Wikipedia – I came for more knowledge, I stayed to correct the stupidity. I will leave disappointed…
- 1 On problem solvers, that the world does not need
- 2 Books
- 3 Stuff
- 3.1 Hardware
- 3.2 Linux kernel-based family of operating systems
- 3.3 Software development
- 3.4 Quotes
- 3.5 Whatever
- 3.6 Android – market share
- 3.7 Debian – configuration beyond my competence and understanding
- 3.8 Differences of opinion
On problem solvers, that the world does not needEdit
Man of the year 18xx had a problem: his project was in need of track ballast. So he solved that problem… »The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore-Multan Railway.« from Harappa
The article chicken tax does mention, that France started the process, then names German and Japanese products, that lost substantial market share due to the imposed chicken tax, and then it fails to name French products. Or any other, then German and Japanese cars manufactured abroad.
… without providing any further information to render a translation of the marketing-speak nonsense into something technically understandable possible.
The Club of Rome is supposed to have foreseen the necessity
of choice for titi-tainment and Game of Thrones is certainly that kind of "education". Is Andrzej Sapkowski better then George R. R. Martin? What is Steven King's opinion of these works? Is this the Clash of Civilizations between east and west? User:ScotXWt@lk 16:48, 24 March 2017 (UTC)
Personal reality distortion fieldEdit
The personal reality distortion field is available as equipment for the men in black. This amazing technology is also available for a bus or a truck, and of course stationary in form of a fiurer bunker.
Getting money to be (behave like) an idiot, incentives such behaviorEdit
Since economists ponder on human behavior, more precisely on "optimal" human behavior, they know best.
- Category:Books about Linux
- »Understanding the Linux Kernel – From I/O Ports to Process Management« by Daniel P. Bovet, Marco Cesati, (1st ed. 2000-nov, 2nd ed. 2002-dec, 3rd ed. 2005-nov), 944 pages, O'Reilly Media
- »Modern Operating Systems« by Andrew Tanenbaum and Herbert Bos 0-13-359162-X, Pearson
- »Structured Computer Organization« by Andrew Tanenbaum, Pearson
- »The Linux Programming Interface: A Linux and UNIX System Programming Handbook« by Michael Kerrisk (1st ed. 2010) 1512 pages, No Starch Press
- »Vulkan Programming Guide: The Official Guide to Learning Vulkan« by John Kessenich and Graham Sellers (1st ed. 2016)
- Die eye only detects light. The Brain only detect nerve impulses, electrical crackles => we perceive nothing as what it really is… all observation (& perception) is theory-laden. Scientific knowledge isn't derived from anything, like all knowledge Template:Wk (i.e. hypothetical, guesswork). Scientific knowledge is TESTED by observation, not derived from it! Scientific theories are testable conjectures.
- Curse of the modern Abacuses:
- any x86-architecture since the i386 supports: "System Management Mode", which is of course a feature and not just some vulnerability
- Intel Management Engine is actually the RTOS ThreadX running on some ARC SIP block present on the die
- AMD's stuff (AGESA, AMD PowerPlay, etc.) on some LatticeMico32 SIP block present on the die
- Nvidia's PowerManagement is done by the RTOS PDAEMON running on some RISC SIP block present on the die
- Grand Ages: Rome, Grand Ages: Medieval, Nobunaga's Ambition, Crusader Kings II, Kalypso Media, Dungeon Keeper
- Mercator projection => thetruesize.com sonnenverlauf.de suncalc.org
- c't vom 2015-05-16 pp. 140 erklärt HBM hervorragend! »Auf gewöhnlichem Platinenmaterial lassen sich 5000 Leitungen nicht unterbringen, deswegen der Interposer aus Silizium!«
- 500MHz, DDR, 1024 Leitungen: max 128 GiB/s per chip
- Sugar: The Bitter Truth: "Robert H. Lustig, MD, UCSF Professor of Pediatrics in the Division of Endocrinology, explores the damage caused by sugary foods. He argues that fructose (too much) and fiber (not enough) appear to be cornerstones of the obesity epidemic through their effects on insulin. Recorded on 05/26/2009. (#16717)"
- on installing Fedora, do
sudo yum localinstall --nogpgcheck http://download1.rpmfusion.org/free/fedora/rpmfusion-free-release-$(rpm -E %fedora).noarch.rpm
http://download1.rpmfusion.org/nonfree/fedora/rpmfusion-nonfree-release-$(rpm -E %fedora).noarch.rpm
sudo dnf install audacious-plugins-freeworld audacious-plugins-freeworld-* vlc
- archaeologist Ezra Marcus incidentally mentions on UCTV that sea levels in 7500 BC were at least 10 probably even 12m lower then today!!! It rose very rapidly, about 400 BC it was 6m lower then today; that means, that e.g. some Mediterranean shores were maybe 3-4km more seaward; these lanes were probably insufficiently drained and therefore swampy; when sea levels raised, they became salty and today they are sea floor;
- very important to sieve the cultural deposits
- 100 BC North Africa, i.e. Carthage, etc., was more or much more wet, cf. Little Ice Age
- "exclusive fullscreen" vs. "non-exclusive fullscreen" = "borderless window mode"
- Pascal: 64 single-precision shader cores AND 32 double-precision units per SM (streaming multiprocessor) in a GP100; GP100 SM is partitioned into two processing blocks, each having 32 single-precision CUDA Cores, an instruction buffer, a warp scheduler, and two dispatch units. providing a 2:1 ratio of single- to double-precision throughput. Compared to the 3:1 ratio in Kepler GK110 GPUs, this allows Tesla P100 to process FP64 workloads more efficiently. Using FP16 computation improves performance up to 2x compared to FP32 arithmetic, and similarly FP16 data transfers take less time than FP32 or FP64 transfers. The GP100 SM ISA provides new arithmetic operations that can perform two FP16 operations at once on a single-precision CUDA Core, and 32-bit GP100 registers can store two FP16 values. Nvidia Blog
- OpenGL is a state machine. A single monolithic set of states that control all aspects of the rendering (Bildsynthese) process. The API is used to put the OpenGL driver into various modes. The modes remain in effect until they get changed again. Current color, vertex and buffers array, viewport, depth ranges, rasterization, culling, multi sampling texture modes are set with glEnable and glDisable.
