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Vaginal rugae

Vaginal rugae are illustrated in this 1891 medical textbook image

Vaginal rugae are structures of the vagina that are transverse ridges formed out of the supporting tissues and vaginal epithelium in females.[1] Some conditions can cause the disappearance of vaginal rugae and are usually associated with childbirth and prolapse of pelvic structures. The rugae contribute to the resiliency and elasticity of the vagina and its ability to distend and return to its (nearly) previous state.[2][3][4] These structures not only allow expansions and an increase in surface area of the vaginal epithelium, they provide the space necessary for the vaginal microbiota. The shape and structure of the rugae are supported maintained by the lamina propria of the vagina and the anterior and posterior rugae.[5]

The anterior and posterior columnae rugae are transverse vaginal support structures between which the transverse rugae exist. The cross section of the vagina normally forms a shape that resembles the letter 'H' due to these structures.[6]

Vaginal rugae disappear in those with an estrogen deficiency and those women who are older.[7] The rugae can disappear with anterior vaginal wall prolapse which can occur when supports to the portion located between the vagina and bladder are damaged and the bladder bulges into the vaginal lumen. Vaginal self-examination includes visualizing the presence of vaginal rugae.[8] Anatomists identified rugae of the vagina as early as 1824.[9]

Contents

DevelopmentEdit

The appearance and presence of vaginal rugae change over the life span of females and are associated with hormonal cycles, estrogens, childbirth, puberty and menopause. During gynecological examination of prepubescent girls, rugae can be visualized.[10] The vaginal rugae change after menopause. In some older women the rugae are present but become flattened and difficult to see.[11] In others, the rugae tend to disappear.[1]

Clinical considerationsEdit

Other structures can be present on the vaginal wall though most of the time these can be differentiated from rugae.[12][13] Vaginal cysts can be small protrusions into the vagina that can be felt or palpated by a clinician. Vaginal inclusion cysts can appear as small bumps and can develop after childbirth.[12] Other small structures or protrusions can be Gardner duct cysts, patches of endometrial tissue, and benign tumors.[12][14] These cystic structures can obliterate the rugae and is a clue to their presence.[15] The absence of vaginal rugae seen in the normal vagina of a healthy women may be an indication of a prolapsed bladder (cycstocele) or rectocele.[13][12] An enterocele, or bulging of the bowel into the vagina can also cause vaginal rugae disappear.[16] The absence of vaginal rugae may also be an indicator of pelvic organ prolapse.[17][18][19] Vaginal rugae disappear in those with an estrogen deficiency.[7][20]

ChildbirthEdit

Vaginal rugae can disappear during the second stage of labor.[21] After a vaginal birth the rugae are not visible and the walls of the vagina are smooth. By the third week postpartum the vagina has become much smaller and the rugae begin to reform on the vaginal walls. Six weeks after birth, the rugae have returned to approximately the same size as they were before the birth. The number of rugae after childbirth decreases.[22] Those women who have not given birth, the rugae are more prominent than in those who have given birth multiple times.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Rugae of vagina". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17. 
  2. ^ "Stratified Squamous Epithelium: Vaginal Lining and Rugae". blausen.com. Retrieved 15 February 2018. 
  3. ^ Snell, Richard S. (2004). Clinical Anatomy: An Illustrated Review with Questions and Explanations. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781743167. 
  4. ^ Heger, Astrid M.; Emans, S. Jean; Muram, David (2000-09-07). Evaluation of the Sexually Abused Child: A Medical Textbook and Photographic Atlas. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199747825. 
  5. ^ "Vaginal epithelium". www.dartmouth.edu. Dartmouth College. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  6. ^ a b Hafez, E. S.; Kenemans, P. (2012-12-06). Atlas of Human Reproduction: By Scanning Electron Microscopy. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401181402. 
  7. ^ a b http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13697130500042490?needAccess=true
  8. ^ "Vaginal Self-Examination (VSE): Healthwise Medical Information on eMedicineHealth". eMedicineHealth. Retrieved 2018-02-15. 
  9. ^ Clarke, Charles Mansfield (1824). Observations on those diseases of females which are attended by discharges : illustrated by copper-plates of the diseases, &c. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Philadelphia : Carey and Lea. 
  10. ^ Sugar, Naomi; Graham, Elinor (2006). "Common Gynecologic Problems in Prepubertal Girls" (PDF). Pediatrics in Review. 27. 
  11. ^ Bent, Alfred E.; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Swift, Steven E. (2008). Ostergard's Urogynecology and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781770958. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Vaginal cysts: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2018-02-17. 
  13. ^ a b Zimmern, Philippe E.; Haab, Francois; Chapple, Christopher R. (2007-12-09). Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781846283468. 
  14. ^ Kondi-Pafiti, A.; Grapsa, D.; Papakonstantinou, K.; Kairi-Vassilatou, E.; Xasiakos, D. (2008). "Vaginal cysts: a common pathologic entity revisited". Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology. 35 (1): 41–44. ISSN 0390-6663. PMID 18390079. 
  15. ^ Jayaprakash, Sheela; M, Lakshmidevi; G, Sampath Kumar (2011-07-04). "A rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst". BMJ Case Reports. 2011: bcr0220113804. doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2011.3804. ISSN 1757-790X. PMC 3132834 . PMID 22693290. 
  16. ^ Craft, T. M.; Parr, M. J. A.; Nolan, Jerry P. (2004-11-10). Key Topics in Critical Care, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781841843582. 
  17. ^ Zimmern, Philippe E.; Haab, Francois; Chapple, Christopher R. (9 December 2007). "Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse". Springer Science & Business Media. Retrieved 15 February 2018 – via Google Books. 
  18. ^ Walters, Mark D; Karram, Mickey M (2014). Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery. Saunders. pp. 326–341. ISBN 978-0323113779. 
  19. ^ Graham, Sam D.; Keane, Thomas E.; Glenn, James Francis (2010). Glenn's Urologic Surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 238. ISBN 9780781791410. 
  20. ^ Mac Bride, Maire B.; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Shuster, Lynne T. "Vulvovaginal Atrophy". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85 (1): 87–94. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0413. 
  21. ^ Chapple, Christopher R. (2006-01-01). Multidisciplinary Management of Female Pelvic Floor Disorders. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 0443072728. 
  22. ^ O'Connor, Vivienne; Kovacs, Gabor (2003-10-07). Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Women's Health. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521818933.