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Vaginoplasty is any surgical procedure that results in the construction or reconstruction of the vagina. It is a type of genitoplasty. Pelvic organ prolapse is often treated with one or more surgeries to repair the vagina. Sometimes a vaginoplasty is needed following the treatment or removal of malignant growths or abscesses in order to restore a normal vaginal structure and function. Surgery to the vagina is done to correct congenital defects to the vagina, urethra and rectum. It will correct protrusion of the urinary bladder into the vagina (cystocele) and protrusion of the rectum (rectocele) into the vagina.[1] Often, a vaginoplasty is performed to repair the vagina and its attached structures due to trauma or injury.

Vaginoplasty
ICD-9-CM 70.64, 70.62, 70.64, 70.94, 70.6, 70.95

Congenital disorders such as adrenal hyperplasia can affect the structure and function of the vagina and sometimes the vagina is absent; these can be reconstructed or formed, using a vaginoplasty.[2] Other candidates for the surgery include babies born with a microphallus, people with Müllerian agenesis resulting in vaginal hypoplasia, transgender or transsexual women, and women who have had a vaginectomy after malignancy or trauma.[3][4] Vaginoplasty can reduce the size of the entrance of the vagina or alter the appearance of the vulva.

Contents

Medical usesEdit

Vaginoplasty is the description of the following surgical interventions:

In some instances, extra tissue is needed to reconstruct or construct the vagina. These grafts used in vaginoplasty can be an allogenic, a heterograph, an autograft, xenograft, or a autologous material.[9][10] A woman can use an autologous in vitro cultured tissue taken from her vaginal vestibule as transplanted tissue to form the lining of the reconstructed vagina.[9] A reconstructed or newly constructed vagina is called a neovagina.[11]

Vaginoplasties in childrenEdit

Conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia virilize genetic females due to a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Specific procedures include: clitoral reduction, labiaplasty, normalizing appearance, vagina creation, initiating vaginal dilation.[12] Vaginal atresia, or congenital absence of the vagina can be another reason for surgery to construct a normal and functional vagina.[13] Vaginoplasty is used as part of the series of surgeries needed to treat those girls and women born with the bladder located outside of their abdomen. After the repairs, women have been able to give birth but are at risk of prolapse.[1]

There are human rights concerns about vaginoplasties and other genital surgeries in children who are not old enough to consent,[14][15] including concern with post-surgical sexual function,[16] and assumptions of heteronormativity.[17] There is no consensus attitude amongst clinicians about their necessity, timing, method or evaluation.[12] Vaginoplasties may be performed in children or adolescents with intersex conditions or disorders of sex development.[18]

Risks and complicationsEdit

Reconstructive vaginoplasty in children and adolescents carries the risk of "superinfection".[19]

In adults, rates and types of complications varied with sex reassignment vaginoplasty. Necrosis of the clitoral region was 1-3%. Necrosis of the surgically created vagina was 3.7-4.2%. Vaginal shrinkage occurred was documented in 2-10% of those treated. Stricture, or narrowing of the vaginal orifice was reported in 12-15% of the cases. Of those reporting stricture, 41% underwent a second operation to correct the condition. Necrosis of two scrotal flaps has been described. Posterior vaginal wall is rare complication. Genital pain was reported in 4-9%. Rectovaginal fistula is also rare with only 1% documented. Vaginal prolapse was seen in 1-2% of people assigned male at birth undergoing this procedures.[4]

The ability of emptying the bladder was affected after this procedure with 13% reporting improvement, 68% said that there was no change and 19% reported that voiding got worse. Those reporting a negative outcome experienced in which loss of bladder control and urinary incontinence were 19%. Urinary tract infections occurred in 32% of those treated.[4]

TechniquesEdit

Non-surgical vagina creation was used in the past to treat the congenital absence of a vagina. The procedure involved the wearing of a saddle-like device and the use of increasing-diameter dilators. The procedure took several months and was sometimes painful. It was not effective in every instance.[2] Uncommon growths, cysts, septums in the vagina can also require vaginoplasty.[19]

Reconstructive surgery after cancer treatmentEdit

Radiological cancer treatment can result in the destruction or alteration of vaginal tissues. Vaginoplasty is often performed to reconstruct the vagina and other genital structures. In some cases, normal sexual function can be restored.[3]

McIndoe surgical techniqueEdit

A canal is surgically constructed between the urinary bladder and urethra in the anterior portion of the pelvic region and the rectum. A skin graft is used from another area of the person's body. The graft is removed from the thigh, buttocks, or inguinal region. Other materials have been used to create the lining of the new vagina. These have been cutaneous skin flaps, amniotic membranes, and buccal mucosa.[3][9]

Bowel vaginoplastyEdit

Bowel vaginoplasty is a commonly used method to create an artificial vagina in male-to-female transgender surgery.[4]

Sex reassignment surgeryEdit

Sex reassignment surgery to create a vagina consists of inverting the penile skin or, if a depth increase is necessary, using segments from the large intestine or small intestine. In addition, penile-scrotal skin flaps are also used. Nongenital full-thickness graft (FTG) or split-thickness skin grafts from other parts of the body have been used. Inversion of the penile skin is the method most often selected by surgeons performing sex reassignment surgery. The inverted penile skin uses inferior pedicle skin or abdominal skin for the lining of the created vagina. The skin is cut to form an appropriate-sized flap. The skin flap is sometimes combined with a scrotal or urethral flap.[4] Sex reassignment therapy is often part of the treatment plan.