- In Vulkan there is no huge state machine. Instead Pipelines State Objects (PSOs) are constructed. PSOs are containers that store all the information required for the current rendering. A PSO represents the processing paths that vertices go through on their way to being rendered. PSOs define the stages like Vertex, Tessellation Control, Tessellation Evaluation, Geometry and Fragment and the compiled shaders that are to be used for those stages. PSOs additionally contain information about color blending, the viewport, i.e. the area and the render target to render to, multisampling, i.e. the number of samples to calculate at each pixel on the render target, etc.
- PSO can also hold information about the dynamic state, i.e. properties of the PSO that are dynamic, i.e. they can be changed independently.
- Once build and compiled PSOs can be cached or serialized from one execution to another; far more encompassing then OpenGL pre-compiled shaders
- In OpenGL you issue a list of GL commands to do rendering, but there is no easy way to store these commands for re-use!
- Vulkan uses Command Buffers. Commands are recorded into a Command Buffer and subsequently submitted to a device queue for execution on the GPU; Command Buffers can be re-used and re-recorded. Recorded commands include such that bind pipelines and descriptor sets, such that draw, such that modify dynamic state, etc.
- Command Buffers are allocated from Command Pools, which allocate memory for the Command Buffer as it is being recorded. Recording Command Buffers has a big impact on performance: in case they are created during rendering, it is to be considered to use threads to build the command buffers.
- Shaders access resources such as buffers and images:
- In OpenGL use glGet_bla to figure out where to set resources like e.g. textures, that some shader will access
- In Vulkan shader resources are known as resource descriptors, and there are about 12 types supported by Vulkan: Sampler, Uniform Buffer, Storage Buffer, etc.
- Threading requires synchronization between Command Buffers when they get build. With Vulkan there is also concurrency between the driver and the device and between queues. Vulkan has synchronization primitives:
- Fences: used to determine the completion of submissions made to queues; after submitting wait on the fence to become available and continue on
- Semaphores: used to coordinate operations between queues, e.g. marshal ownership of shared data
- Events: used to gauge progress through a sequence of commands
- Pipeline, memory and buffer barriers:
- AMD: 7 chips in 28nm since 2012:
- 2016: 2 chips in 14nm: Polaris 10, Polaris 11
- Nvidia: 9 chips in 28nm since 2012: 5 Kepler (GK107, GK208, GK106, GK104, GK110); 4 Maxwell (GM107; GM206, GM204, GM200), +1 chip dedicated to computation: The GK210 __cannot__ be used as GPU it is found only on "K80 GPU Accelerator" PCIe-cards
- 2016: 4 chips in 16nm since 2016: GP107, GP104, GP106, GP102, +1 chip dedicated to computation: The GP100 __cannot__ be used as GPU!
A part of the price of a graphics card is the cost of the GPU chip. The cost of the GPU chip could be split into design and manufacturing. The cost for manufacturing could be split into wafer and microfabrication. The bigger the share of the cost for the production of the wafer, the bigger the influence of the GPU's die surface on the graphics card end price, the more elegant to produce a relatively smaller chip that can run a high clock speeds. Nvidia has had rather a tendency towards bigger chips, yet their Tesla 1.0 design clocked the shader ALUs at 1.5 GHz, and now again, their Pascal-based GPUs are clocked at 1.5 GHz.
The GP106 (4400 Mio, 200mm²) competes with both the Polaris 10 (5700Mio,232mm²) and the Polaris 11 (3000Mio,123mm²) chips, meaning the GP104 (7200Mio, 297mm²) as well as the GP102 (12,000Mio, 471mm²) have no 14/16nm competition from AMD.
