs of usage it can show. This purely concerns the car's appearance; the road worthiness is established by separate mandatory safety inspections.[n]
 
Plate for Plug-in electric vehicle
  • Plug-in electric vehicles. The 2015 Electric Mobility Act authorised issuing special licence plates for plug-in electric vehicles to allow proper identification to avoid abuses of these privileges.[1]: §9a [45][46] The special licence plate adds the letter E at the end of the licence number. Owners of all-electric cars and plug-in hybrids with a minimum all-electric range of 30 km (19 mi) can apply for the special licence. The minimum range for eligible plug-in hybrids goes up to 40 km (25 mi) from 1 January 2018.[47][48]
 
Seasonal number plate, here valid from 1 April to 31 October of each year
  • Seasonal number plates are popular for motorbikes or convertibles in the summertime, or for “winter cars” substituting them, yet these plates are available for any vehicle.[1]: §9(3)  They bear two 2-digit numbers at the end of the plate indicating the months between which they are registered to drive, with the licence being valid from the start of the upper month until the end of the lower month. This results in lower car taxes, as well as lower insurance premiums.
 
Interchangeable licence plate (Wechselkennzeichen)
  • Interchangeable plates: Two vehicles of the same class (two cars, two motorbikes or light vehicles, two trailers) may be registered with an alternating licence plate.[1]: §8(1a)  In this case, only the last digit varies – e.g. B-KJ 414|5 and B-KJ 414|6 – and is printed on an extra plate which remains on either vehicle, whereas the main part of the plate has to be attached to the vehicle in use. The main part carries the registration seal and a small letter W for Wechselkennzeichen, the individual part carries the technical inspection seal and below, in very small letters, the associated main number. Both vehicles have to pay full tax, yet the insurance premium may be discounted.[49]
 
Temporary plate (Kurzzeit-Kennzeichen); this one was valid until 9 March 2004
  • Temporary registrations: Used vehicles which are not currently registered to any person or company - or have been deregistered by their current owner, temporarily or permanently - can be driven on public roads using short-term plates, valid for five days only.[1]: §16(2)  These are known as “temporary number plates” or “yellow number plates” (due to the yellow strip). The first letter(s) indicate the issuing authority, as in regular German registrations. The numeric code starts with the numbers 04, e.g. DD-04321, and the plate has a yellow strip on the right showing when they are valid. The date is listed numerically, on three lines, reading day, month, year, with two digits each. The vehicle need not have a valid technical inspection, however it must be technically fit to be operated in public. Typically they are used to drive to/from a technical inspection, or to move storage location of the vehicle. Insurance premiums are quite high, appr. 100 for the above-mentioned 5 days. Most insurance companies credit this premium if the car is registered as a normal car with the same insurance company after these 5 days. These temporary plates are only valid within Germany, and cannot be used to export the vehicle to a foreign country nor for transit. They can only be obtained by a resident of Germany.
  • Export plates (Ausfuhrkennzeichen) are used for exporting vehicles abroad.[1]: §19  The owner does not have to be a German resident to register the car, but must provide identification such as a passport or ID card. The date on the red strip on the right hand side shows the expiration date of the plate, as it indicates for how long the vehicle insurance and tax are paid. After this date, the vehicle must have left Germany, and is automatically deregistered from the German vehicle registration system. Use of the vehicle within Germany is permitted until the export date.

HistoryEdit

German Empire and Weimar RepublicEdit

 
Licence Plate from Thuringia (1930s)

The first German licence plates that had a lettering plan were issued from 1906 onwards. The various states and realms which made up the German Empire used different prefixes, such as Roman numerals (I representing Prussia, II Bavaria, III Württemberg, etc.) or plain letters (HH for Hansestadt Hamburg, e.g.). Larger states added further identifiers for their provinces or regions. Saxony did not use any statewide numeral and only used Roman numerals for its provinces.[50]

During World War I the German Army was assigned the combination MK for Militärkraftwagen des Deutschen Heeres, military vehicle of the German Army. After the war, during the Weimar Republic, the German Army used RW for Reichswehr. Other than this, there were no significant changes after the overthrow of the German monarchy.

