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R v Brown [1993] UKHL 19

Christina v R [2003] UKPC 47

[2007] EWHC 2402

Credit Suisse v Stichting Vestia [2014] EWHC 3103 (Comm) (3 October 2014)

List of Privy Counsellors (1952–present)



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Frequently used termsEdit

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  • [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]]
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Toying aroundEdit

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{{cite web|url=|title=''Kanokon''|publisher=[[Anime News Network]]|date=[[November 18]] [[2007]]|accessdate=2007-01-02}}

{{cite web|url=|title=Verified dives below 200 metres|accessdate=2008-06-14}}


2019 general election draft


UPDATE: The ruling National Democratic Party won in convincing fashion, and had secured victory early in the night solely on the basis of the district seats (results for the at-large seats take longer to count and normally only come in the next day). In the event, the NDP won all four at-large seats as well to complete a landslide victory, becoming the first party to win back-to-back elections in the British Virgin Islands since the Virgin Islands Party achieved the feat in the 1999 general election. The NDP's margin of victory (9 seats) and share of the total votes cast (60.2%) were both records for an election.

Summary of the 25 February 2019 Legislative assembly election results
Parties Votes* %age Seats
Virgin Islands Party 22,296 46.6% 8
National Democratic Party 13,500 28.2% 3
Progressive Virgin Islands Movement 8,304 17.3% 1
Progressives United 1,850 3.9% 1
Independents 1,945 4.1% 0
Speaker and Attorney General -- -- 2
Total (turnout --% (est.)) 47,895 100.0% 15
* Each voter has 5 votes; 1 district vote and 4 territorial "at-large" votes
Source: Deputy Governor's Office

District seatsEdit

Winning candidates are highlighted in blue.[1][2] Previously incumbent candidates are marked in bold.

2019 general election results - 1st District
Candidate Party Votes
Andrew Fahie VIP 742
Sylvia Moses PVIM 141
Stephanie Brewley PU 28

Incumbent Andrew Fahie (VIP) easily won his sixth consecutive election over his two challengers each contesting their first.

2019 general election results - 2nd District
Candidate Party Votes
Melvin Turnbull Jr. PVIM 550
Carnel Clyne VIP 465

Incumbent Melvin Turnbull retained his seat after switching parties to join the PVIM, defeating political newcomer Carnel Clyne (VIP).

2019 general election results - 3rd District
Candidate Party Votes
Julian Fraser PU 519
Aaron Parillon NDP 294
Arlene Smith-Thompson VIP 289

Incumbent Julian Fraser won his sixth election but his first as the leader of the PU after leaving the VIP. He has never lost an election in his 3rd district stronghold. His opponents, Aaron Parillon (NDP) and Arlene Smith-Thompson (VIP) were each contesting their first election.

2019 general election results - 4th District
Candidate Party Votes
Mark Vanterpool NDP 442
Luce Hodge-Smith VIP 385
Vincent Scatliffe PU 24
Carl Scatliffe PVIM 28

Incumbent Mark Vanterpool (NDP) won his fifth election in six contests, narrowly holding off newcomer Luce Hodge-Smith.

2019 general election results - 5th District
Candidate Party Votes
Kye Rymer VIP 638
Wade Smith PVIM 396
Elvis Harrigan NDP 204

Incumbent Delores Christopher died prior to the election leaving the seat vacant. Newcomer Kye Rymer (VIP) overcame fellow newcomer Wade Smith (PVIM) and Elvis "Juggy" Harrigan (NDP), who was contesting his fifth election (including once as an at-large candidate).

2019 general election results - 6th District
Candidate Party Votes
Alvera Maduro-Caines NDP 575
John Samuel VIP 534

Incumbent Alvera Maduro-Caines (NDP) won her third consecutive election narrowly defeating newcomer John Samuel (VIP).

2019 general election results - 7th District
Candidate Party Votes
Natalio Wheatley VIP 384
Kedrick Pickering Independent 338
Hipolito Penn NDP 136

Incumbent Kedrick Pickering running as an independent in his fifth election, having won his previous four contests, lost to Natalio Wheatley who was contesting his third ever general election for a third different party.

2019 general election results - 8th District
Candidate Party Votes
Marlon Penn NDP 726
Dean Fahie VIP 527

Marlon Penn (NDP) won his third consecutive contest, comfortably defeating Dean Fahie (VIP) who was standing for election for the first time.

2019 general election results - 9th District
Candidate Party Votes
Vincent Wheatley VIP 891
Hubert O'Neal NDP 325
Jose DeCastro PVIM 63

Political newcomer Vincent Wheatley (VIP) easily defeated incumbent Hubert O'Neal (NDP) who was contesting his seventh general election (having won only once previously, in 2015).

At-large seatsEdit

2019 general election candidates - at large
Candidate Party Votes
Sharie de Castro VIP 4,778
Neville Smith VIP 4,694
Shereen Flax-Charles VIP 4,033
Carvin Malone VIP 3,936
Myron Walwyn NDP 3,335
Henry Creque NDP 2,799
Ronnie Skelton 2,639
Trefor Grant NDP 2,246
Sandy Underbill NDP 2,418
Shaina Smith PVIM 1,805
Curnal Fahie PVIM 1,619
Dancia Penn Independent 1,607
Lesmore Smith PVIM 1,063
Dirk Walters PU 769
Verna Smith PU 278
Rajah Smith PU 232

The VIP candidates won all four of the at-large seats. Each of them other than Sharie DeCastro (contesting her second election, after being unsuccessful in 2015), were standing for election for the first time.

Incumbents Myron Walwyn and Ronnie Skelton were not returned (the two other previous incumbents, Orlando Smith and Archie Christian, did not run).

