Glossary of professional wrestling terms
This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable amount of jargon throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of carnivals and circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms.
A management employee, often a former wrestler (though it can be a current wrestler), who helps wrestlers set up matches, plan storylines, give criticisms on matches, and relay instructions from the . Agents often act as a liaison between wrestlers and higher-level management and sometimes may also help in training younger wrestlers. They are referred to by WWE as "producers" and by AEW as "coaches".
A wrestler intentionally cutting themselves (or, more rarely, allowing themselves to be cut by the opponent or referee) to provoke bleeding to the opponent's offense.
To determine and schedule the events of a wrestling . The person in charge of setting up matches and writing is a "booker". It is the wrestling equivalent of a screenwriter. A booker can also be described as someone who recruits and hires talent to work in a particular promotion. The United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa defined a booker in 1956 as "[...] any person who, for a fee or commission, arranges with a promoter or promoters for the performance of wrestlers in professional wrestling exhibitions". Booking is also the term a wrestler uses to describe a scheduled match or appearance on a wrestling show (ie, "a booked match").
A match that ends in a time limit draw.
The lowering (relegation) of a wrestler's status in the eyes of the fans. The opposite of a , it is the act of a promoter or causing a wrestler to lose popularity and credibility through means such as forcing them to lose in matches, losing continuously, allowing opponents to no- or of said wrestler's , or forcing them to participate in unentertaining or degrading storylines. A burial is often used a form of punishment due to real-life backstage disagreements between the wrestler and the booker, the wrestler falling out of favor with the company, or sometimes to demote an unpopular performer or .
The rule that a reigning champion, should they lose during a title defense by countout or disqualification rather than by the traditional means of pinfall or submission, would retain their title despite losing the match; it can sometimes be revoked as part of a storyline.
A point in a match in which the heel stops the face's attack or comeback and goes on the offensive.
Also lackey or heavyA (typically larger) wrestler who accompanies another wrestler as a to matches and acts as a bodyguard.
A wrestler who is heroic, who is to be cheered by fans. are the opposite of faces, and faces commonly perform against heels.
In a tag team match, the member of a team who is dominated by the team for an extended period of the match. The tactic can be used to help get the crowd behind the face tag team and is usually followed up with a . During the 1980s, Ricky Morton of the Rock 'n' Roll Express was typically in this position while teaming with Robert Gibson; so much so that "playing Ricky Morton" has become synonymous with the term.
A brief offensive flurry by a , before losing momentum back to a after being dominated for several minutes. Usually, it occurs before the actual .
The character portrayed by a wrestler. Can be used to refer specifically to the motif or theme evoked by a character, as indicated by their name, costume or other paraphernalia, or to refer to any aspect of the ed presentation, sometimes negatively (eg. a gimmick match).
A who defeats "pure jobbers" as well as mid-card wrestlers in matches, but consistently loses to level wrestlers.
An untelevised event.
A smaller wrestling company that operates at a local (rather than national) level and typically employs freelance wrestlers, as opposed to signing wrestlers to exclusive contracts.
A wrestler who routinely loses in order to build the credibility of other wrestlers.
1. Refers to real-life incidents or events that have not been or scripted and are therefore not part of the fictional and presentation. It is often used to describe a genuine injury to a wrestler, as opposed to one scripted as part of a storyline.
A portion of a match, usually the very start of the match, where two wrestler join together in a collar-and-elbow tie up.
Derisive term given to a member of a tag team who, upon the breakup of the team, achieves markedly less success than their partner. Coined in reference to Marty Jannetty, who teamed with Shawn Michaels to form The Rockers. While Michaels went to become a four-time world champion and two-time WWE Hall of Famer, Jannetty was released from the WWF two months after the team's breakup, and would repeatedly be hired and fired from the promotion (and other promotions) over the next twenty years, almost always participating in storylines which related to his status as Michaels's former partner. Other wrestlers often seen as a Jannetty of a team include Rick Steiner of The Steiner Brothers, Stevie Ray of Harlem Heat, and Jim Neidhart of The Hart Foundation.
A move or series of moves which are mistimed.
A wrestler, often a respected or feared shooter or street fighter, responsible for enforcing the promoter's will against recalcitrant wrestlers by performing unscripted or painful moves within a match, punishing or intimidating them for defying the management. In today's industry it is a largely outdated because such tactics are illegal if they can be proved. Typically it is only still used by and outside commentators who believe one wrestler is deliberately placed in matches against more dangerous opponents and injured deliberately after disagreements with management. While allegations of this sort persist, including being made by wrestlers themselves, few have been proven. Also describes a wrestler who keeps order in the locker room by threats of physical force.
Originally, along with "grunt-and-groan", used by the mainstream media when presenting a derisive story on professional wrestling, which often stereotyped the participants and audience. Now refers to a style of wrestling popular in the Mid-South region of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas (primary city is Memphis, Tennessee), and as a result, the southeastern United States, which emphasizes and , generally with fewer matches and longer , hence the more recent "southern style" or to be specific compared to the Carolinas (Jim Crockett) or Georgia styles, "Memphis style".
When a champion loses his or her title to another, this may be invoked to procure a title rematch in the near future. This fictional clause is often ignored in storylines.
A match finish which occurs sooner (and often differently) than planned. It is used when a wrestler is legitimately injured and cannot continue as planned, when the match is approaching its time limit (or a television segment is running long), or after a botch significantly changes the plot of the match. The term "audible" is also used, referring to the finish being known to happen upon verbal instruction from outside the ring.
Also used to signify the impeding return of a superstar.
