Vaasa (Finnish: [ˈʋɑːsɑ]; Swedish: Vasa, Finland Swedish: [ˈvɑːsɑ] , Sweden Swedish: [ˈvɑ̂ːsa] ), in the years 1855–1917 as Nikolainkaupunki (Swedish: Nikolajstad; literally meaning "city of Nicholas),[2] is a city on the west coast of Finland. It received its charter in 1606, during the reign of Charles IX of Sweden and is named after the Royal House of Vasa.[1] Vaasa has a population of 68,880 (30 September 2023)[5] (approximately 120,000 in the Vaasa sub-region), and is the regional capital of Ostrobothnia (Swedish: Österbotten; Finnish: Pohjanmaa). Vaasa is also well known as a major university and college city in Finland.[9]

Vaasa
Vasa (Swedish)
City
Vaasan kaupunki
Vasa stad
City of Vaasa
Clockwise from top-left: Vaasa Market Hall, the ruins of Saint Mary Church, the Court of Appeal, the Holy Trinity Church, Vaasa railway station, the Port of Vaasa in Vaskiluoto, and Kurtenia House; and in the middle (from top to bottom) Vaasa City Hall, and the Kauppapuistikko esplanade
Clockwise from top-left: Vaasa Market Hall, the ruins of Saint Mary Church, the Court of Appeal, the Holy Trinity Church, Vaasa railway station, the Port of Vaasa in Vaskiluoto, and Kurtenia House; and in the middle (from top to bottom) Vaasa City Hall, and the Kauppapuistikko esplanade
Flag of Vaasa
Coat of arms of Vaasa
Location of Vaasa in Finland
Location of Vaasa in Finland
Coordinates: 63°06′N 021°37′E / 63.100°N 21.617°E / 63.100; 21.617
Country Finland
Region Ostrobothnia
Sub-regionVaasa sub-region
Charter2 October 1606[1]
Named forHouse of Vasa[1]
Nicholas I of Russia (1855–1917)[2]
Capital city[a]29 January 1918 – 3 May 1918[3]
Government
 • City managerTomas Häyry
Area
 (2018-01-01)[4]
 • City545.14 km2 (210.48 sq mi)
 • Land364.84 km2 (140.87 sq mi)
 • Water208.63 km2 (80.55 sq mi)
 • Urban
66.65 km2 (25.73 sq mi)
 • Rank210th largest in Finland
Population
 (2023-09-30)[5]
 • City68,880
 • Rank14th largest in Finland
 • Density188.8/km2 (489/sq mi)
 • Urban
65,414
 • Urban density981.5/km2 (2,542/sq mi)
Population by native language
 • Finnish66.2% (official)
 • Swedish23.4%
 • Others10.4%
Population by age
 • 0 to 1415%
 • 15 to 6464.4%
 • 65 or older20.6%
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Websitewww.vaasa.fi

The city is bilingual with 66.2% of the population speaking Finnish as their first language and 23.4% speaking Swedish.[6] The surrounding Ostrobothnian municipalities (such as Korsholm and Malax) have a clear Swedish-speaking majority, which is why the Swedish language maintains a strong position in the city, making it the most significant cultural center for Swedish-Finns.[10][11][12]

Vaasa is also known for Tropiclandia Water Park, which is located in the Vaskiluoto Island right next to a local spa hotel.[13] In the immediate vicinity of Tropiclandia was the now deserted Wasalandia Amusement Park, which ceased operations in 2015 due to a small number of visitors.[14][15][16]

History edit

Name edit

Over the years, Vaasa has changed its name several times, due to alternative spellings, political decisions and language condition changes. At first it was called Mustasaari or Mussor after the village where it was founded in 1606, but just a few years later the name was changed to Vasa to honor the royal Swedish lineage. Mustasaari (Finnish) or Korsholm (Swedish) remains as the name of the surrounding mostly rural municipality, which since 1973 surrounds the city. The city was known as Vasa between 1606 and 1855, Nikolajstad (Swedish) and Nikolainkaupunki (Finnish) between 1855 and 1917, named after the then late Czar Nicholas I of Russia,[2] Vasa (Swedish) and Vaasa (Finnish) after the February revolution, with the Finnish spelling of the name being the primary one from around 1930 when Finnish speakers became the majority in the city.