Third Reich eraEdit

 
Army vehicle

During the Nazi regime (1933–1945), the system of licence plates was basically continued. New combinations were issued for nationwide institutions or organisations, such as DR (Deutsche Reichsbahn) for the railway authority, WH Wehrmacht Heer, WL Wehrmacht Luftwaffe, WM Wehrmacht Kriegsmarine and WT Wehrmacht Straßentransportdienst for the military, or POL for the police.

While the Nazi state expanded and waged war, their bureaucrats applied their systems, including licence plates, to occupied countries or territories. Thus, plates of similar style were introduced in Austria, on Czech and Polish territory, in Alsace and Lorraine, and beyond.

Postwar GermanyEdit

After 1945, however, the victorious allied forces abolished the system of German licence plates and instead assigned new lettering combinations in their respective occupation zones. Although each nation implemented their own ideas initially, a system for all four zones was introduced by 1949.[51] At first, the different zones were distinguishable by the first letter prefix A, B, F or S standing for the American, British, French or Soviet occupation zone, respectively. A second letter below indicated the area or country in question, such as   stood for American zone/Bavaria. This area code was followed by a two-digit number signifying the district and another number counting within that area. Often the numbers would become scarce after some years and another zone prefix without the first letter was introduced additionally.

The city of Berlin had a special status and, consequentially, special plates. Having abolished the old I A number plates in 1945, the Soviet occupation forces issued plates with Cyrillic characters at first. Motorcycles were issued БM (=BM, 1945–1946) and ГM (GM, 1945–1947). Cars, lorries and buses received ГФ (=GF, 1945–1946) and БГ (=BG, 1945–1947).[52] These were replaced on the insistence of the western powers, first to KB for Kommandatura Berlin and, in the Eastern part of the city, to GB in 1948.

Vehicles of occupation/NATO forcesEdit

 
occupation 1947 licence plate

The British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), initially occupation forces, later NATO elements, issued servicemen with plates carrying white letters and numerals on a black background for their personal vehicles. These cars stood out in comparison to the black on white German plates, and following the terrorist murder of a British serviceman[citation needed], identified when returning to his car with BAOR licence plates, servicemen had to opt for their cars to carry either UK plates (generally right-hand drive vehicles) or German plates (generally left-hand drive vehicles). During the time that Belgian forces were stationed in West Germany, white on black plates similar to the BAOR plates were used.

US Forces vehiclesEdit

 
“HK” number plate

The American Forces have tried to “blend in” their servicepersons′ private vehicles in another way. Starting in 2000, they adopted a type of license plates which closely resembled the German plates yet bore area codes which were at that time not assigned to any district, i.e. AD, AF and HK,[p] later also IF and QQ. These codes still stood out, especially as they bore the NATO symbol instead of the EU′s circle of stars and the registration seal candidly read Streitkräfte der Vereinigten Staaten in Deutschland instead of, e.g. Bayern, Landkreis Neustadt a.d. Waldnaab. Since 2006, the vehicles in question bear license plates with regular German area codes, generally referring to the district of their official stationing.

East Germany, DDREdit

 
Trabant with East Berlin licence plate

The German Democratic Republic issued their own style of licence plates since 1953. The first letter would indicate the Bezirk or district where the vehicle was registered.[q] These initials, however, did not refer to the name of the Bezirk but were distributed almost alphabetically from North to South.

After German reunification in 1990, the DDR plates were soon abolished and the West German system introduced, starting in 1991 and completed in 1993. Even before this transition phase, it could be observed that licence plates in GDR scheme were produced with West German typeface on the respective machinery.

