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Uzhhorod or Uzhgorod (Ukrainian: Ужгород, Ukrainian pronunciation: [ˈuʒɦɔrɔd], Russian: Ужгород Uzhgorod, German: Ungwar, Hungarian: Ungvár) is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary. It is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorod Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as city of oblast significance, a status equivalent to that of a raion, and does not belong to Uzhhorod Raion. Population: 115,163 (2016 est.)[2].

Uzhhorod
Ужгород
City of regional significance
A panoramic view of Uzhhorod and the Greek Catholic Cathedral in the centre of the image
A panoramic view of Uzhhorod and the Greek Catholic Cathedral in the centre of the image
Flag of Uzhhorod
Flag
Coat of arms of Uzhhorod
Coat of arms
Map of Zakarpattia Oblast with Uzhhorod.
Map of Zakarpattia Oblast with Uzhhorod.
Uzhhorod is located in Zakarpattia Oblast
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod is located in Ukraine
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Location of Uzhhorod
Coordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°E / 48.62389; 22.29500Coordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°E / 48.62389; 22.29500
Country  Ukraine
Oblast  Zakarpattia Oblast
Raion Uzhhorod Municipality
Founded 9th century
Government
 • Mayor Bohdan Andriyiv (Revival)[1]
Area
 • Total 65 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation 169 m (554 ft)
Population (2016)
 • Total 115,163
 • Density 3,662/km2 (9,480/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 88000
Area code(s) +380,312
Sister cities Békéscsaba, Nyíregyháza, Moscow, Orel, Pula, Corvallis, Darmstadt, Košice
Climate Cfb
Uzhhorod's former synagogue, now the Philharmonic Orchestra.

Contents

NameEdit

The city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts (the old and new sections), while horod (город) is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad (градъ). However, this name is a recent construct, and has been used only since the beginning of the 20th century. Before then, the city was known as Ungvár, also spelled Ongvár, Hungvár, and Unguyvar, a name derived from Ung, the Hungarian name for the Uzh (as well as the surrounding county) and vár, meaning castle, fort.

It is also known by several alternative names: Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; Polish: Użhorod; Romanian: Ujgorod.

HistoryEdit

Historical affiliations

Great Moravia pre-895
  Principality of Hungary 895 - 1000
  Kingdom of Hungary 1000 - 1526
  Kingdom of Hungary (crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy) 1526-1804
  Austrian Empire 1804-1867
  Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867-1918
  Czechoslovakia 1919–1938
  Kingdom of Hungary 1938–1944
  Soviet Union 1944–1991
  Ukraine 1991–present

Early historyEdit

 
Old city and Roman Catholic church, Greek Catholic Cathedral, Uzhhorod

The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs. One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD. During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the centre of a new Slavonic principality, at the head of which was a mythical prince Laborets, who was vassal of Great Moravia. Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia. This was used as a justification by Slavs to say that they had a right to the region.

In 895 AD Hungarian tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress. The forces were not equal and Laborets was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name. Again, this is mythical. There was not much of a settlement when the Magyar tribes arrived, having left Kiev (then known as Kevevara) and encountering no resistance.

After the arrival of the Hungarians, the small town began to extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. In the early 14th century Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty. Although the majority of inhabitants were Hungarians, they wanted more freedom. From 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths (Italian counts) owned the town. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle. The name Ungvar in Hungarian meaning Castle of Ung. Together with the castle the city began to grow. From 1430, Uzhhorod became a free royal town.

During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between primarily Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Ungvar Union was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Ungvar castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvar was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader of the national-liberation war of Hungarians against Vienna.

The beginning of the 19th century was characterized by economic changes, including the first factories in the city. The greatest influence on Ungvar among the political events of the 19th century was made by the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, during which the native Hungarian nobility sought both get free of the Austrian Empire and to have authority over their own people. 27 March 1848 was officially celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. It is now celebrated in Hungary on the 15th of March.

In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of [[Chop, Ukraine|Chop] then known as Csap].

Twentieth centuryEdit

According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs.[3] For some reason this census does not mention the Jewish population, which was significant, and consisted of about 31% in 1910.[4] In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 (39.05%) Hungarians, 9,908 (36.71%) Slovaks, and 5,520 (20.45%) Rusyns.[5]

The First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919 Subcarpathia was officially allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city. After the Treaty of Trianon 1920, Uzhhorod became part of the Slovak half of the new Czecho-Slovak state.

 
11th-century Rotunda in Horiany

After the First Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod was given back to Hungary from which it was forceably separated after WWI. The inhabitants did not wish to become a part of Czechoslovakia but their wishes were not honored. The city reverted to its original name of Ungvar.[1]

In 1941 the Jewish population reached 9,576. On 19 March 1944 Germans troops entered the city. They established a Judenrat (Jewish council) and set up 2 ghetto's at the Moskovitz brickyard and at the Gluck lumberyard. During May 1944 in 5 different transports, all Jews were deported to Auschwitz and subsequently murdered. Only a few hundred Jews survived.[6]

On 27 October 1944 the city was captured by the troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army. [2] Thousands of ethnic Hungarians were killed, expelled, or else taken to work in Soviet forced labor camps. The Hungarian majority population was decimated in order to strengthen the Soviet and Ukrainian right to the city.

