The Utica Psychiatric Center, also known as Utica State Hospital, opened in Utica on January 16, 1843. It was New York's first state-run facility designed to care for the mentally ill, and one of the first such institutions in the United States. It was originally called the New York State Lunatic Asylum at Utica. The Greek Revival structure was designed by Captain William Clarke and its construction was funded by the state and by contributions from Utica residents.
Utica State Hospital, Main Building
|Location||1213 Court Street, Utica, New York 13502|
|Architect||Capt. William Clarke, Andrew Jackson Downing|
|Architectural style||Greek Revival|
|NRHP reference No.||71000548|
|Added to NRHP||October 26, 1971|
|Designated NHL||July 30, 1989|
|Designated NYSRHP||June 23, 1980|
In 1977, the last patients were transferred to other care facilities and the hospital was closed. The hospital building is now used as a records archive for the New York State Office of Mental Health. It has been a National Historic Landmark since 1989. The building sits on the present-day campus of the Mohawk Valley Psychiatric Center along with newer buildings, some of which are still in use for psychiatric and other medical care.
The original plans for the hospital included four identical buildings, set at right angles to one another with a central courtyard. Due to a lack of funds, construction was halted after the first building was completed. This building (Old Main) stands over 50 feet (15 m) high, 550 feet (170 m) long, and nearly 50 feet (15 m) in depth. The six Greek style columns that decorate the front of Old Main stand at 48 feet (15 m) tall and each has an eight-foot (2.4 m) diameter.
The hospital filled quickly and more beds were needed, so the building was enlarged by the addition of wings on either end. These wings opened in 1846, and in 1850, the accommodations were listed as: "380 single rooms for patients, 24 for their attendants, 20 dormitories each accommodating from 5 to 12 persons, 16 parlors or day rooms, 12 dining rooms, 24 bathing rooms, 24 closets and 24 water closets".
The hospital's first director, Amariah Brigham, thought that mental illness was the result of a bad environment, so the facility provided patients with spatious rooms, good nutrition, as well as physical exercise and mental stimulus. He believed in "labor as the most essential of our curative means". Accordingly, patients were encouraged to participate in outdoor tasks, such as gardening, and handicrafts, such as needlework and carpentry. Brigham also introduced an annual fair at the hospital to display and sell items created by the patients. The first fair, in 1844, raised $200, which went toward an addition to the library, musical instruments, and a greenhouse.
Some of the asylum inmates also printed a newspaper, called The Opal (10 volumes, 1851–1860), which contained articles, poems, and drawings produced by the patients. Another analysis, from the perspective of modern psychiatric survivors, is that The Opal, while seeming to give power to inmates, really was just another form of slavery. However, this analysis contradicts the editors of The Opal, who insisted their writing and publication was their work alone. In this respect, The Opal provided certain inmates with a creative outlet.
In 1852, Old Main's first floor stairway caught fire. Patients and staff were safely evacuated, but a firefighter and doctor were killed while trying to salvage items from the building. The entire center portion of the building was destroyed. Four days after the fire at Old Main, a barn on the asylum grounds caught fire. William Spiers, a convicted arsonist, former patient, and sporadic employee, was arrested after admitting to setting both fires because he was angry with his supervisor.
A Secret Institution (1890), a 19th-century autobiographical narrative, describes Clarissa Caldwell Lathrop's institutionalization at the asylum for voicing suspicions that someone was trying to poison her.
American Journal of Insanity Edit
In 1844, Brigham founded the first English-language journal devoted to the subject of mental illness, American Journal of Insanity. Brigham was the editor-in-chief, and the journal was printed in the Utica State Hospital printing shop. After Brigham's death, the journal became the property of the hospital and in 1894, the American Medico-Psychological Association bought the journal for $994.50. The journal was later renamed the American Psychiatric Journal.