West GermanyEdit

In July 1956 the current system was introduced in then West Germany, replacing the post-war system.[53] The occupation zones were no longer referred to, instead the new system based on the districts of Germany. Each of these was assigned an alphabetic code which had its origin in the name of the district, i.e. of the city or of the capital of the rural district. Quite often, a “district-free” city was surrounded by, or adjacent to a rural district of the same name. In this case, they would both share the code as well as the name, yet devise a way how to split the possible alphanumerical combinations.

 
Number plate in the 1956 style, from Hannover

The number of letters in the area code hints at the size of the district. The basic idea was to even out the number of characters on all licence plates, because the most populous districts would have more cars and, therefore, more digits after the prefix. The largest German cities generally only have one-letter codes (B=Berlin, M=Munich (München), K=Cologne (Köln), F=Frankfurt, S=Stuttgart, H=Hannover), while most other districts in Germany have two- or three-letter codes. Therefore, cities or districts with fewer letters are generally assumed to be bigger and more important whereas three-letter codes tend to be regarded as rural and dull. Reflecting that, most districts aimed for a combination with fewer letters for their prefix code.

The most significant exception of the one-letter code is Germany's second largest city Hamburg which bears HH for Hansestadt Hamburg, because of its historical membership in the Hanseatic League, reflected already in its prefix used between 1906 and 1945. A similar principle applies to Bremen and Bremerhaven, forming the state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and sharing the common prefix HB (1906–1947, and again since 1956). Likewise, Hansestadt Lübeck received its former prefix HL, already used between 1906 and 1937 when its statehood was abolished.

The first drafts, however, had to be altered in a few cases. The district of Wittlich rejected the code WC, understandably, and received WIL instead. The code KZ, initially projected for Konstanz, was withdrawn fast, due to recent history, and replaced by KN. Neither were SA, SS or HJ considered to be issued. The code SD was projected for Stade and was finally altered into STD after protests from that district who did not want to bear the abbreviation of the Sicherheitsdienst.

When originally planned, the system included codes for districts in Eastern Germany which were to be reserved until reunification. That included the territory of the GDR as well as the territories annexed to Poland and the Soviet Union after World War II, which West Germany's government still claimed in that era until about 1970. When reunification came in 1990, the reserved codes (e.g. P for Potsdam) were indeed issued to East German districts in January 1991, often as originally planned and as they existed at that time.

First changesEdit

Starting in the early 1970s, West German districts were extensively rearranged.[54] In order to reduce their number and so simplify governance, different steps could be taken:

  • city districts “swallowed” neighboring municipalities and thus grew.[example 5]
  • city districts lost their sovereignty and were integrated into the surrounding or neighbouring rural district.[example 6]
  • rural districts merged with one or several others, or were split up between neighbouring districts.[example 7]
  • single municipalities were moved between districts, as was deemed appropriate or practical.

In each of these cases, the new districts had to be endowed with an area code. Again, various solutions were possible:

  • the largest or most populous district bestowed its name and code upon the newly created unit.[example 8]
  • one former district gave its name and/or capital while another's area code was used for the new district.[example 9]
  • the new unit was given a new name yet continued to use an existing area code.[example 10]
  • the new unit was given a new name and created a new area code.[example 11]

In any case, the adamant rule was that one area code per district was valid and would be issued to any vehicle registered henceforth. Existing registrations would remain valid until the vehicle was removed from this district to be either relocated or permanently deregistered. Another rule, however, was abolished. Whereas rural districts had generally been named after their capital town, it was now possible to create new names, applying to geographical[example 12] or historical features.[example 13] As well it was possible to combine the names of the districts that had merged, either keeping one of their codes[example 14] or creating a new one.[example 15]

Germany reunitedEdit

 
Citroen 2CV registered in Erfurt; pre-1994 typeface

When the GDR ceased to exist and Germany was reunited in its present size on 3 October 1990, new area codes were issued to the East German districts. In many cases they could be taken from the old lists that had been prepared before 1956: P stood for Potsdam, EF for Erfurt, SON for Sonneberg. Yet, a considerable number of codes was altered, either because a code which had been reserved for a district in today's Poland or Russia had become available,[example 16] or because the projected code had meanwhile been issued to a West German district.

