Open main menu
Kingdom of Hungary in the 13th century
Banate of Usora in the early 15th century

Usora (Latin: Vozora, Hungarian: Ózora) was a semi-independent banate (Duchy) in medieval Bosnia and also an administrative division in Croatia in the union with Hungary. It took its name from the river Usora.

The region of Usora was first mentioned in a bull (decree) by King Bela IV of Hungary dated 20 July 1244, in which he assigned some properties to the Bishop of Bosnia, naming the territories: quod episeopus (Bosnensis) et capitulum decimas in Vozora, in Sou, in Olfeld et in aliis supis ... habeant et percipiant (Vozora meaning Usora, Sou meaning Soli, and Olfeld meaning Donji Kraji).[1][2]

Its territory stretched roughly from the area of Kulaši and Prnjavor to its west, to Srebrenik and Lukavac to its east, the river Sava to its north and Žepče to its south. The Banate of Usora had many strong fortresses and cities on its territory, the most famous ones being Doboj (12th/13th century), Srebrenik (1333), Dobor (1387), Glaz (12th century), Soko (14th century), Tešanj (14th century), Modrić (14th century), and Maglaj (15th century). Also, due to its geographical location (Pannonian plateau) as the northernmost Bosnian land and its richness, Usora was, more often than not, a most common battleground between the Bosnian kingdom and the Kingdom of Hungary. The most famous battles include Battle of Srebrenik (1363), Battle of Dobor (1394 and 1408), and the Battle of Doboj (1415). Several times this duchy/banate had been separated from the rest of the Bosnian Kingdom (and attached to Hungary, banate of Slavonia) temporarily, only to be reunited once again.

BansEdit

  • 1190s-1220: Stefan, likely also ban of Soli, first historically documented ban of Usora
  • 1220-1241: Sibislav, son of ban Stefan, supporting Hungary in its crusade against Bosnian heretics (members of Bosnian Church)
  • 1241–1247: Matej Ninoslav, also ban of Bosnia proper, waged defensive war against Hungary. After the loss of Usora to Hungarians, remained the ban of all other Bosnian lands until his death in 1250
  • 1247–1262: Rostislav Mikhailovich, Russian prince from Rurik dynasty, also Duke of Macso, appointed by the king of Hungary
  • 1262–1272: Bela, son of Rostislav, also Duke of Macso, appointed by the king of Hungary
  • 1272–1273: Henry I Kőszegi, also ban of Soli, appointed by the king of Hungary
  • 1273-1275: Ernye Ákos, also ban of Soli, appointed by the king of Hungary
  • 1282-1316: Stefan Dragutin, also king of Syrmia, appointed by the king of Hungary
  • 1316-1323: Vladislav, also king of Syrmia, son of the preceding
  • 1323-1324: Stefan Dečanski, also king of Serbia, conqueror
  • 1324-1329: Stjepan, also ban of Bosnia, grandson of Vladislav
  • 1329-1353: Vojko, Duke of Usora (Soli region absorbed into Usora by 1330), appointed by Stephen II Kotromanic, ban of Bosnia
  • 1353-1377: Tvrtko Ivahnic, Duke of Usora, supporter of king Tvrtko I Kotromanic, first Bosnian king
  • 1377-1395: Vlatko Tvrtkovic, son of Duke Tvrtko of Usora, supporter of Bosnian king Tvrtko I Kotromanic
  • 1395-1400: Vucihna Vlatkovic, son of Duke Vlatko of Usora, supporter of Bosnian king Dabisa Kotromanic
  • 1400-1424: Vukmir Zlatonosovic, supporter of Bosnian royal Kotromanic family
  • 1424-1430: Vukasin Zlatonosovic, Vukmir's brother, supporter of Bosnian king Tvrtko II Kotromanic
  • 1430-1435: Djuradj Brankovic, Despot of Serbia, conqueror of eastern Usora and Bosnia
  • 1435-1444: Matko Talovac, ban of Usora, supporter of Bosnian king Tvrtko II Kotromanic
  • 1444-1463: Tvrtko Stancic, Duke of Usora, supporter of Bosnian kings Tomas Kotromanic and Stefan Tomasevic, died in May 1463 while defending Bosnia from the Ottoman conquest


Last Usora rulers after Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in 1463:

  • 1464-1477: Nicholas of Ilok, Duke of Usora, Macso, Slavonia and Dalmatia 1464-1471, and king of Bosnia 1471-1477, appointed by the king of Hungary as a ruler of buffer state against Ottomans
  • 1465-1476: Matija Sabancic Radivojevic, son of Radivoj Ostojic (younger brother of Bosnian king Tomas Kotromanic), puppet Bosnian king installed by Ottomans as a counter measure to Nicholas of Ilok
  • 1476-1476: Matija Vojsalic, second and last Bosnian puppet king installed by Ottomans, ruled only 6 fortresses in central and south Usora (Doboj, Maglaj, Tesanj, Zepce, Vranduk and Travnik)


From 1322, when Stephen II Kotromanic becomes a ruler of Bosnia, Usora was part of the Bosnian realm and included in the titles of all subsequent Bosnian monarchs.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Vjekoslav Klaić (March 1880). "Topografske sitnice (I)". Journal of the Zagreb Archaeological Museum (in Croatian). Archaeological Museum, Zagreb. 2 (1): 68. ISSN 0350-7165. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
  2. ^ Pavo Živković, Marija Brandić (May 2007). "Usora i Soli u prva dva stoljeća turske prevlasti". Povijesni zbornik: godišnjak za kulturu i povijesno nasljeđe (in Croatian). Faculty of Philosophy, University of Osijek. 1 (1–2): 58–59. ISSN 1846-3819. Retrieved 2012-09-02.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

LiteratureEdit