Pascal Maximum Digital Resolution: 7680x4320@60Hz (7680x4320 at 60Hz RGB 8-bit with dual DisplayPort connectors or 7680x4320 at 60Hz YUV420 8-bit with one DisplayPort 1.3 connector.) Maximum Digital Resolution: DP 1.4, HDMI 2.0b, Dual Link-DVI
|Graphics card||Launch||Release Price (US-$)||TDP (watts)||API support (version)||GPU chip||Memory Configuration||Theoretical (=calculated) values||Real-life benchmarks4|
|Direct3D||OpenGL||OpenCL||Vulkan||Arch||Name||Transistors (Million)||Die size (mm²)||Core config1||Clock rate||Amount (GiB)||Bus width (bit)||DRAM type||Memory (MT/s)||Bandwidth (GB/s)||Processing Power (GFLOPS)2||Fillrate3||Game x||Game y||Game z|
|Base (MHz)||Boost (MHz)||Half Precision||Single Precision||Double Precision||Texture (GT/s)||Pixel (GP/s)||Frame rate||FPS/Price||FPS/Power||Frame rate||FPS/Price||FPS/Power||Frame rate||FPS/Price||FPS/Power|
|8800 GTS 512||2007-12-11||$380||135W||10.0||3.3||1.1||no||Telsa 1.0||G92-400 (65nm)||754||324||128:64:16||650
|GTX 285||2009-01-15||$||204W||10.1||Telsa 2.0||GT200 (55nm)||1400||470||240:80:32||648
|GTX 480||2010-03-26||$500||250W||12.0 (11_0)||4.6||1.2||Fermi||GF100 (40nm)||3000||529||480:60:48||700
|GTX 650 Ti||2012-10-09||$150||110W||GK106||2540||221||768:64:16||928||928||1
|GTX 780 Ti||2013-11-07||$700||2880:240:48||876||928||3||7000||336||?||5046||210||210||42.0|
|GTX 950||2015-08-20||$160||90W||12.0 (12_1)||Maxwell 2.0||GM206||2940||227||768:48:32||1024||1188||2
|GTX 980 Ti||2015-06-02||$649||250W||GM200||8000||601||2816:176:96||1000||1076||6||384||336||?||5632||1/32||176||96|
|GTX Titan X||2015-03-17||$1000||3072:192:96||1089||12||192||?||6144||192|
|GT 1030||2017-05-17||$80||305W||12.0 (12_1)||4.5||1.0||GP108||1800||70||384:24:16||1227||1468||2||64||GDDR5||6000||48||15||942||29||29.4||19.6|
|GTX 1050 Ti||$140||768:64:32||1290||1392||4||?||2100||?||84.2||42.1|
|GTX 1060 3||2016-09-18||$200||120W||GP106||4400||200||1152:72:48||1506||1708||3||192||8000||180||?||3470||108||108.4||72.3|
|GTX 1060 6||2016-07-19||$250||1280:80:48||6||?||3855||120||120.5|
|GTX 1070 Ti||2017-11-??||$||W||2432:152:64||1607||256||?|
|GTX 1080 Ti||2017-03-05||$700||250W||GP102||12,000||471||3584:224:88||1480||1582||11||352||11000||482||?|
Direct3D is a proprietary API only available on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. Direct3D 12 is only available on Microsoft Windows version 10 and on the the Xbox One. Vulkan is available on Microsoft Windows 7–10, Linux and Android 7 Nougat and it may be available on the PlayStation 4.
- 1 Single-precision shader processors : texture mapping units (TMUs) : render output units (ROPs)
- 2 The processing powers are calculated, i.e. theoretical values! See e.g. Maxwell (microarchitecture)#Performance.
- The theoretical half-precision processing power of a Pascal GPU is 2× of the single precision performance on GP100 and 1/64 on GP104.
- The theoretical single-precision processing power of a Pascal GPU in GFLOPS is calculated as 2 (operations per FMA instruction per CUDA core per cycle) × number of CUDA cores × core clock speed (in GHz).
- The theoretical double-precision processing power of a Pascal GPU is 1/2 of the single precision performance on GP100, and 1/32 on GP102 and GP104.
- 3 The fillrates are calculated i.e. theoretical values!
- The Pixel fillrate as the number of ROPs multiplied by the base core clock speed
- Texture fillrate as the number of TMUs multiplied by the base core clock speed.