One example of a reserved code being reused before reunification was one-letter L which was originally planned for Leipzig, but was given to the newly formed Hessian city of Lahn and the district Lahn-Dill-Kreis in 1977, as hopes for reunification faded away. After the rather unexpected reunification (and Lahn city having split up again and thus abolished in 1979), the L was returned to the city of Leipzig and Lahn-Dill-Kreis was issued LDK instead.

The letter G was first reserved for the East German city of Görlitz and later awarded to the city of Gera, although both are smaller than the West German Gelsenkirchen (GE). The area code ZK had been reserved, in the 1950s, for the city of Zwickau but was rejected as ZK had become the abbreviation of the loathed Zentralkomitee of the former Communist party SED.

In analogy to the three northwestern Hansestädte Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck, but without historical examples of formerly issued prefixes, four northeastern Hanseatic cities, Greifswald, Rostock, Stralsund and Wismar, chose the prefixes HGW, HRO, HST and HWI. There were no suitable two-letter codes available since HG, HR, HS and HW were already taken by West German districts.[r]

Beginning in the mid-1990s, however, districts in East Germany were rearranged again, similar to the West two decades before. Thus many of these codes issued before were now outdated, but could still be seen alongside the new code.[example 17] This rearrangement was continued in a second step after 2000, which created large districts with a remarkable variety of possible area codes registered. Still, only one of these was the current one which would be issued to vehicles registered at the moment.

Liberalized registration rulesEdit

After the reorganization of districts, from the 1970s onward, many area codes expired and new ones were created at that time. However, number plates issued before these rearrangements remain valid, providing the vehicle is still in use and has not been reregistered since. So it was still possible, if rare, to see a classic car with registration codes of administrative units that have not existed for over 30 years.[example 18]

 
Überlingen licence plate, reintroduced in Bodenseekreis in 2020

A study conducted in 2010–12 produced the result that 72% of the German population would welcome the possibility to use again these abolished area codes whereas only 13% opposed the idea.[9][55] What was especially striking was that even young people who had never driven a car with such an “old” prefix favoured the idea of this so-called Kennzeichenliberalisierung (licence plate liberalization).[s]

The police, however, warned against this step, as it had turned out that observant citizens would easily notice a car with a number plate from a distant district, thus assisting the police in solving crimes. Plates from the vicinity, on the other hand, would be easier to remember in full, and this would also help to find offenders. More opposition came from local politicians who maintained they had at last succeeded in unifying their merged districts and healed the wounds of those inhabitants who had to give up “their” prefix. If that prefix was available again, they feared, it might lead to old feuds within districts flaming up anew.

Nonetheless, the Federal Ministry of Transport complied with the majority of citizens. Beginning in November 2012 in some districts, and meanwhile nationwide, most of these expired prefix codes have been reintroduced, e.g. in the district of Wesel, it has again become possible to register vehicles with MO as used for the former district of Moers and DIN as used for the former district of Dinslaken, additionally to the standard WES which had been the only code issued since 1975. As of December 2020, the liberalization has led to 323 previously abolished codes being reintroduced.[9]

Furthermore, it has become possible to “take one′s number along”, i.e. to keep a licence plate issued at the previous address after moving away from that district.[56] For that reason, the area code and the respective state seal on a licence plate do not necessarily mean that the vehicle's owner really lives there.[t]

Insurance platesEdit

 
Insurance plates; the colour of the letters is changed every year.
 
Car with maximum speed reduced to 25 km/h (16 mph), hence using an insurance plate.[u]
 
E-Scooter

Light motorised vehicles such as mopeds, motorized wheelchairs and other small, low-power vehicles (such as vehicles for the physically handicapped, with a maximum speed of 50 km/h, 31 mph) are required to have a registration plate of a different kind. This Versicherungskennzeichen (“insurance plate”) uses a system of three digits on the top and three letters beneath. Both numbers and letters are chosen randomly so personalising the plates is not possible. Plates are much smaller[v] than the plates for normal cars and are only valid for one year from 1 March until the end of February the following year.[57] Those plates are sold by insurance companies, so the fee includes both the registration and the cost of one year's insurance for the vehicle. There are four colours used: black, blue, green for normal plates, and red for temporary use, such as testing (very rare). The first three colours are changed every year in order to make it easy to see whether the vehicle has the correct plate and insurance.