Elective vaginoplastyEdit

Critics have labeled such surgery as the "designer vagina". The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists issued a warning against these procedures in 2007[20] as did the Royal Australian College of Gynaecologists,[21] and a commentary in the British Medical Journal strongly criticized the "designer vagina" in 2009.[21][22] The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada published a policy statement against elective vaginoplasty based upon the risks associated with unnecessary cosmetic surgery in 2013.[23]

The World Health Organization describes any medically unnecessary surgery to the vaginal tissue and organs as Female genital mutilation.[24]

Vaginal rejuvenation is a form of elective plastic surgery. Its purpose is to restore or enhance the vagina's cosmetic appearance.[22]

LabiaplastyEdit

Labiaplasty can be performed as a discrete surgery, or as a subordinate procedure within a vaginoplasty.[25][19] Some surgeries may be needed for discomfort occurring from chronic labial irritation that develops from tight clothing, sex, sports, or other physical activities.[19]

Hymen surgical proceduresEdit

An imperforate hymen is the presence of tissue that completely covers the vaginal opening. It is cut to allow menstrual flow to exit during a short surgical procedure.[1] A hymenorrhaphy is the surgical procedure that reconstructs the hymen.

Balloon vaginoplastyEdit

In this procedure, a foley catheter is laparoscopically inserted to the rectouterine pouch whereupon gradual traction and distension are applied to create a neovagina.[citation needed]

Pull through or Vecchietti procedureEdit

In treating müllerian agenesis, the Vecchietti procedure is a laparoscopic surgical technique that produces a vagina of dimensions (depth and width) comparable to those of a normal vagina (ca. 8.0 cm. deep).[26][27] A small, plastic sphere (“olive”) is threaded (sutured) against the vaginal area; the threads are drawn though the vaginal skin, up through the abdomen, and through the navel. There, the threads are attached to a traction device, and then daily are drawn tight so that the “olive” is pulled inwards and stretches the vagina, by approximately 1.0 cm. per day, thereby creating a vagina, approximately 7.0 cm. deep by 7.0 cm. wide, in 7 days. The mean operating room (OR) time for the Vecchietti vaginoplasty is approximately 45 minutes; yet, depending upon the patient and her indications, the procedure might require more time.[28] The outcomes of Vecchietti technique via the laparoscopic approach are found to be comparable to the procedure using laparotomy.[29] In vaginal hypoplasia, traction vaginoplasty such as the Vecchietti technique seems to have the highest success rates both anatomically (99%) and functionally (96%) among available treatments.[30][19]