- 4 The obtain comparable benchmark values, the everything but the graphics card has to be identical: the other hardware (CPU, RAM, …) and the software (OS, graphics device driver version, game patch level, …)
|Model||Launch||Release Price (US-$)||TDP (watts)||API support (version)||Chip||Core config1||Clock rate||Memory configuration||Fillrate||Processing Power|
|Direct3D||OpenGL||OpenCL||Vulkan||Arch||Name||Transistors (Million)||Die Size (mm2)||Core (MHz)||Boost (MHz)||Memory (MT/s)||Amount (GiB)||Bus width (bit)||DRAM type||Bandwidth (GB/s)||Pixel (GP/s)2||Texture (GT/s)3||Single Precision||Double Precision|
|HD 7730||2013-04-??||$60||47W||12.0 (11_1)||4.5||1.2||1.0||GCN 1st gen||Cape Verde LE||1500||123||384:24:8||800||1125||1||128||GDDR3
|HD 7750||2012-02-15||$110||55W||Cape Verde PRO||512:32:16||800
|HD 7770||2012-02-15||$160||80W||Cape Verde XT||640:40:16||1000||1125||1
|HD 7850||2012-03-19||$250||130W||Pitcairn PRO||2800||212||1024:64:32||860||1200||1
|HD 7870||2012-03-19||$350||175W||Pitcairn XT||1280:80:32||1000||1200||2||153.6||32||80||2560||160|
|HD 7870 XT||2012-11-19||$270||185W||Tahiti LE||4313||352||1536:96:32||925||975||1500||2||192.0||29.6||88.8||2841.6
|HD 7950||2012-01-31||$450||200W||Tahiti PRO||1792:112:32||800||1250||3||384||240||25.6||89.6||2867.2||717|
|HD 7970||2012-01-09||$550||250W||Tahiti XT||2048:128:32||925||1375||3
|HD 7790||2013-03-22||$150||85W||12.0 (12_0)||2.1||GCN 2nd gen||Bonaire XT||2080||160||896:56:16||1000||1500||1
|R9 290||2013-11-05||$400||250W||Hawaii PRO||6200||438||2560:160:64||947||N/A||5000||4||512||320||60||152||4848.6||606.1|
|R9 290X||2013-10-24||$550||Hawaii XT||2816:176:64||1000||N/A||5000||4
|R9 285||2014-09-02||$250||190W||GCN 3rd gen||Tonga PRO||5000||359||1792:112:32||918||N/A||5500||2||256||176||29.4||102.8||3290||206.6|
|R9 380X||2015-11-19||$230||Tonga XT||2048:128:32||970||N/A||5700||4||182.4||31||124.2||3973.1||248.3|
|R9 Fury||2015-07-14||$550||275W||Fiji Pro||8900||596||3584:224:64||1000||N/A||1000||4||4096||HBM1||512||64||224||7168||448|
|R9 Nano||2015-08-27||$650||175W||Fiji XT||4096:256:64||1000||N/A||64||256||8192||512|
|R9 Fury X||2015-06-24||$650||275W||4096:256:64||1050||N/A||67.2||268.8||8601.6||537.6|
|RX 460||2016-08-08||$110 (2GB)
|<75W||GCN 4th gen||Polaris 11||3000||123||896:56:16||1090||1200||7000||2
|RX 470||2016-08-04||$180||120W||Polaris 10||5700||232||2048:128:32||926||1206||6600||4||256||211||29.6||118.5||3793||237|
|RX 480||2016-06-29||$200 (4 GB)
$240 (8 GB)
|RX Vega 56||2017-08-14/28||$400||210W||GCN 5th gen?||Vega||12,500||486 mm²||3584:224:64||1156||1471||1600||8||2048||HBM2||410||74.0/94.1||258.9/329.5|
|RX Vega 64||2017-08-28||$500||295W||4096:256:64||1247||1546||1890||483.8||79.8/98.9||319.2/395.8|
The new Core i9 are available exclusively for the new LGA 2066 (Socket R4). In case this on YouTube confuses you, there are also a couple of Core i5 and Core i7 processors available for this new socket. ;-) Now who is this Brian?
€-prices for graphics cards =Edit
Hmmm, the Radeon RX 580 is listed with a release price of $230,– for the 8 GiB-versions). Yet the cheapest one costs €271,46 and there are prices as high as €400,–. Anything above the manufacturer's suggested retail price (+ taxes) goes to the retailer and will not benefit AMD at all. The high prices are reported to be because of yet another cryptocurrency-craze. Not foreseeing this, costs AMD money, they could have had from their customers. But neither the stock holders nor the R&D-division nor the driver-developers mind; AMD's attitude "barely good enough" keeps everybody happy and the duopoly keeps the company in business.
Direct Heat Exhaust cooling solutionEdit
A Direct Heat Exhaust cooling solution is found in any well designed computer: all the PlayStations, motherboards + casings for 19-inch racks, Industrial PCs, laptops, Dell-, Fujitsu-PCs, etc. Many GeForce graphics cards came with a DHE cooler with a fan (de:Ventilator); see Centrifugal fan and Computer fan.
Linux kernel-based family of operating systemsEdit
- Linux as platform mainly use cases on personal computers (PCs), not on mobile embedded stuff
- Instead of distinguishing based on the hardware, I distinguish based on the use case. All the following runs on a personal computer but comes with very different requirements:
- Linux for at home necessitaes User:ScotXW/kdbus/cgroups to bring sandbox and klik
- Linux for the office: a perfect match: no need to play BluRays, none of the "not-free-enough" problems, no hardware problems, etc.
- Linux as gaming platform stationary, for mobile see whatever runs on the Pandora/DragonBox Pyra/etc.
- refer to: Advantages and benefits of free and open-source software
- refer to:Legal aspects of algorithms "software patents" should be rather called "patents on algorithms"
- reuse: User:ScotXW/Quotes Referenced quotes for reference
- What a kernel does: the bootloader GNU GRUB does not duplicate kernel functionality: to execute the Linux kernel, it simply copies the binary file to be executed into RAM and then tells the CPU to execute it (thereby ending/destroying it's own instance?). When instead the Linux kernel is asked to execute a program, its own kernel threads keep running in the background. Actually the program could not be executed without the Linux kernel running.
- since Linux 4.8 conversion of the drm and media documentation from DocBook to Sphinx doc format: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/sound/soc/overview.html; there was writing about this on LWN.net.
