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User:Nightstallion/List of European Union member states by accession

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Contents

  The European Union as a single entity.
(world map)

This is a list of European Union member states, their dates of application and accession. It shows the growth of the European Union and its predecessors through enlargement from six members in 1952 to twenty-seven members in 2007; at least nine (possibly even more) are expected to join in its future.

The European Union per se was created on 1 November 1993 when the Treaty on European Union came into effect.[1] Twelve of the current twenty-seven member states joined one of the Union's predecessors, either the European Coal and Steel Community (which came into existence on 23 July 1952[2] and ceased to exist exactly 50 years later[3]), the European Economic Community (which came into existence on 1 January 1958[4]), or the European Community (which came into existence on 1 July 1967 as a merger of ECSC, EEC and the European Atomic Energy Community,[5] and was one of the three pillars of the European Union until these were abolished with the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009).

Candidate countriesEdit

 
  current members
  acceding countries
  candidate countries
  potential candidate countries
  application frozen
  application rejected by EC
  accession rejected in a referendum
(world map)

In addition to the current twenty-eight member states, a number of other countries are expected to join the European Union in the next two decades. Iceland, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey are officially candidate countries; Iceland and Turkey are currently in accession negotiations,[6] and negotiations with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia are expected to start soon.[7] The remaining states in the Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo) are officially "potential candidate countries", which means they have a clear perspective for accession over the course of the next decade.[8] Albania and Serbia have submitted an application for membership, but have not yet been officially recognised as candidate countries.[9][10]

Countries that failed to join or leftEdit

 
The flag of the Council of Europe and the European Union.

Not all accession attempts have been successful, though, and on one occasion a territory even left the European Union (then European Community).

Future prospectsEdit

 
  member states
  membership is declared goal
  membership under discussion
(world map)
This section is incomplete. You can help by adding information about the current situation in the European microstates Monaco and Vatican City, as well as in associated territories.

It is generally assumed that even with the accession of the states of southeastern Europe, the process of enlargement will not be finished.[16]

European countries

Armenia,[17][18] Georgia,[19] Moldova,[20][21] San Marino[22][23] and Ukraine[24][25][26][27] have stated they would like to join the European Union; however, the European Union's response was mostly lukewarm.[28] European Union membership is also the subject of political debate in Andorra,[29][30] Azerbaijan,[31] the Faroe Islands,[32] Greenland,[33] and Liechtenstein,[34] and the debates in Norway[35] and Switzerland[36] are also still ongoing. While Belarus[37] and Russia[38] are also seen as eligible to join, and while accession to the European Union enjoys public support in Belarus,[39] the lack of democratic structures makes these countries' accession impossible in the short term, especially as the European Union is supporting the Belarusian opposition and civil society in peacefully overthrowing Alexander Lukashenko's regime, which it regards as dictatorial,[40][41] going so far as to offer concrete benefits for democratic reforms.[42][43][44] Furthermore, the European Union is trying to bind Russia more strongly to its own policies and goals through partnership and cooperation agreements.[45]

Non-European countries

Although the Treaty of Maastricht states that only European countries may apply, a number of countries not generally considered European have also considered membership bids.

The island nation of Cape Verde, part of the island region Macaronesia (which is comprised of Cape Verde, the Portuguese islands of the Azores and Madeira and the Spanish Canary Islands) has stated it wishes to join the European Union.[46][47][48] Israel has considered applying for membership;[49] while the European Union and Israel share a common culture, history and society, the ongoing Arab-Israeli and Israeli-Palestinian conflicts and Israel's location in one of the most conflict-ridden regions of the world would be major arguments against its accession. Finally, even Canada's accession has occasionally been proposed, though often rather in a tongue-in-cheek manner;[50] the main arguments used are the very similar cultural standards and viewpoints on matters of international law, especially when juxtaposed with those of the United States. None of the three countries is a member of the Council of Europe, which is a de facto prerequisite for membership under the Copenhagen criteria and the Treaty of Maastricht.

Likely next enlargement

It is generally expected that the states of southeastern Europe will be the next states to join the European Union, and that neither the developed countries which are not members of the Union (Norway, Switzerland and the microstates) nor the three countries in eastern Europe (Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine) will join in the foreseeable future. Although Olli Rehn said on 19 May 2006 that he expected Iceland to join the European Union before Croatia would,[51][52] he went back on his statement when he stated on 1 December 2006 that Croatia would likely become the European Union's 28th member state;[53] he repeated this statement on 11 October 2007, with the comment that "[t]he only surprise could be Iceland, if they soon apply for membership"[54] – which they did on 17 July 2009.[55] Croatia joined on 1 July 2013.