Colours of the insurance plates from 1 March onwards of each year
Colour Year
   RAL 9005 (Tiefschwarz, Jet black) 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 2014 2017 2020 2023 2026 2029 2032
   RAL 5012 (Lichtblau, Light blue) 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012 2015 2018 2021 2024 2027 2030 2033
   RAL 6010 (Grasgrün, Grass green) 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 2019 2022 2025 2028 2031 2034

See alsoEdit

AnnotationsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Literally, “Road-Traffic-Admission-Ordinance”, cf. German compounds
  2. ^ Front plate, post-2010 hence without sticker; coloured registration seal of Steinburg district
  3. ^ Front plate with emission test sticker (valid July 1994) and silver registration seal “Stadt Karlsruhe”
  4. ^ Used on a motorcycle, from Osterode am Harz
  5. ^ from Hansestadt Lübeck, final letter H for historic
  6. ^ As necessary on certain cars, such as the rear of a Volkswagen Beetle (VW Käfer)
  7. ^ Up to 9 in Mecklenburgische Seenplatte (district): MSE, AT, DM, MC, MST, MÜR, NZ, RM, WRN
  8. ^ This habit is uncommon in most other European countries but does appear on regular Montenegrin, Croatian and Serbian (letters Đ, Č, Ć, Š and Ž), Åland registration plates (letters Å, Ä and Ö), as well as on Finnish, Swedish (letters Å, Ä and Ö) and Danish (letters Æ, Ø and Å) personal registration plates.
  9. ^ Recently (2020), it has been observed that instead of a hyphen, a colon is written to imitate the pair of stickers, such as A:BC 123.
  10. ^ TOD would have seemed indecent too, as it means death
  11. ^ AH would rather be regarded as an abbreviation for Altenheim (old people's home) or Autohaus (car dealership); cf. German Wikipedia
  12. ^ It was certainly not common to refer to the Nazi „Führer” by his initials, neither before nor after 1945.
  13. ^ These prefixes are defined by federal law in the Fahrzeug-Zulassungsverordnung (FZV) (in German). Appendix 3 defines the unique prefixes for vehicles of federal and state government bodies, agencies, police, the armed forces, diplomatic missions and privileged international organizations.
  14. ^ Universally accepted modifications include changes that benefit safety, such as seat belts and disc brakes, and environmental friendliness, such as catalytic converters and LPG conversions (if invisible from the outside). Further modifications that are generally accepted are those contemporary of the car's first registration (plus and minus 10 years, burden of proof lies with the owner through historic material such as photographs) and new paintjobs of any colour, including two-tone paint if originally offered and historic company logos, but no murals or custom patterns.
  15. ^ Saxony was abbreviated L for Leipzig, to avoid infamous SS.
  16. ^ HK has meanwhile been assigned to Heidekreis
  17. ^ Concerning the term district: The GDR Bezirk consists of several Kreise and is much larger than that unit described as district elsewhere on this page.
  18. ^ HG = Hochtaunuskreis, capital: Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
    HR = Schwalm-Eder-Kreis, capital: Homberg
    HS = Kreis Heinsberg
    HW = Kreis Halle (Westfalen).
  19. ^ It may be possible that they hoped to have a better chance at getting a personalized licence plate if the aspired combination was available not once but several times within their district.
  20. ^ They did so, however, at some time in the past, and may have to buy a new plate when buying a new car.
  21. ^ Additionally, the white sticker reading «25» signals low speed to following drivers.
  22. ^ Regular size 130mm × 101mm (5⅛″×4″); also available as sticker for e-scooters in 67mm × 55mm (2⅝″×2⅛″)