Utica crib Edit
Brigham disliked the then-current practice of using chains to restrain patients, and invented the "Utica crib" as an alternative. The Utica crib was an ordinary bed with a thick mattress on the bottom, slats on the sides, and a hinged top that could be locked from the outside. It was eighteen inches (460 mm) deep, eight feet (2.4 m) long, and three feet (0.91 m) wide. Doctors used the Utica crib to control and calm patients who were out of control. While use of the Utica crib was widely criticized, some patients found it to have important therapeutic value. One patient who had slept in the Utica crib for several days commented that he had rested better and found it useful for "all crazy fellows as I, whose spirit is willing, but whose flesh is weak".
In the Edinburgh Medical Journal (February 1878), Dr. Lindsay and other physicians at the Murray Royal Institution at Perth recommended the Utica crib. Lindsay stated that "the bed was practical and safe to patients." However, Dr. Hammond and Dr. Mycert of the Utica State Hospital attacked the Utica crib. Mycert stated that "the crib is at most barbarous and unscientific because there is already a tendency to determine the blood to the brain in excited forms of insanity which is released by the horizontal position in the crib and struggles the patient." Mycert also compared the Utica crib to a coffin. Hammond stated that sometimes patients died from being in the Utica crib. Some of these deaths occurred when attendants thought the patients were out of control when, in fact, they were having a heart attack, a stroke, or some other type of serious health problem. On January 18, 1887, with the help of George Alder Blumer, all Utica cribs were removed from the Utica State Hospital.
Notable people Edit
Left side (East end) of Main Building
Center of Main Building
Right side (West end) of Main Building
Front of the Utica Psychiatric Center Doctors House
Front view of the Utica Psychiatric Center Doctors House.
Utica Psychiatric Center Doctors House - Rear Right
The rear of the Utica Psychiatric Center Doctors House.
Utica Psychiatric Center Doctors House being demolished during the summer of 2015.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
- "Utica State Hospital, Main Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 13, 2007. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
- Lucy Clark (1943). "A Century of Progress at Utica State Hospital, 1843-1943" (brochure/PDF). Utica State Hospital Alumnae Association.
- "Utica State Hospital: History". Asylums of New York State.
- Carolyn Pitts (February 14, 1989). "Utica State Hospital Main Building". National Register of Historic Places Registration. National Park Service. and Accompanying photos, exterior and interior, from 1988, and renderings, from various dates (5.04 MB)
- "Mohawk Valley Psychiatric Center". omh.ny.gov. Retrieved July 26, 2023.
- Edmonson, Brad. "Utica State Hospital". Ancestry.com.
- Senner, Madis (2017). Sacred Sites in North Star Country. Syracuse, New York: Mother Earth Press. p. 148. ISBN 9780990874416.
- "Old Main (Utica Psychiatric Center)". Utica Observer-Dispatch.
- Boudner, Karen, Christensen, Marvin, Daniels, Jill, Engall, Barbara, Harris, Nancy, Kotwal, Manek, M.D., Montague, Carolyn. "Utica State Hospital: 135 Years of Excellence." Utica: Mohawk Valley Psychriatric Center, 1993. Print.
- Tenney, L. Psychiatric Slave No More: Parallels to a Black Liberation Psychology. Journal of Radical Psychology, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20160415030011/http://www.radicalpsychology.org/vol7-1/tenney2008.html
- Tenney, L. "Mental American Monster: The Sprawl of American Psychiatry". www.MentalAmericanMonster.org Lauren Tenney, 2020
- Harf, Mark (October 14, 1986). "Utica State Hospital". New York Times.
- Journal of Insanity October 1864 Archived August 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- Hammond, W. A. (November 25, 1879). "The Treatment of the Mentally Insane". Utica Morning Herald and Daily Gazette.
- Stevens, Joshua (September 1889). "Utica Crib Controversy". New York Times. New York Times.
- "Dr. E. N. Brush, Psychiatrist, Dies at Home". The Baltimore Sun. January 11, 1933. p. 18. Retrieved March 22, 2023 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Diseases of the Mind: Highlights of American Psychiatry through 1900". United States National Library of Medicine. March 24, 2015. Archived from the original on March 22, 2023. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
- Dann, Norman K. (2009). Practical Dreamer. Gerrit Smith and the campaign for Social Reform. Hamilton, New York: Log Cabin Books. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-9755548-7-6.