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Ustād (abbreviated as Ust., Ut. or Ud.; from Persian استاد) is an honorific title for a man used in the Middle East, South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is used in various languages of the Muslim World, including Persian, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Pashto, Turkish, Indonesian, Malay and Kurdish.

UsageEdit

The title precedes the name and was historically usually used for well-regarded teachers and artists, most often musicians, and is applied and used via informal social agreement.

Aside from the honorific, the word is generally used by its literal meaning to refer to any teacher, master or expert in Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi.

In Persian and in the Arabic-speaking world, it also refers to a university professor.

The title is also used for qualified Islamic scholars in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore. It is a direct equivalent of terms such as Shaykh in the Arab world, and Mawlānā in the Indian Subcontinent. In the Maldives, the title is used by people who are licensed to practice law in the Maldives.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Baily, John (2001). "Ustād". In Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-333-60800-3.
  • Platts dictionary