- »Sounds good ... when can we start using it?« – anybody
- »A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.« – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
- »Good designs arise only from evolutionary, exploratory interaction between one (or at most a small handful of) exceptionally able designer(s) and an active user population.« – unknown
- »Nine women can't make a baby in one month.« or »Adding man-power to a late project makes it later« – Brooks's law see his book "The Mythical Man-Month"
- most FOSS projects are do-o-cracies, the person who does decides
- Upstream should always be the driving force forwards thus carrying the most modern code as well as being the decisive factor when it's time to obsolete things from their code base
- Downstream should carry the burden of maintaining legacy code, if they choose to stick with it
- We fix things where they are broken, never tape over them!
- »Mozilla Corporation isn't a company that's trying to win the market. It's a community that's trying to change the world.« – Richard Newman, here ... by holding a certain market share, because if people don't actively use Firefox, they obviously do not care about the world changing stuff
- From 2014 onward, "we" can push for more FOSS for proprietary walled gardens (cf. e.g. Category:Windows-only free software) or "we" rather push for an FOSS and open platform operating system, i.e. Linux API, OpenGL, Simple DirectMedia Layer, Wayland + XWayland, KDE Plasma 5 / GNOME Shell / Cinnamon.
- Having some key software running on the walled gardens as well, is of course good, e.g. VLC media player, Firefox, Subsurface, etc. But is there a point in porting every software?
- Looking at the history of Microsoft involving themselves in avoiding the growing of market share/installed base of competing products (operating systems, office suites), maybe it is about time to concentrate more on developing and establishing "Linux", as a free and open-source AND open platform for FOSS and for proprietary software. Looking at Apple's successful digital distribution software and how they forbid GPL'ed software in it...
- Programming Linux-only would create unique selling propositions for this platform, and while such may be regarded as "rude" and "impolite" towards other free and open-source operating systems, it should be decided on the technical merits. Comparing the Linux kernel–user space API with other such APIs, does it offer advantages to the programmer? For example netsniff-ng, Weston and systemd are Linux-only software, because their authors preferred the "Linux kernel–user space API" over POSIX/UNIX because of the technical advantages.
- Approaches to writing software:
- "write software": from top to bottom, an algorithm with some IF-statements; ideal for small programs to be written by a single person scratching an own itch
- "build software": like assembling building blocks; combine black-box subsystems written by different individuals with one another;
- the specifications must have been explicit about what functionality each subsystems must have; yet it sill happens that author of subsystem A assumed some function will be in subsystem B and not in A
- the interfaces between the black-box-subsystems are not perfect;
- subsystems are like black-boxes because even though the source code is available, the author may not be, so until somebody else has worked himself though the source code of that subsystems it is factually a black-box for everybody else, especially for the team assembling the end-system! They HAVE TO rely on the specs being aboded by. Even though the author is available, in case something does not work as specified (or intended?), there needs to be communication with that author without further misunderstanding.
- "let software grow": start with the main loop, and implement subsystems one after the other, do take missing subsystems into consideration by stubbing them out. That idea behind this approach is the possibility to test immediately in concert. Test while the system grows, instead of not until all the subsystems are ready. What this approach does is to minimize the possible amount of bugs introduced with each new LoC. The early tests show bugs early and makes them easier to find. Now because software IS complex, it is of course still possible that something new interacts in a faulty way with code written early. Depending of how well subsystems are isolated from one another, and of the sequence the subsystems are added to the main loop, this becomes less likely. This approach is not possible when using only already written subsystems.
- Testing subsystems independently does not reveal any of the bugs or missing functionality that only make themselves noticeable when all (are supposed to) work in concert.
- source code in high-level language pretty much represents the intention of its human author; given a high enough amount of source-code and enough individual authors, assembling a new software from such subsystems is already quite demanding. To make things really complicated, this all has to be compiled into machine code, then executed on some computer in the context of some operating system.
- Idiocracy-style advertisement like for Tarrlytons/Tarrlytons won't do much good to Linux
- Zapp Brannigan: "... then for all I cared they could sit around the whole day drinking beer in their underpants"
- NASA-guy: ".. we got to find a way to make this fit into the hole for this, using nothing else but that" in Apollo 13
- In case you want to know what a producer is responsible for, watch Wag the Dog; no, there is no Oscar for producing...
- User:ScotXW/GNOME_braindamage – why?
- User:ScotXW/FOSS – messy to find stuff
- User:ScotXW/Media Players (free and open-source software) – not as good as Software audio players (free and open-source)
- I turned GNU GRUB into GNU GRUB
- I turned LAMP into LAMP. It lacks a link to Special:Permalink/578391107 so we remove content duplication
- Optimal cutting temperature compound what a useful article!
- I was bold, renamed the article "GUI widget" into Graphical control element (software) and rewrote its introduction.