Listed by accession dateEdit

# State Accession Special territories[A]
1–6   Belgium 23 July 1952 (ECSC)
1 January 1958 (EEC)
  France
incl.   French Guiana,   Guadeloupe,   Martinique,   Mayotte,   Réunion
incl.   Saint Martin

  Italy
  Luxembourg
  Netherlands
  West Germany[E1]
7–9   Denmark 1 January 1973 (EC)
excl. the   Faroe Islands,[F]   Greenland[G] (see above)
  Ireland
  United Kingdom[H]
incl.   Gibraltar

10   Greece 1 January 1981 (EC)
11–12   Portugal 1 January 1986 (EC)
  Spain
13–15   Austria 1 January 1995
  Finland
incl.   Åland Islands
  Sweden
16–25   Cyprus[J] 1 May 2004
  Czech Republic
  Estonia
  Hungary
  Latvia
  Lithuania
  Malta
  Poland
  Slovakia
  Slovenia
26–27   Bulgaria 1 January 2007
  Romania
28   Croatia 1 July 2013
TBD   Iceland in accession negotiations
  Turkey
  Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[K1] candidate country
  Montenegro
  Serbia
  Albania applied for membership
  Bosnia and Herzegovina potential candidate country
  Kosovo

Listed by application dateEdit

# State Application Result/status
  Belgium founding members
  France
  Italy
  Luxembourg
  Netherlands
  West Germany[E2]
1   Ireland 1st: 31 July 1961
2nd: 11 May 1967
1st: withdrawn after Charles de Gaulle vetoed the United Kingdom's application
2nd: joined 1 January 1973
2–3   Denmark 1st: 10 August 1961
2nd: 11 May 1967
  United Kingdom 1st: 10 August 1961
2nd: 10 May 1967
1st: vetoed by Charles de Gaulle on 14 January 1963
2nd: joined 1 January 1973
4   Norway 1st: 30 April 1962
2nd: 21 July 1967
3rd: 25 November 1992
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and European Economic Area (EEA) member state
1st: withdrawn after Charles de Gaulle vetoed the United Kingdom's application
2nd: withdrawn after a referendum on 25 September 1972
3rd: withdrawn after a referendum on 28 November 1994
5   Greece 12 June 1975 joined 1 January 1981
6   Portugal 28 March 1977 joined 1 January 1986
7   Spain 28 July 1977
8   Turkey 14 April 1987 candidate country, in accession negotiations
9   Morocco 20 July 1987 rejected by the European Council (see geographic criteria)
10   Austria 17 July 1989 joined 1 January 1995
11–12   Cyprus 3 July 1990 joined 1 May 2004
  Malta
13   Sweden 1 July 1991 joined 1 January 1995
14   Finland 18 March 1992
15    Switzerland 25 May 1992 EFTA member state
frozen after EEA membership was rejected in a referendum on 6 December 1992
16   Hungary 31 March 1994 joined 1 May 2004
17   Poland 5 April 1994
18   Romania 22 June 1995 joined 1 January 2007
19   Slovakia 27 June 1995 joined 1 May 2004
20   Latvia 13 October 1995
21   Estonia 24 November 1995
22   Lithuania 8 December 1995
23   Bulgaria 14 December 1995 joined 1 January 2007
24   Czech Republic 17 January 1996 joined 1 May 2004
25   Slovenia 10 June 1996
26   Croatia 21 February 2003 joined 1 July 2013
27   Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia[K2] 24 March 2004 candidate country, SAA in force since 1 May 2004
28   Montenegro 15 December 2008 candidate country, SAA in force since 1 May 2010
29   Albania 28 April 2009 potential candidate country, SAA in force since 1 April 2009
30   Iceland 23 July 2009 candidate country, EFTA and EEA member state
31   Serbia 22 December 2009 candidate country, SAA in force since 1 September 2013
TBD   Bosnia and Herzegovina not yet potential candidate country, SAA signed on 16 June 2008;[56] ratification by member states technically completed, but entry into force awaits constitutional amendments[57] (compare this for ratification progress)
  Kosovo potential candidate country, SAA negotiations not yet opened[58]

TimelineEdit

SerbiaIcelandAlbaniaMontenegroformer Yugoslav Republic of MacedoniaCroatiaSloveniaCzech RepublicBulgariaLithuaniaEstoniaLatviaSlovakiaRomaniaPolandHungarySwitzerlandFinlandSwedenMaltaCyprusAustriaMoroccoTurkeySpainPortugalGreeceNorwayUnited KingdomDenmarkIrelandNetherlandsLuxembourgItalyGermanyFranceBelgium 