Foundation edit

 
Old Vaasa in the 1840s by Johan Knutsson

The history of Korsholm and also of Vaasa begins in the 14th century, when seafarers from the coastal region in central Sweden disembarked at the present Old Vaasa, and the wasteland owners from Southwest Finland came to guard their land.

In the middle of the century, Saint Mary's Church was built, and in the 1370s the building of the fortress at Korsholm, Crysseborgh, was undertaken, and served as an administrative centre of the Vasa County. King Charles IX of Sweden founded the town of Mustasaari/Mussor on 2 October 1606,[1] around the oldest harbour and trade point around the Korsholm church approximately seven kilometres (4.3 miles) to the southeast from the present city. In 1611, the town was chartered and renamed after the Royal House of Vasa.

Thanks to the sea connections, ship building and trade, especially tar trade, Vaasa flourished in the 17th century and most of the inhabitants earned their living from it.

In 1683, the three-subject or Trivial school moved from Nykarleby to Vaasa, and four years later a new schoolhouse was built in Vaasa. The first library in Finland was founded in Vaasa in 1794. In 1793, Vaasa had 2,178 inhabitants, and in the year of the catastrophic town fire of 1852 the number had risen to 3,200.

Finnish War edit

During the Finnish War, fought between Sweden and Russia in 1808–1809, Vaasa suffered more than any other city. In June 1808, Vaasa was occupied by the Russian forces, and some of the local officials pledged allegiance to the occupying force.

On 25 June 1808 the Swedish colonel Johan Bergenstråhle was sent with 1,500 troops and four cannons to free Vaasa from the 1,700 Russian troops who were led by generalmajor Nikolay Demidov. The Battle of Vaasa started with the Swedish force disembarking north of Vaasa in Österhankmo and advancing all the way to the city where they attacked with 1,100 troops, as some had to be left behind to secure the flank. There was heavy fighting in the streets and in the end the Swedish forces were repelled and forced to retreat back the way they came.

Generalmajor Demidov suspected that the inhabitants of Vaasa had taken to arms and helped the Swedish forces, even though the provincial governor had confiscated all weapons that spring, and he took revenge by letting his men plunder the city for several days. During those days 17 civilians were killed, property was looted and destroyed, many were assaulted and several people were taken to the village of Salmi in Kuortane where they had to endure the physical punishment called running the gauntlet. The massacre in Vaasa was exceptional during the Finnish war as the Russian forces had avoided that kind of cruelty that far. It was probably a result of the frustration the Russians felt because of intensive guerilla activity against them in the region.

On 30 June the Russian forces withdrew from Vaasa, and all officials that had pledged allegiance to Russia were discharged, and some were assaulted by locals. On 13 September the Russian forces returned and on the next day the decisive Battle of Oravais, which was won by Russia, was fought some 50 kilometres (30 mi) further north. By winter 1808, the Russian forces had overrun all of Finland, and in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn (17 September 1809) Sweden lost the whole eastern part of its realm. Vaasa would now become a part of the newly formed Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire.

Town fire edit

 
The Court of Appeal, nowadays the Church of Korsholm, survived the fire of 1852
 
Illustration in Finland framstäldt i teckningar edited by Zacharias Topelius and published 1845–1852.

The mainly wooden and densely built town was almost utterly destroyed in 1852. A fire started in a barn belonging to district court judge J. F. Aurén on the morning of 3 August. At noon the whole town was ablaze and the fire lasted for many hours. By evening, most of the town had burned to the ground. Out of 379 buildings only 24 privately owned buildings had survived, among them the FalanderWasastjerna patrician house (built in 1780–1781) which now houses the Old Vaasa Museum.

The Court of Appeal (built in 1775, nowadays the Church of Korsholm), some Russian guard-houses along with a gunpowder storage and the buildings of the Vaasa provincial hospital (nowadays a psychiatric hospital) also survived the blaze. The ruins of the greystone church, the belfry, the town hall and the trivial school can still be found in their original places. Much of the archived material concerning Vaasa and its inhabitants was destroyed in the fire. According to popular belief, the fire got started when a careless visitor from Vörå fell asleep in Aurén's barn and dropped his pipe in the dry hay.