To book an angle and/or match so as to explain in kayfabe a wrestler's upcoming (and usually inconvenient) absence, usually in the form of being "injured".
A rookie, particularly in Japanese professional wrestling. The term "young lion" is used for the trainees from the New Japan Pro-Wrestling dojo; although they usually perform at NJPW shows, typically on the lower card, they are also assigned other tasks such as security around the ring.
- "Torch Glossary of Insider Terms". PWTorch.com. 2000. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2007.
- Shoemaker, David (August 13, 2014). "Grantland Dictionary: Pro Wrestling Edition". Grantland. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- Kerrick, George E. (Summer 1980). "The Jargon of Professional Wrestling". American Speech. 55 (2): 142–145. doi:10.2307/3050508. JSTOR 3050508.
- Caldwell, James (April 1, 2015). "ROH news: New Japan's top star announced for ROH vs. New Japan tour, ROH releases "Field of Honor" details". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- 全日諏訪魔ＶＳ大日関本シングル対決実現. Nikkan Sports (in Japanese). December 19, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2016.
- Nicholas Sammond, Steel Chair to the Head: The Pleasure and Pain of Professional Wrestling (2004).
- Riley, Judge William F. (October 15, 1956). "United States v. National Wrestling Alliance (consent decree)". United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa. As hosted at Wrestling Perspective. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
- Foley, Mick. Have A Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks (p.65)
- Ross, Jim (May 5, 2015). "Samoa Joe on Ross Report podcast tonight". JR's BarBQ. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- Clapp, John (February 17, 2013). "WWE Champion The Rock def. CM Punk". WWE. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Whatever Happened to Gorgeous George by Joe Jares, Tempo Books, 1974, p. 85.
- Harley Race, Ricky Steamboat, Les Thatcher. The Professional Wrestlers' Workout & Instructional Guide (p.106)
- Stone Cold Steve Austin. The Stone Cold Truth (p.90)
- Stone Cold Steve Austin. The Stone Cold Truth (p.83)
- "Wrestling Booker's Glossary of pro wrestling terms". Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
- "5 Wrestling moves banned by WWE". FOX Sports. December 20, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- "Grantland Dictionary: Pro Wrestling Edition". grantland.com. August 13, 2014. Retrieved October 24, 2014.
- Rueter, Sean. "Are you a Mark?". Cageside Seats. Vox Media. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
- "Pro Wrestling Primer: Glossary of terms". The Evil Eye Blog. 2009. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Mancuso, Ryan (September 11, 2006). "Complete Playbook: The Great Muta Vol. 2 Revenge of Muta Commercial Tape". 411mania.com. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
- Cory Kilgannon (March 15, 2012). "From Inside a Bad-Guy Wrestler, a Brutal Artist Screamed for Release". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- "Young WWE fan Nicholas teams with Braun Strowman against The Bar". YouTube. WWE. April 8, 2018. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
- "WWE WrestleMania 34 results: Braun Strowman picks 10 year old WWE fan 'Nicholas' as mystery partner". Forbes. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- John Powell (June 18, 2000). "Booker T: Wrestling's consummate performer". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
- Laurer, Joanie. If They Only Knew. pp. 192–193.
- Ross, Jim; J.R.'s Family Bar-B-Q® (December 24, 2013). "#RAW Christmas Feedback..." J.R.'s Place blog. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
- "AAA Triplemania 2017 today, complete lineup". Pro Wrestling Insider. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- X-Pac on: Yokozuna. YouTube. 31 December 2014.
- Kaelberer, Angie Peterson (2003). The Hardy Boyz: Pro Wrestlers Matt and Jeff Hardy. Capstone Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-7368-2142-2.
- Khan, Steve. "Examining Dean Ambrose's roller coaster ride to the top of WWE". Wrestling Observer. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- "The Shield vs. The Wyatt Family: Tale of the Tape". WWE. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- Sammond, Nicholas (2005). Steel Chair to the Head: The Pleasure and Pain of Professional Wrestling. Duke University Press. pp. 211–212. ISBN 0-8223-8682-8.
- "The nWo". Legends of Wrestling. Season 1. Episode 28. 1 July 2011. 2 minutes in. Classics on Demand. WWE.
- "Heart to Hart: 90 Minutes on the Phone with Bret 'The Hitman' Hart". offthetracks.co.nz.
- Beaston, Erik (17 April 2016). "10 Greatest Wrestling Technicians In WWE History". WhatCulture.com.
- Jeff Clark (September 7, 2007). "The Luchagors Drop a Powerbomb". Stomp and Stammer. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
- The Masked Man (David Shoemaker) (June 28, 2011). "Punk'd". Grantland. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013.
- "What is "X-Pac heat"?". Reference.com.
- Beekman, Scott. Ringside: A history of professional wrestling in America (Greenwood, 2006)
- Foley, Mick (2000). Have a Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-103101-1.
- Harley Race; Ricky Steamboat; Les Thatcher (2005). The Professional Wrestlers' Workout & Instructional Guide. Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN 1-58261-947-6.
- Kerrick, George E. "The jargon of professional wrestling". American Speech (1980): 142-145. JSTOR
- Laurer, Joanie (2001). If They Only Knew. ReaganBooks. ISBN 0-06-109895-7.
- Mazer, Sharon. Professional wrestling: sport and spectacle (Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1998)
- Murray, Thomas E. "The language of bodybuilding". American Speech (1984): 195-206. in JSTOR
- Stone Cold Steve Austin; Jim Ross (2003). The Stone Cold Truth. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-7434-7720-0.
- Total Wrestling Terms
- Wrestling Booker's Glossary of pro wrestling terms at the Wayback Machine (archived June 13, 2008)