This period brought significant changes. At the outskirts of Uzhhorod new enterprises were constructed and the old enterprises were renewed.[3] On 29 June 1945 Subcarpathian Ukraine was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a westernmost part of the Ukrainian SSR. That year the Uzhhorod State University (now Uzhhorod National University) was also opened. Since January 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska oblast.[4]

Since 1991 Uzhhorod has become one of 24 regional capitals within Ukraine. Of these, Uzhhorod is the smallest and westernmost.

In 2002, after some controversy,[by whom?] a bust of Tomáš Masaryk, Czechoslovakia's first president, was unveiled in a main square of the city. A similar bust was unveiled in 1928 on the 10th anniversary of Czechoslovak independence, but was removed by the Hungarians when they took over the region in 1939 and the city was renamed Ungvar as it had been for almost 1000 years.[5]

ClimateEdit

 
Cherry blossoms in Uzhhorod

Uzhhorod has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), close to the borderline of the humid continental climate (Dfb) with cool to cold winters and warm summers. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) while the warmest month is July with an average temperature of 20.9 °C (69.6 °F).[7] The coldest temperature ever recorded is −28.2 °C (−18.8 °F) and the warmest temperature was 38.6 °C (101.5 °F). Average annual precipitation is 748 millimetres (29.4 in), which is evenly distributed throughout the year though the summer months have higher precipitation.[7] On average, Uzhhorod receives 1950 hours of sunshine per year[8]

 
Wooden Greek-Catholic church in the Museum of Folk Architecture.
Climate data for Uzhhorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63)
25.4
(77.7)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95)
38.6
(101.5)
38.4
(101.1)
35.9
(96.6)
26.1
(79)
21.6
(70.9)
15.6
(60.1)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
3.7
(38.7)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
21.2
(70.2)
15.4
(59.7)
8.2
(46.8)
2.7
(36.9)
14.9
(58.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.0
(41)
11.0
(51.8)
16.1
(61)
18.8
(65.8)
20.9
(69.6)
20.3
(68.5)
15.5
(59.9)
10.3
(50.5)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.6
(33.1)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
13.1
(55.6)
15.0
(59)
14.5
(58.1)
10.3
(50.5)
5.7
(42.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F) −28.2
(−18.8)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.2
(28)
−9.3
(15.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−28.2
(−18.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53
(2.09)
50
(1.97)
43
(1.69)
49
(1.93)
74
(2.91)
76
(2.99)
80
(3.15)
74
(2.91)
72
(2.83)
56
(2.2)
57
(2.24)
68
(2.68)
752
(29.61)
Average rainy days 11 10 13 15 16 16 15 13 13 13 14 13 162
Average snowy days 14 12 5 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.3 5 12 49
Average relative humidity (%) 82 76 67 62 65 68 67 69 73 76 80 83 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59 87 142 190 246 249 274 253 192 151 63 46 1,952
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[7]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[8]

DemographicsEdit

According to the Ukrainian 2001 census, the population of Uzhhorod included:[9]

TransportEdit

Uzhhorod is served by Uzhhorod railway station and has railway connection with Chop (further to Hungary and Slovakia) and Lviv (further to Kiev).

Uzhhorod is served by Uzhhorod International Airport with direct flights to Kiev.

Local public transportation is represented by buses.

SportEdit

The city was home to the SC Rusj Uzhorod football club from 1925. Contemporary side FC Hoverla Uzhhorod made their debut in the Ukrainian Premier League in 2001.

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Uzhhorod is currently twinned with:

Notable residentsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vidrodzhennia Party's Andriyiv wins Uzhgorod mayoral election, Interfax-Ukraine (16 November 2015)
  2. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  3. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó
  4. ^ KATZ, Marshall J. "Uzhhorod (Ungvár), Ukraine KehilaLink". kehilalinks.jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2017-05-08. 
  5. ^ "Ung County". Genealogy Online. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  6. ^ "Uzhorod". Kehilalinks. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c "Pogoda.ru.net". Weather and Climate for Uzhhorod (in Russian). Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  8. ^ a b "Uzgorod (Uzhhorod) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  9. ^ "Zakarpattia Region". Ukrainian 2001 census. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  10. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  12. ^ "Krosno Official Website – Partner Cities" (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Krosna. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  13. ^ "Jarosław Official Website – Partner Cities" (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Jarosław. Ul. Rynek 1, 37–500 Jarosław. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  14. ^ "Protocol de colaborare Ujgorod-Satu Mare" (in Romanian). www.satu-mare.ro. Retrieved 27 June 2009. 

External linksEdit