- Ach, I just wrote my own: User:ScotXW/Graphical control element
- GNOME Maps, Klavaro, Shutter (software); User:ScotXW/Klavaro, User:ScotXW/GNOME Maps, User:ScotXW/SDDM, User:ScotXW/Font-Manager, User:ScotXW/Glx-Dock
- User:ScotXW/Voice interface
- User:ScotXW/Shell (computing)
- User:ScotXW/Dietary fiber
- User:ScotXW/DNF (software)
VLC media playerEdit
VLC media player's default keyboard shortcuts (that can all be reconfigured):
- Cycle through audio tracks: b
- Cycle through subtitle tracks: v
- Next frame: e
- Jump 3 seconds: ⇧ Shift+← and ⇧ Shift+→
- Jump 10 seconds: Alt+← and Alt+→
- Jump 60 seconds: Ctrl+← and Ctrl+→
- Jump 120 seconds: Alt+⇧ Shift+← and Alt+⇧ Shift+→
- Jump 600 seconds: Ctrl+Alt+← and Ctrl+Alt+→
VLC media player is not based on GStreamer, VLC media player has some problems with ogv-file format when jumping wildly through the file. What useful key-bindings does GNOME Videos offer? Maybe prefer Snappy over it. Clutter+GStreamer+minimum amount of own code
Debian – configuration beyond my competence and understandingEdit
To deal with more complex situations, a configuration must be complex itself. Is it possible to either hide away some of that complexity, or to rather adopt a solution, that does not cover complex situations and and is therefore simple and plain? As long as blindly following on-line guides works…
A simple situation is a single user using Inkscape/etc work on his desktop computer. In case fast-user switching goes hand in hand with a sane plumbing layer, so be it. Other then that, fast-user switching is no priority here.
Most Linux distributions are far beyond the understanding and competence of most private end-users… Examples:
- GNU GRUB's /boot/grub/grub.cfg shall not be edited directly, because it is replaced in case of some kernel-update. Being already confusing itself, the user is forced to edit files in /etc/grub.d instead. Well, while I am able to edit grub.cfg to change e.g. the back-ground image, I am sadly to stupid to achieve this by editing some file in /etc/grub.d => no customizing GRUB for me, e.g. add
- Why is that? In this case, how else to solve the given problem? Maybe GRUB3 will be able to deal with that without having to rely on shell scripts parsing shell scripts.
- Additionally and in general terms, because Debian does not explicitly address the simple (and less competent) end-user installing Debian on his desktop computer. Debian is regularly and on a broad bases installed on HTTP servers and maintained by seasoned computer administrators… these setups require more complicated settings and don't care about the added complexity.
- systemd's three-level configuration: it was implemented that way, to support even complicated and unusual setups. For the not-so-typical Linux desktop end-user, this ads serious and – for him – totally unnecessary complexity to the basic configuration of his operating system. What's wrong with systemd being that way? Absolutely nothing! It is the Linux distribution that could address this "bloated complexity for the simple desktop end-user problem".
- configuring your network interfaces: /etc/network/interfaces vs. systemd-networkd vs. NetworkManager vs. ConnectivityManager vs. ConnMan:
- NetworkManager is meant for your mobile computer (laptop) to deal with WLAN
- systemd-networkd is meant for containers and all sorts of complicated setups
- /etc/network/interfaces is meant for the typical stationary computer: as simple as possible, reliable and strait forward.
- /etc/crontab vs. /etc/cron.d/ /etc/cron.daily/ /etc/cron.hourly/ /etc/cron.monthly/ /etc/cron.weekly/
- /etc/fstab vs. udisks vs. systemd-mountd
- using iptables directly in some shell script vs. using all sorts of wrappers
- sysv-rc-conf gives you an overview over ALL daemons/services started by init over all run-levels!! I am missing such a simple tool for systemd.
Why abandon working solutions?
- Because the replacement solution is better for YOU!
- Because YOU want to play the guinea pig for the new solution, though it does not suit you!
- Because YOU want to obsolete your acquired and readily available knowledge, in favor of the new solution…
Conclusion: To be able to handle the operating system running on the desktop/laptop computer, it may prove much more productive for the typical office/home computer user to learn this, by bothering with Linux From Scratch or Arch Linux instead of starting to learn the – from his perspective totally bloated – Debian configuration.
Buildroot vs. YoctoEdit
- The "Deciding between Buildroot & Yocto" article on LWN.net from April 6, 2016 by Nathan Willis explains the differences between Buildroot and Yocto Project; Buildroot is simply to understand, there is only one file where ALL the configuration goes, and therefore adding support for a new platform requires a lot of copy-paste work; Yocto stores configuration into multiple files, therefore variations can be build with little additional work. The disadvantage of this is, that one has to learn a lot, one has to know all the files where information is stored, all their variations.
The fact that I use Debian on a workstation (a desktop computer) makes me dislike the fact, that Debian primarily targets servers and also takes cloud-stuff into account when designing the configuration system. The possible permutation of configurations on such systems thwarts any efforts to keep configuration idiot simple.
Maybe a third iteration of GNU GRUB will do replace shell script with some ini-files, that do not parse but simply declare: I want this background image, this font, this font-color, etc. systemd introduces exactly that, but instead of configuring my network interfaces in one [man.cx/?page=interfaces documented] file /etc/network/interfaces there are 3 times 3 files. This is the Yocto-way and makes it less type work to configure some fancy containers and stuff but at the cost of being more complicated. Naming the network interfaces "blue dog shit" is another fancy thing for such container and cloud stuff, but it drives me mad because it replaced the well-know eth0 with blue dog shit. A quick
ifconfig eth0 may therefore FAIL on Debian because what used to be named eth0 is now being named
enp4s0. What causes the brain-damage in systemd/Debian land?