New town edit

The new town of Nikolaistad (Finnish: Nikolainkaupunki), named after the late Tsar Nicholas I, rose in 1862 about seven kilometres (4.3 miles) to the northwest from the old town. The town's coastal location offered good conditions for seafaring. The town plan was planned by Carl Axel Setterberg in the Empire style. In the master plan the disastrous consequences of the fire were considered. Main streets in the new town were five broad avenues which divided the town into sections. Each block was divided by alleys.

The town was promptly renamed Vasa (Vaasa) after the Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown in 1917.

Capital of Finland edit

 
The Jaeger Battalion on the city square of Vaasa in February 1918. The forces are being inspected by General Mannerheim.

During the Finnish Civil War, Vaasa was the capital of Finland from 29 January to 3 May 1918.[3] As a consequence of the occupation of central places and arresting of politicians in Helsinki the Senate decided to move the senators to Vaasa, where the White Guards that supported the Senate had a strong position and the contacts to the West were good.[17][18]

The Senate of Finland began its work in Vaasa on 1 February 1918, and it had four members. The Senate held its sessions in the Town Hall. To express its gratitude to the town the Senate gave Vaasa the right to add the Cross of Freedom, independent Finland's oldest mark of honour designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, to its coat of arms, to the town's coat of arms.[19][20] The coat of arms is unusual not only in this respect, but also because of its non-standard shape and a crown are included. Because of its role in the civil war, Vaasa became known as "The White City". A Statue of Freedom, depicting a victorious White soldier, was erected in the town square.

Post-war edit

The language conditions in the city shifted in the 1930s, and the majority became Finnish-speaking. Therefore, the primary name also changed from "Vasa" to "Vaasa", according to Finnish spelling.

Post-war, Vaasa was industrialized, led by the electronics manufacturer Strömberg, later merged into ABB.

In 2013 the municipality of Vähäkyrö was merged into Vaasa. It is currently an exclave area of the city, since it is surrounded by other municipalities.

Climate edit

Near the Polar Circle, Vaasa falls in continental subarctic climate (Köppen: Dfc) with severe dry winters and almost warm summers. The prevailing direction of the winds, North Atlantic Current and the proximity of the Gulf of Bothnia give the climate a certainly livability in spite of the latitude, similar to the south of Alaska, where continentality, proximity to the poles and moderation intersect.[21] The Föhn wind, for example, passes over the Scandinavian Mountains and leaves a milder and drier weather in the lee of the mountains where Vaasa is found, affecting especially in the winter which explains sunny days even in the season of short solar duration.[22]

The location of some sea distance gives a seasonal delay of spring and summer at the same time that autumn and winter are affected late. The average annual temperature is 4.7 °C (normal from 1991 to 2020). The low Ostrobothnia usually receives little snow but the contact of cold air with warmer and humid air can generate heavy snowfall. Early summer (as well as spring) tends to be drier and the wettest month does not coincide with the warmer month. End of April is usually the growing season with 250–300 mm approximately.[22] The maritime breeze explains the difference in temperature, distribution of precipitation and sunshine, different from the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Bothnia brings the sea wind in places further distant about 50 km from the coast.[23] The city gets more sun than inland places, although current log are unavailable.[24] The highest ever recorded temperature was 32.2 °C (89.6 °F), on 18 July 2018, although a record of 33.7 °C (92.7 °F) was recorded in the city center the same day, which in fact was the hottest day of Finland in 2018 by slightly edging a temperature recorded in Turku Artukainen of 33.6 °C (92.5 °F), also on 18 July 2018, making it the highest temperature ever recorded in Vaasa.