NotesEdit

A^ : Under the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty System, the territorial claims of France and the United Kingdom (Adélie Land and the British Antarctic Territory, respectively) have been frozen (along with the claims made by five other states) since 23 June 1961; consequently, ISO 3166-1 catalogues the whole of Antarctica as international territory under the code ATA since 1979. However, European Union treaties (e.g. the proposed Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe in its Annex II[59]) nonetheless list those territories as associated with the European Union.
B^ : The local politics of French Polynesia are dominated by the dichotomy of independence vs. continued relations with France;[60][61] while independence had officially been recognised as a possibility by former President Jacques Chirac, the French political establishment and some local politicians remain sceptical.[62]
C^ : The Nouméa Accord, which was signed on 5 May 1998 and put to a referendum in New Caledonia on 8 November 1998 (which succeeded with 72 per cent support), gives New Caledonia the right to hold an independence referendum between 2014 and 2018.[63]
D^ : The BES islands (  Bonaire,   Saba and   Sint Eustatius) will not become part of the European Union for at least five years following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010, though this might happen at a later time.[64]
E1 2 : On 3 October 1990,   East Germany joined   West Germany through the process of German reunification; since then, the reunited   Germany has been a single member state.[65]
F^ : After World War II (during which the Faroe Islands were under British occupation) the Faroe Islands had already held a referendum on independence on 14 September 1946, which turned out 48.7 per cent to 47 per cent in favour. They declared independence on 18 September 1946; however, this declaration was annulled by Denmark on 20 September 1946. As a reaction to the growing self-government and independence movements, Denmark granted the Faroe Islands home-rule on 30 March 1948.[66] A second independence referendum which had been scheduled for 26 May 2001[67] was postponed when it became clear that the Danish government would only continue to give financial aid for four more years if the referendum turned out to be in favour of independence.[68]
G^ : There is strong support for independence among Greenland's population.[69] An independence referendum initially planned in 2003 to be held before 2006[70] had been postponed due to an unanticipated early election in 2005.
H^ : In Bermuda,[71] Montserrat[72] and in the Turks and Caicos Islands,[73] there is strong support for eventual independence from the United Kingdom; the British government has stated that it is prepared to back and encourage any of its current Caribbean overseas territories which wishes to attain independence.[74] Support for independence is less prevalent in Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands,[75] and the Cayman Islands have repeatedly stated that they are strongly against becoming independent at the current time.[76][77]
As far as the non–Caribbean overseas territories are concerned, the Falkland Islands consider independence a long–term option,[78] while neither Saint Helena[79] nor the Pitcairn Islands[80] are currently considering independence. The British Indian Ocean Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands have no native population, though the Chagossians (who had been removed from the British Indian Ocean Territory in 1966) have been granted the right to return by the British High Court of Justice on 3 November 2000 and again on 11 May 2006, overturning an Order-in-Council which was meant to overrule the court's earlier decision.[81] Furthermore, the United Kingdom assured   Mauritius that it would hand over the British Indian Ocean Territory once it was not needed any longer for military reasons.[82] The United States' lease for the military base on Diego Garcia expires in 2016, although there is an option for the extension of the agreement until 2036.
I1 2 : The UK Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri (Ακρωτήρι/Agrotur) and Dhekelia (Δεκέλεια/Dikelya) on Cyprus did not join the European Union when the United Kingdom joined, and Cyprus' Accession Treaty specifically stated that this would not change with the accession of Cyprus to the European Union. The proposed Annan Plan for Cyprus had included a provision for the United Kingdom to cede 117 km² of the Sovereign Base Areas' 254 km² to the United Cyprus Republic.[83]
J^ : Officially, the whole island is part of the European Union and Turkish Cypriots are citizens of the European Union. Since the Greek Cypriot side rejected the Annan Plan for the reunification of the southern part and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in a referendum on 24 April 2004, however, European Union law is only applied in the southern part currently. Had the referendum been in favour on both sides of the island, Cyprus, Northern Cyprus and the UN Buffer Zone would have joined the European Union together as the   United Cyprus Republic. Talks on resolving the Cyprus dispute restarted in July 2006 under United Nations supervision;[84][85] Cypriot reunification is supported by the European Union.[86]
K1 2 : As the result of a naming dispute with Greece, the Republic of Macedonia is officially referred to as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) by the European Union.[87] Negotiations on the issue are still underway under United Nations supervision through UN mediator Matthew Nimetz, and were expected to gain speed after the Macedonian parliamentary election was held on 5 July 2006.[88][89] Attempts to find a solution were intensified in November 2007.[90]


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  83. ^ United Nations (2004-03-31). "Appendix C – Treaty on matters related to the new state of affairs in Cyprus, Annex II – Additional Protocol to the Treaty of Establishment" (PDF). The Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem. Retrieved 2006-08-31. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  84. ^ Staff writer (2006-07-09). "Cyprus: Two sides agree to future talks following meetings with UN official". United Nations News Centre. Retrieved 2006-07-11. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  85. ^ Staff writer (2006-07-11). "Athens and Nicosia confer on latest bid for Cyprus solution". Athens News AgencyMacedonian Press Agency. Retrieved 2006-07-11. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  86. ^ European Commission (2006-07-26). "Turkish Cypriot community". Enlargement. Retrieved 2006-08-31. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  87. ^ European Commission (2006-08-01). "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Enlargement – Country Profile. Retrieved 2006-08-31. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  88. ^ Staff writer (2006-05-04). "Mallias: Name dialogue to resume after elections". Press Online. Retrieved 2006-05-30. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  89. ^ Staff writer (2006-05-04). "Mallias: Name dialogue to resume after elections". Press Online. Retrieved 2006-05-30. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  90. ^ Staff writer (2007-11-02). "UN hands Greece and Macedonia name proposals". B92. Retrieved 2007-11-02. Check date values in: |date= (help)

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