I don't even require NetworkManager for my single static Ethernet connection, since its actual role was to handle the configuration of the (wireless) network interfaces when connecting using IEEE 802.11.
Differences of opinionEdit
Despite being full of marketing horse shit up to the point where something is being explained from the view point of some marketing guy, I came upon something I perceive as a serious problem when looking up Wikipedia articles around computer terms, e.g.
A computer file is en entity that is part of a file system. Nothing else. The notion of a computer file was created by the way we store data on persistent storage devices. To further comprehend the terms "directory", "file name", "file format", "file attribute", I would leave the abstraction layer and explain them on the basis of a concrete file system: e.g. ext4.
- Question_1: How is my data stored on my hard disc?
- Question_2: How do I interact with my data?
A "Command-line interface" is a kind/type of Human-machine interface, others being e.g. GUIs, TUIs, Voice-command interfaces, …
- Is the interface of a "command-line interpreter", e.g. bash, csh, …
- Is the interface offered/provided by the "command-line interpreter" to the computer user sitting either at the computer keyboard in front of the computer screen or sitting in front of some teletypewriter ;-)
- deterministic feature no1: the notion of files (One deterministic feature of a GUI could be the the notion of icons (cf. WIMP paradigm.)
- most common use case is to call upon (i.e. execute) individual programs that are available as individual files by typing their file-name maybe augmented with some command-line options and pressing ↵ Enter.
- To facilitate this calling upon programs available as executable files, ext2/3/4 marks "computer files" (please see my own definition above) as executable by setting a flag, the interpreters interprets the $PATH-variable where (in which directories) to search for files with the given file-name to be executed.
- When some program is said to have a command-line interface, this usually means, that is it meant to be executed via the command-line interpreter usually involving ample command-line options. It could also mean, that the program itself, when being executed, offers the user a CLI, though this is rather seldom the case.
- deterministic feature no2: it interprets entire lines, i.e. the user enters a lot of characters (via computer keyboard or via teletypewriter), then type ↵ Enter to make the interpreter ingest, interpret and execute the entire line.
- NOTE: A different behavior is thinkable, e.g. when each single character was interpreted immediately, making entering an entire "line" impossible. A "line" is always ended by a press of ↵ Enter, this means it can actually comprise multiple screen lines. How many characters a screen line and how many lines a screen contains depends on the "screen mode"/"video mode". Widespread are e.g. 80 chars/line and 40 lines per screen. In a script file for bash, Newline is interpreted as ↵ Enter key press unless there is also a \\ (double backslash) at the end of that line.
- Usually there is some kind of scripting language understood by the interpreter, e.g. "shell script" (NOTE: "shell script" can refer to a text-file containing a script written in shell script, or it refers to the scripting language understood by bash and consorts, "power shell script" being a different language.
- there is
- Question: what is the relation between bash, GNOME terminal and the "Linux kernel subsystem", which the Wikipedia calls "Linux console" => The TTY demystified
Webcam = hardware device to be connected over USB, FireWire or similar to a Computer, in contrast oto IP cam, that is connected over Ethernet. The hardware device produces a video (motion picture) stream at a maximum resolution and at a maximum refresh rate. The data can be compressed by an appropriate ASIC and deliver a compressed video stream/signal or transmit uncompressed in RGB or YUV.
- PlayStation Eye
- http://www.golem.de/1009/77711.html "Die Videokompression erfolgt bereits in der Elektronik der Webcam durch einen integrierten Encoder-Chip, welcher einen H.264-Stream liefert."
- Image sensor can be Charge-coupled device (CCD) or Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)
- A point of reference may be the image sensor of the AXIOM Alpha:
- video image sensor: CMV12000-2E5C1PA ~ € 1600,–; CMV12000-2E5C1PN ~ € 1900,–
- ZedBoard ~ $ 475,–
Audio coding formatEdit
- A computer file consists of the actual data and the metadata. The entirety of the metadata is specified solely by the file system they are part of. The metadata is created and handled by file system management software.
- The term computer file format refers to the structure of the actual data of a computer file. This structure is specified in a text document called something along the lines of computer file format specification.
- One could further group multiple computer file formats into computer file types, e.g. text, raster-graphic, vector-graphic, audio, video or "multimedia".
- One could force denoting the file format in the file name by making the use of file name extensions mandatory.
- There are lossless compression algorithms, and lossy ones for video or audio data that take human audio perception (psychoacoustic) into consideration when throwing away data)
That is ALL there is. But way, lets not omit the brain damage that is rampant in the Wikipedia:
- some people insist on calling audio and video compression algorithms codecs, while sadly some insist that a codec refer only to the implementation of an algorithm and not to the algorithm itself. I feel confused.
- some people insist on calling computer file formats containers…
This brain damage would not be a big deal, if there were solidly written and easily understandable articles on computer file, computer file format and compression algorithm. There ain't. Instead there are articles like:
- Audio coding format
- I am not sure how much intelligence the understanding computers™ requires, but Wikipedia has become much about Voodoo and black magic. And rampant *peep*.