Climate data for Vaasa, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1961 – present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.7
(45.9)
8.6
(47.5)
14.5
(58.1)
21.8
(71.2)
28.6
(83.5)
31.8
(89.2)
32.2
(90.0)
31.6
(88.9)
27.7
(81.9)
18.5
(65.3)
13.2
(55.8)
8.8
(47.8)
32.2
(90.0)
Average high °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.6
(33.1)
6.0
(42.8)
14.0
(57.2)
18.4
(65.1)
20.6
(69.1)
18.4
(65.1)
12.8
(55.0)
6.9
(44.4)
1.6
(34.9)
−1.6
(29.1)
7.6
(45.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−6.9
(19.6)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.0
(35.6)
8.7
(47.7)
13.6
(56.5)
16.0
(60.8)
14.0
(57.2)
9.0
(48.2)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
−4.6
(23.7)
3.7
(38.7)
Average low °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−10.8
(12.6)
−7.0
(19.4)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.3
(37.9)
8.3
(46.9)
11.0
(51.8)
9.6
(49.3)
5.3
(41.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
−8.4
(16.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
Record low °C (°F) −36.2
(−33.2)
−38.6
(−37.5)
−30.6
(−23.1)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−7.6
(18.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.6
(34.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
−6.0
(21.2)
−15.6
(3.9)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−38.6
(−37.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34.0
(1.34)
20.0
(0.79)
27.0
(1.06)
27.0
(1.06)
31.0
(1.22)
43.0
(1.69)
60.0
(2.36)
63.0
(2.48)
62.0
(2.44)
54.0
(2.13)
50.0
(1.97)
41.0
(1.61)
512
(20.15)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.0 6.0 7.0 6.0 7.0 6.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 10.0 11.0 9.0 100
Mean monthly sunshine hours 29.1 71.9 131.1 190.2 277.5 303.0 282.8 220.0 131.5 84.6 39.8 20.9 1,782.4
Source: FMI[25]

Demographics edit

Population edit

The city of Vaasa has 68,880 inhabitants, making it the 14th most populous municipality in Finland. The Vaasa region has a population of 110,076. In Vaasa, 10.7% of the population has a foreign background, which is above the national average.[26]

Population size of Vaasa (and merged municipalities) 1990–2020[26]
Year Population
1990
58,394
1995
60,399
2000
61,470
2005
61,889
2010
64,345
2015
67,619
2020
67,551

Languages edit

Population by mother tongue (2022)[26]

  Finnish (66.2%)
  Swedish (23.4%)
  Arabic (1.1%)
  Russian (0.8%)
  English (0.7%)
  Somali (0.6%)
  Vietnam (0.6%)
  Other (6.6%)

The city of Vaasa is officially bilingual, with both Finnish and Swedish as official languages. The majority of the population - 45,023 people or 66.2% - speak Finnish as their first language. There are 15,912 Swedish speakers in Vaasa, or 23.4% of the population.[26] 10.4% of the population of Vaasa have a mother tongue other than Finnish or Swedish.[26] As English and Swedish - or Finnish for Swedish speakers - are compulsory school subjects, functional bilingualism or trilingualism acquired through language studies is not uncommon.

At least 50 different languages are spoken in Vaasa. The most common foreign languages are Arabic (1.1%), Russian (0.8%), English (0.7%) and Somali (0.6%).[26]

Immigration edit

Population by country of birth (2022)[26]
Nationality Population %
  Finland 60,681 89.3
  Sweden 784 1.2
  Soviet Union 349 0.5
  Vietnam 347 0.5
  Iraq 336 0.5
  Iran 283 0.4
  Somalia 269 0.4
  Thailand 236 0.3
  India 226 0.3
  China 226 0.3
  Philippines 206 0.3
Other 4,045 5.9

In 2022, there were 7,290 persons with a migrant background living in Vaasa, or 10.7% of the population.[note 1] The number of residents who were born abroad was 7,307, or 10.7% of the population. The number of persons with foreign citizenship living in Vaasa was 4,812.[28] Most foreign-born citizens came from the Sweden, former Soviet Union, Vietnam and Iraq.[26]

The relative share of immigrants in Vaasa's population is above the national average. Moreover, the city's new residents are increasingly of foreign origin. This will increase the proportion of foreign residents in the coming years.

Religion edit

In 2022, the Evangelical Lutheran Church was the largest religious group with 67.0% of the population of Vaasa. Other religious groups accounted for 2.4% of the population. 30.6% of the population had no religious affiliation.[26]

Economy edit

 
The Vaskiluoto power stations in Vaskiluoto, Vaasa

Vaasa is generally speaking an industrial town, with several industrial parks. Industry comprises one-fourth of jobs.[citation needed]

There is a university (University of Vaasa), faculties of Åbo Akademi and Hanken, and two universities of applied sciences in the town. Many workers commute from Korsholm, Laihia, and other municipalities nearby.