ExamplesEdit

  1. ^ Drivers from Offenbach are slandered to be ohne Verstand (without sense) and even misspell it OF
  2. ^ In Nürnberger Land district e.g., LAU and HEB can be used in any combination, ESB with N only, PEG with A only, N with one-letter identifiers only, yet excluding the “new” letters B/F/G/I/O/Q and S
  3. ^ The Police of North Rhine-Westphalia uses NRW 4, NRW 5 and, for motorbikes, NRW 6 instead of a local code. This is followed by a four-digit number (e.g. NRW 4-1960).
  4. ^ starting with 10 = Vatican; 17 = USA; 49 = UK; etc.
  5. ^ The city of Bielefeld incorporated the largest part of the eponymous rural district, almost doubling their population.
  6. ^ The district-free towns of Marktredwitz and Selb were merged into the district of Wunsiedel.
  7. ^ The district of Springe split up into the districts of Hameln-Pyrmont, Hanover, Hildesheim and Schaumburg.
  8. ^ The urban district of Schwandorf (SAD) merged with the rural districts of Burglengenfeld (BUL), Nabburg (NAB), Neunburg (NEN) and Oberviechtach (OVI) into a new rural district of Schwandorf (SAD).
  9. ^ The Rheingaukreis (RÜD for Rüdesheim) and Untertaunuskreis (SWA for Bad Schwalbach) districts merged into Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, choosing the area code RÜD but the capital Bad Schwalbach.
  10. ^ The districts of Eschwege and Witzenhausen merged into Werra-Meißner-Kreis, using Eschwege's ESW and dropping WIZ.
  11. ^ The districts of Eiderstedt (TÖN for Tönning), Husum (HUS) and Südtondern (NIB for Niebüll) merged into Nordfriesland (NF).
  12. ^ The rural districts of Heidelberg (HD), Mannheim (MA) and part of Sinsheim (SNH) merged into Rhein-Neckar-Kreis (HD); the districts of Alsfeld (ALS) and Lauterbach (LAT) merged into Vogelsbergkreis (VB).
  13. ^ Öhringen (ÖHR) and Künzelsau (KÜN) merged into Hohenlohekreis (KÜN)
  14. ^ The rural districts of Straubing and Bogen merged to Straubing-Bogen, keeping SR (and sharing it with Straubing city district) while dropping Bogen's BOG.
  15. ^ The rural districts of Koblenz and Mayen merged to Mayen-Koblenz, newly introducing MYK while dropping MY and leaving KO to the city of Koblenz.
  16. ^ DZ had once been reserved for Danzig but was now issued to Delitzsch
  17. ^ In Torgau-Oschatz district, merged in 1994, you might well see the new TO alongside Torgau's TG and Oschatz's OZ, at the same time.
  18. ^ EIN = Einbeck, which was merged into Northeim in 1974.