Other surgical techniques that have been developed include ileal neovagina (Monti’s technique), the Creatsas vaginoplasty, the Wharton–Sheares –George neovaginoplasty, or the Davydov procedure. The most widely used is the Vecchietti laparoscopic procedure. Sometimes sexual intercourse can result in the dialation of a newly constructed vagina.[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Baggish, p. 779-798.
  2. ^ a b Gundeti, Mohan (2012). Pediatric Robotic and Reconstructive Urology a Comprehensive Guide. City: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444335538; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hoffman, Barbara (2012). Williams gynecology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071716727. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Horbach, Sophie E.R.; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Smit, Jan Maerten; Özer, Müjde; Buncamper, Marlon E.; Mullender, Margriet G. (2015). "Outcome of Vaginoplasty in Male-to-Female Transgenders: A Systematic Review of Surgical Techniques". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 12 (6): 1499–1512. doi:10.1111/jsm.12868. ISSN 1743-6095. 
  5. ^ a b Hiort, O (2014). Understanding differences and disorders of sex development (DSD. Basel: Karger. ISBN 9783318025590; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "2016 ICD-10-PCS Procedure Code 0UQG0ZZ : Repair Vagina, Open Approach". ICD10Data.com. Retrieved 2016-03-03. 
  7. ^ Baggish, p. 467-474.
  8. ^ Baggish, p. 409-412.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Acién, Pedro; Acién, Maribel (2016-01-01). "The presentation and management of complex female genital malformations". Human Reproduction Update. 22 (1): 48–69. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmv048. ISSN 1355-4786. 
  10. ^ "Online ICD9/ICD9CM codes". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2016-03-01. 
  11. ^ Unger, Cecile A.; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R. (16 October 2014). "18. Construction of the Neovagina". In Farzeen Firoozi. Female Pelvic Surgery. New York: Springer. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-1-4939-1504-0. OCLC 941369411. Retrieved 31 May 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Lee, Peter A.; Nordenström, Anna; Houk, Christopher P.; Ahmed, S. Faisal; Auchus, Richard; Baratz, Arlene; Baratz Dalke, Katharine; Liao, Lih-Mei; Lin-Su, Karen; Looijenga, Leendert H.J.; Mazur, Tom; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L.; Mouriquand, Pierre; Quigley, Charmian A.; Sandberg, David E.; Vilain, Eric; Witchel, Selma; and the Global DSD Update Consortium (2016-01-28). "Global Disorders of Sex Development Update since 2006: Perceptions, Approach and Care". Hormone Research in Paediatrics. 85 (3): 158–180. doi:10.1159/000442975. ISSN 1663-2818. Retrieved 2016-01-30. 
  13. ^ "Müllerian Agenesis: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment - ACOG". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2017-12-26. 
  14. ^ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (October 24, 2016), End violence and harmful medical practices on intersex children and adults, UN and regional experts urge 
  15. ^ "The Social Construction of Female Circumcision: Gender, Equality, and Culture". femalecircumcision. Retrieved 2018-02-11. 
  16. ^ Liao, Lih-Mei; Wood, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M (28 September 2015). "Parental choice on normalising cosmetic genital surgery". The BMJ: –5124. doi:10.1136/bmj.h5124. ISSN 1756-1833. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  17. ^ Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, February 2013.
  18. ^ Lee, P. A.; Houk, C. P.; Ahmed, S. F.; Hughes, I. A. (2006). "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". Pediatrics. 118 (2): e488–500. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0738. PMC 2082839 . PMID 16882788. 
  19. ^ a b c d e Emans.
  20. ^ Zimmerman, Rachel (31 August 2007). "Genital Procedure Draws Warning". Wall Street Journal. 
  21. ^ a b Bourke, Emily (2009-11-12). "Designer vagina craze worries doctors". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 March 2016. 
  22. ^ a b Liao, Lih Mei; Sarah M Creighton (24 May 2007). "Requests for cosmetic genitoplasty: how should healthcare providers respond?". BMJ. British Medical Journal. 334 (7603): 1090–1092. doi:10.1136/bmj.39206.422269.BE. PMC 1877941 . PMID 17525451. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  23. ^ Shaw MBChB, Dorothy; Lefebvre MD, Guylaine; Bouchard MD, Celine; Shapiro MD, MHSc, Jodi; Blake MD, Jennifer; Allen MD, Lisa; Cassell MD, Krista (December 2013). "Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery" (PDF). Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Retrieved 2016-03-07. 
  24. ^ "Female genital mutilation". World Health Organization. 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-07. 
  25. ^ Mirzabeigi MN, Moore JH, Mericli AF, et al. (February 2012). "Current trends in vaginal labioplasty: a survey of plastic surgeons". Ann Plast Surg. 68 (2): 125–34. doi:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31820d6867. PMID 21346521. 
  26. ^ Vecchietti G (1965). "Creation of an Artificial Vagina in Rokitansky–Kster–Hauser Syndrome". Attual Ostet Ginecol. 11: 131–147. 
  27. ^ Fedele L, Bianchi S, Tozzi L, Borruto F, Vignali M (1996). "A New Laparoscopic Procedure for Creation of a Neovagina in Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser Syndrome". Fertility and Sterility. 66: 854–857. 
  28. ^ Fedele, Luigi; Bianchi, Stefano; Zanconato, Giovanni; Raffaelli, Ricciarda; Zatti, Nicoletta (March 2000). "Laparoscopic creation of a neovagina in a woman with a kidney transplant: Case Report". Human Reproduction. pp. 692–693. doi:10.1093/humrep/15.3.692. Retrieved 28 May 2018. 
  29. ^ Borruto, F; Chasen, ST; Chervenak, FA; Fedele, L (Feb 1999). "The Vecchietti procedure for surgical treatment of vaginal agenesis: comparison of laparoscopy and laparotomy". International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 64 (2): 153–8. doi:10.1016/s0020-7292(98)00244-6. PMID 10189024. 
  30. ^ Callens, N.; De Cuypere, G.; De Sutter, P.; Monstrey, S.; Weyers, S.; Hoebeke, P.; Cools, M. (2014). "An update on surgical and non-surgical treatments for vaginal hypoplasia". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (5): 775–801. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu024. ISSN 1355-4786. PMID 24899229. 

BibliographyEdit

  • Baggish, Michael (2016). Atlas of pelvic anatomy and gynecologic surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 9780323225526. 
  • Emans, Herriot (2011). Emans, Laufer, Goldstein's pediatric & adolescent gynecology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health. ISBN 9781608316489. electronic book, no page numbers.