The Vaskiluoto power stations complex is situated on the island of Vaskiluoto, supplying electricity to the national grid as well as district heat to the city.[29]

The multi-use cargo and passenger Port of Vaasa is located in Vaskiluoto, connecting Vaasa with Umeå, Sweden, and destinations further afield.[30]

The film production company Future Film has its head office in Vaasa.[31][32] Kotipizza has its head office in the Vaskiluodon Satamaterminaali.[33]

Transport edit

 
Vaasa railway station

Main roads, including highway 3 (E12) and highway 8 (E8), connect Vaasa to Helsinki, Tampere, Oulu, Pori, Jyväskylä, Kokkola and Seinäjoki. There are 419 kilometres (260 mi) from Helsinki to Vaasa, 330 kilometres (210 mi) from Turku, 244 kilometres (152 mi) from Tampere, 319 kilometres (198 mi) from Oulu, 121 kilometres (75 mi) from Kokkola, 99 kilometres (62 mi) from Jakobstad, 193 kilometres (120 mi) from Pori, 83 kilometres (52 mi) from Lapua and 78 kilometres (48 mi) from Seinäjoki. It is also a relatively short distance from Sweden to Vaasa. The tourist route called Blue Highway also runs from the port of Vaasa and through the city. In 1962–1964, other Finnish cities introduced regional speed limits of 50 km/h, but in Vaasa the limit was 60 km/h for a long time.[34]

Vaasa Airport is located about nine kilometers southeast of the city center. Finnair and Scandinavian Airlines operate from Vaasa Airport,[35] but Norwegian Air Shuttle terminated the Vaasa–Helsinki route on 10 January 2020.[36] There is scheduled traffic from Vaasa Airport to Helsinki (flight time 45 min) and Stockholm (flight time 1 h 5 min).[37]

Culture edit

Other sights edit

Sport edit

Education edit

 
Vaasa University of Applied Sciences

Vaasa has three universities. The largest one is the University of Vaasa, which is located in the neighbourhood of Palosaari. Palosaari is a peninsula near the center of Vaasa, connected to it by bridges. The other two universities are Åbo Akademi, headquartered in Turku, and the Hanken School of Economics headquartered in Helsinki. Unique to Vaasa is the Finland-Swedish teachers training school Vasa övningsskola, part of Åbo Akademi. The University of Helsinki also has a small unit, specialized in law studies, in the city centre.

The city has two universities of applied sciences: Vaasa University of Applied Sciences (former Vaasa Polytechnic), located right next to the University of Vaasa, and Novia University of Applied Sciences (former Swedish University of Applied Sciences).

City has about 13,000 university students and about 4,000 vocational school students.[9]

Notable people edit

 
Toivo Kuula

Twin towns edit

As of 2006, Vaasa has town twinning treaties or treaties of cooperation signed with the following ten cities:[38][39]

City Province Country Year
Malmö   Scania   Sweden 19401
Umeå   Västerbotten   Sweden 19402
Harstad   Troms   Norway 19492
Helsingør Capital Region of Denmark   Denmark 19492
Pärnu   Pärnu County   Estonia 19562
Schwerin   Mecklenburg-Vorpommern   Germany 19652
Kiel   Schleswig-Holstein   Germany 19672
Šumperk   Olomouc Region   Czech Republic 19842
Morogoro   Morogoro Region   Tanzania 19883
Bellingham   Washington   United States 20094

^1 Godfather Town
^2 Twin Town
^3 Cooperation Treaty
^4 Sister City

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ During the Finnish Civil War
  1. ^ Statistics Finland classifies a person as having a "foreign background" if both parents or the only known parent were born abroad.[27]