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "Alle Autokennzeichen in Deutschland". bussgeldkatalog.org (in German). 18 November 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Auto Quiz: Kfz Kennzeichen raten" [Guess Car Plates]. Geo-Quiz (in German). Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  4. ^ "Kennzeichengrößen" [Sizes of Licence Plates]. Kennzeichenbox.de (in German). 2020. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  5. ^ Neue 3D-Nummernschilder aus Plastik (in German) by t-online, published: 12 November 2013, accessed: 29 October 2020
  6. ^ Order Your 3D Plates (in German), published 2020, accessed: 29 October 2020
  7. ^ "Kennzeichen mit Sticker bekleben: Ist es erlaubt?" [Sticking a badge on a plate – is it allowed?] (in German). Gutschild Mobilitätsblog. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  8. ^ "Kann das FCN-Logo Urkundenfälschung sein?" [Can the FCN logo be a forgery of documents?]. infranken.de (in German). 5 July 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  9. ^ a b c Bochert, Ralf Prof Dr (October 2020). "Initiative Kennzeichenliberalisierung" [Initiative on the Liberalization of License Plates] (in German). Hochschule Heilbronn. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  10. ^ "Kfz-Kennzeichen Deutschland". KFZ-MAG.de. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
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  13. ^ "Fahrzeugkennzeichen BÜS". Municipality of Büsingen (in German). Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Deutsche Autokennzeichen". Kfz.new. 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
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  18. ^ "Fusion der Stadt Eisenach mit dem Wartburgkreis", retrieved 23 June 2021.
  19. ^ TÜV Nord (31 March 2020). "Abgasuntersuchung: Von der ASU bis zur UMA" (in German). Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  20. ^ "Ruhrbahn | Essen-Bus | Busse in der Ruhrstadt Essen". essen-bus.de. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  21. ^ "Verkehrshistorische Arbeitsgemeinschaft EVAG e.V." vhag-evag.de. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  22. ^ "Wunschkennzeichen". Stadt Nürnberg Ordnungsamt (in German). City of Nuremberg. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  23. ^ a b "Wunschkennzeichen – Stadt Köln". Stadt Köln (in German). • Spezielle und verbotene Kennzeichen: City of Cologne. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Wunschkennzeichenreservierung" (in German). City of Stuttgart. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  25. ^ "M-AH 8888 ist durchgerutscht" [M-AH 8888 slipped through]. Sueddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 9 October 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  26. ^ "Verschärfte Regeln gegen Nazi-Autokennzeichen" [Stricter rules against Nazi plates]. Rheinische Post (in German). 18 September 2010.
  27. ^ "Nicht erlaubt – Hinter diesen Kfz-Kennzeichen stecken Nazi-Codes" [Not allowed – these licence plates conceal nazi codes]. Hamburger Morgenpost (in German). 23 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Nürnberg entfernt NSU-Kennzeichen" [Nuremberg removes NSU plates]. Nürnberger Nachrichten (in German). 9 November 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  29. ^ "IS als Auto-Kennzeichen verbieten?" [Forbidding IS as a licence plate?]. Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). 22 April 2016.
  30. ^ "Autokennzeichen "BUL-LE" aus dem Verkehr gezogen" [Car plate sign "BUL-LE" withdrawn from circulation]. Die Welt (in German). 13 August 2013.
  31. ^ "30 Moerser wollten Kennzeichen MO-RD" [30 Moers people wanted plate "MO-RD"]. Rheinische Post (in German). 13 November 2012.
  32. ^ "Lieber kein SU-FF für Autofahrer" [Rather no SU-FF (booze) for automobilists] (in German). broeltal.de. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
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  34. ^ "Wie sehen Polizeikennzeichen aus?" [How do police plates look?]. Autokennzeichen.de (in German). Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  35. ^ Feuerwehr Essen, (Essen Fire Dept.) (20 March 2007). "FW-E: Feuerwehrfahrzeuge mit neuen KFZ-Kennzeichen unterwegs" [Fire Engines on the road with new number plates] (in German). Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  36. ^ "Auto-Filmfehler bei James Bond" [Car-Filmbugs at James Bond] (in German). Auto Bild. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  37. ^ "Das kosten Kennzeichen" [This is what plates cost] (in German). 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  38. ^ Verbraucherzentrale Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V. (2 December 2014). "Kfz-Kennzeichen: HH auch für Frankfurter". Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  39. ^ "Kaufvertrag fürs Auto" [Sales contract for the car] (in German). ADAC. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  40. ^ "Gebührenordnung für Maßnahmen im Straßenverkehr" [Fees for measures in road traffic] (PDF). Gesetze-im-Internet.de (in German). Bundesministerium der Justiz (Federal Ministry of Justice). 29 June 2020. pp. 13–16. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
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  46. ^ "Bundestag will Vorfahrt für E-Autos" [Bundestag wants Priority for electric cars]. KFZ-betrieb (in German). 5 March 2015. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
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  57. ^ "Jetzt Nummernschild wechseln!" [Change number plate now!]. AutoBild (in German). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.

External linksEdit