- with a blog entry: http://www.linusakesson.net/programming/tty/
- with http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/4126/what-is-the-exact-difference-between-a-terminal-a-shell-a-tty-and-a-con
- with LWN:A tempest in a tty pot by Jonathan Corbet 2009-07-29
One could bother to port that knowledge into the Wikipedia, but why bother? The Wikipedia has become such a shit place to work in, that I see not point besides maybe, so that one does not depend on google or other search engines.
- More and more seldom I find "knowledge new and useful to me" in the Wikipedia => no point in contributing back to the community
- there is little to no co-operation => since I do most work myself, why bother with other people's rules or opinions?
- no only is there little to no co-operation, but instead there is an abundance of something titled "de:Blockwart" in the German Wikipedia, denomination not by me, but attitude, horizon fit quite well
- I am against giving up my identity, I prefer to contribute anonymously; in case we were forced to work non-anonymously, who would loose more badly? People like me, or people like the "blockwart"? I wonder how much better the climate would become, in case we were all forced to work under our real-life identifications… Anyway, Idiocracy teaches us to "lead, follow or get out of the way"? What is there not to understand?
Linux kernel Virtual File SystemEdit
Linux kernel Virtual File System is a subsystem or layer inside of the Linux kernel. It is the result of the very serious attempt to integrate multiple file systems into an orderly single structure. The key idea - it dates back to the pioneering work done by Sun Microsystems employees in 1986.  - is to abstract out that part of the file system that is common to all file systems and put that code in a separate layer that calls the underlying concrete file systems to actually manage the data.
» All system calls related to files (or pseudo files!) are directed to the Linux kernel Virtual File System for initial processing. These calls, coming from user processes, are the standard POSIX calls, such as
lseek, … .«
|Resolution @ display refresh rate||DisplayPort 1.4||1.3||1.2|
|7.680 × 4.320 (8K) @ 60 Hz @ HDR||✓||✗||✗|
|3.840 × 2.160 (4K) @ 120 Hz @ HDR||✓||✗||✗|
|7.680 × 4.320 (8K) @ 60 Hz||✓||✗||✗|
|5.120 × 2.880 (5K) @ 120 Hz||✓||✗||✗|
|5.120 × 2.880 (5K) @ 60 Hz||✓||✗||✗|
|3.840 × 2.160 (4K) @ 120 Hz||✓||✓||✗|
|3.840 × 2.160 (4K) @ 60 Hz||✓||✓||✓|
|Expeller pressing||Grinding/Milling, abrasive cutting||Mix with: Sugar, Honey, …|
|Asteraceae||Sunflower seed||… oil||+
|Pedaliaceae||Sesame seed||… oil||… paste||Halva, Hummus,|
|Betulaceae||Hazelnut||… oil||… flour||+ sugar for pastry|
|Rosaceae||Almond||… oil||… paste, … flour,||Marzipan|
|Juglandaceae||Walnut||… oil||… flour||+ sugar for pastry|
|Fabaceae||Peanut||… oil||… paste||–|
|Papaveraceae||Poppy seed||… oil||Poppyseed paste||+ sugar for pastry|
|Cannabaceae||Hemp seed||… oil||?||?|
|Fagaceae||Chestnut||–||–||chestnut puree/chestnut spread|
→ Gesztenyepüré (hun)
→ fr:Crème de marrons (frz)
There is much much room in the Wikipedia for commercial and nationalist brands and only little for basic processing… the result of Idiocracy?
Putting AMD TrueAudio to good useEdit
- It seams, the TrueAudio ASIC is supported by the radeon driver in the Linux kernel under the pseudonym acp (audio co-processor?)
- But besides doing calculation for wwise and AstoundSound, what else can we do with it?
- Sadly, I neither own AMD hardware with this ASIC nor am I a programmer
Programmable audio effects: The task is to do "ray-tracing" for "sound" instead of light, i.e. to calculate what the sound stage should sound like based on the physical makeup of the scene and the direction the player is currently looking to in REAL-TIME!:
- position of the sources of sound (analogue to light!)
- direction and angle of the surfaces that the sound bounces of
- materials of these surfaces (impacts how sound reverberates off that surface)
That's a complex problem to solve in algorithms and results in computationally very expensive code! Besides ray-tracing for sound, appropriate algorithms have to be added to figure out how the listener (with two ears) would perceive the sound and ship that to the speakers.
- Player's alter ego is in a room closer to one wall and e.g. reloads his weapon. The player should hear the "click" echo from the closer wall sooner and louder, while from the other side it comes later and more fuzzy. With accuratelly modeled audio effects calculated in real-time, the player would be able to tell where is the wall which is closer and where is the one far from you, even if there is pitch dark, i.e. he gets no visual feedback.
Or imagine you ride on train through the tunnel and echo of the wheels bumping the rails is literally pressing on you, and suddenly the tunnel expands to the large room and the echo is suddenly much more delayed and attenuated.
People claim such accurate audio model was available in Half-Life 1, when played on a PC with Aureal Vortex 2 hardware and headphones.