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d HS: Kaarle IX perusti Vaasan 1606 (in Finnish)
  2. ^ a b c Vaasa oli ennen Nikolainkaupunki ja Aurinkolahti Mustalahti – paikannimiä ei kuitenkaan pidä muuttaa heppoisin perusteinKaleva (in Finnish)
  3. ^ a b Vaasa, Finland – Britannica
  4. ^ "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Preliminary population statistics 2023, September". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Demographic Structure by area as of 31 December 2022". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  7. ^ "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003–2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Luettelo kuntien ja seurakuntien tuloveroprosenteista vuonna 2023". Tax Administration of Finland. 14 November 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  9. ^ a b Todellinen opiskelijakaupunki – Vaasa (in Finnish)
  10. ^ Vaasa (Vasa) – Åbo Akademi University
  11. ^ Vaasan monipuolinen kulttuuri – Rannikkoseudun Sanomat (in Finnish)
  12. ^ FinWest: Vaasa – viihdyttävä kesäkaupunki (in Finnish)
  13. ^ Tropiclandia – Official Site (in English)
  14. ^ YLE: Huvipuisto Wasalandia sulkee porttinsa (in Finnish)
  15. ^ YLE: Aavekaupunki tervehtii turisteja Vaasassa – Wasalandian raunioiden kohtalo on edelleen täysin auki (in Finnish)
  16. ^ IL: Huvipuisto Wasalandia suljettiin kolme vuotta sitten - alue autioitui niille sijoilleen ja ammottaa nyt kolkkoa tyhjyyttään (in Finnish)
  17. ^ Tuomas Tepora & Aapo Roselius (2014). "The War of Liberation, the Civil Guards, and the Veterans' Union: Public Memory in the Interwar Period". The Finnish Civil War 1918. History of Warfare (vol. 101). ISBN 978-90-04-24366-8.
  18. ^ "«Reds» vs. «Whites»: The Finnish Civil War (January- May 1918)". Europe Centenary. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  19. ^ "Vaasa täyttää lauantaina 415 vuotta – Kaupunginjohtaja Tomas Häyry esittelee työkseen kaupungin hyviä puolia vieraille". Vaasa (in Finnish). 29 September 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  20. ^ "Ennen 8.4.1949 annettua kunnanvaakunalakia vahvistetut vaakunat ja vahvistamispäätökset I:7 Vaasa" (in Finnish). Kansallisarkiston digitaaliarkisto. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  21. ^ "Vaasa, Finland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  22. ^ a b Ilmasto-opas.fi. "Suomen muuttuva ilmasto - Ilmasto-opas.fi". Ilmasto-opas (in Finnish). Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  23. ^ "Merituuli ja maatuuli - Ilmatieteen laitos". ilmatieteenlaitos.fi. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Kesätilastot - Ilmatieteen laitos". ilmatieteenlaitos.fi. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Suomen maakuntien ilmasto - Vaasa Airport Weather Station" (PDF). FMI. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Number of foreign-language speakers grew by nearly 38,000 persons". Statistics Finland. 31 May 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  27. ^ "Persons with foreign background". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Population structure 2000-2022, urban-rural classification". Statistics Finland. 26 May 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  29. ^ "Vaskiluodon Voima in brief". VV.fi. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  30. ^ "Kvarken Ports Vaasa". KvarkenPorts.com. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  31. ^ "Etusivu." Future Film. Retrieved on 19 January 2011. "Future Film Oy - Hovrättsesplanaden 9, 65100 VAASA - FIN"
  32. ^ "Contact Information Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine." Future Film. Retrieved on 19 January 2011. "Office Oy Future Film Ab Hovioikeudenpuistikko 9 65100 VAASA FINLAND"
  33. ^ "Yhteystiedot & Palaute." Kotipizza. Retrieved on 11 October 2011. "Käyntiosoite: Vaskiluodon Satamaterminaali II kerros, 65170 Vaasa"
  34. ^ Jokela, Marko (3 February 2013). "Tappavia ylinopeuksia on suitsittu neljä vuosikymmentä". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). p. A12.
  35. ^ "Löydä hyödyllinen luettelo kaikista lentoyhtiöistä, jotka lentävät lentokentälle Vaasa!". www.skyscanner.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  36. ^ "Norwegian lopettaa Vaasan reitin". YLE (in Finnish). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  37. ^ Lentomatkat: AikatauluhakuFinavia (in Finnish)
  38. ^ "Vänorter" (in Swedish). Malmö stad. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  39. ^ Bellingham Sister Cities Association,

Bibliography edit

  • Julkunen, Mikko: Vaasa - Vasa. Vaasa: Vaasa, 1982. ISBN 951-660-076-X (Photo book with English text.)

External links edit

  • Vaasa – Official website (in English)
  • Vaasa – Official website (in Finnish)
  • Vasa – Official website (in Swedish)
  • Tourist's Vaasa (in Finnish, Swedish, and English)