Sub 4Edit

Players with at least 1,000 post season receiving yardsEdit

Through end of 2018 season[3]

Rank Player Position Team(s) by season Receptions Yards Average
1 Jerry Rice^ Wide Receiver San Francisco 49ers (19852000)
Oakland Raiders (20012004)
Seattle Seahawks (2004)
151 2,245 14.9
2 Julian Edelman* Wide Receiver New England Patriots (2009–present) 115 1,412 12.3
3 Michael Irvin^ Wide Receiver Dallas Cowboys (19881999) 87 1,315 15.1
4 Cliff Branch Wide Receiver Oakland Raiders (19721985) 73 1,289 17.7
5 Reggie Wayne Wide Receiver Indianapolis Colts (20012014) 93 1,254 13.5
6 Andre Reed^ Wide Receiver Buffalo Bills (19851999)
Washington Redskins (2000)
85 1,229 14.5
7 Hines Ward Wide Receiver Pittsburgh Steelers (19982011) 88 1,181 13.4
8 Fred Biletnikoff^ Wide Receiver Oakland Raiders (19651978) 70 1,167 16.7
9 Rob Gronkowski* Tight End New England Patriots (2010–present) 81 1,163 14.4
10 Drew Pearson Wide Receiver Dallas Cowboys (19731983) 68 1,131 16.6
11 Paul Warfield^ Wide Receiver Cleveland Browns (19641969 and 19761977)
Miami Dolphins (19701974)
58 1,121 19.3
12 Art Monk^ Wide Receiver Washington Redskins (19801993)
New York Jets (1994)
Philadelphia Eagles (1995)
69 1,062 15.4
13 Anquan Boldin Wide Receiver Arizona Cardinals (20032009)
Baltimore Ravens (20102012)
San Francisco 49ers (20132015)
Detroit Lions (2016)
70 1,057 15.1
14 John Stallworth^ Wide Receiver Pittsburgh Steelers (19741987) 57 1,054 17.5
15 Steve Smith Sr. Wide Receiver Carolina Panthers (20012013)
Baltimore Ravens (20142016)
59 1,001 17.0


  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Winner was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference Winner2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "NFL Receiving Yards Career Playoffs Leaders". Retrieved 8 February 2019.

James is the oldest and coolest of all the templar knights.
John. John is the whiney one who never fights.
Steve Tempest
Steve is an imaginary knight made up for reference purposes.
Steve is purely an example.
Bob is the youngest and un-coolest of all the templar knights.

Multi-jurisdiction offshore law firms
Firm Bermuda BVI Cayman Dubai Dublin Guernsey Jersey Luxembourg "Home" jurisdiction
Appleby Yes Yes Yes Yes Bermuda
Bedell Cristin Yes Yes Yes Jersey
Carey Olsen Yes Yes Channel Islands*
CDP Yes Yes Yes Yes Bermuda
Maples Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Cayman Islands
Mourants Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Jersey
Ogier Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Jersey
Ozannes Yes Yes Guernsey
Walkers Yes Yes Yes Yes Cayman Islands

* Carey Olsen was formed by the merger of two roughly equivalent sized firms from Jersey and Guernsey

User experienced and establishedEdit

{{User:DBD/Userboxes/Wikipedia/User Experienced and Established}} <div style="float: left; border: 1px solid #CCCC00; margin: 1px;"> {| cellspacing="0" style="width: 238px; background: #FFFFBB;" | style="background: #CCCC00; color: #000000; font-size: 10pt; height: 45px; padding-right: 1px; text-align: center; width: 45px;" | [[Image:Editor - gold ribbon - 3 pips.jpg|46px]] | style="font-size: 8pt; padding: 4pt; line-height: 1.25em; color: #000000; border: 1px solid #CCCC00;" | This editor is [[Wikipedia:Service awards#Experienced and Established Editor (or Grognard Extraordinary)|Experienced and Established]], and is entitled to display this '''Experienced and Established Editor Badge''' |}</div>

 British Antarctic Territory


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Terminology: OFCs vs tax havensEdit

In terms of terminology, confusion sometimes arises as to the level of distinction between "tax havens" and offshore financial centres. One commentator has gone so far as to suggest that offshore financial centre is simply "a politically correct term for what used to be called a tax haven.".[1] There is some merit in the suggestion: one of the leading texts on the subject, by Milton Grundy (ISBN 0 421 58590 0), was first published in 1969 under the title Tax Havens: A World Survey, which title was retained with small changes until the 6th edition in 1993, which was entitled Grundy's Tax Havens-Offshore Business Centres: A World Survey. The 7th edition published in 1997 was entitled Offshore Business Centres: A World Survey.

Nonetheless there is a distinction to be drawn between the two terms, although there may be considerable overlap in the jurisdictions which can described as one or other. Tolley's Offshore Service (ISBN 040694251X) suggests that Bahamas, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Liechtenstein would probably fit on almost any definition of each list. However, jurisdictions such as Delaware and Dubai may be offshore financial centres without being tax havens, and jurisdictions such as Vanuatu may be tax havens without being offshore financial centres.

Part of the difficulty usually stems from the fact that both terms have evolved over the years and have a fluid meaning. Tax havens were originally thought of as low tax jurisdictions to which wealthy individuals could retire and avoid taxation. Now personal residence as a means of avoiding tax is much less common, and a "tax haven" is usually used to either refer to a low tax or no-tax jurisdiction, or jurisdictions who structure their legal architecture to facilitate the mitigation of tax liabilities in third countries. However, the term "tax haven" is also used sometimes in a perjorative fashion, suggesting that a jurisdiction which facilitates cross-border financial crime or unlawful tax evasion.[2] In their 1998 report, OECD dedicated fully half of their criterea for identifying a jurisdiction as a tax haven to issues such as "lack of effective exchange of information" and "lack of transparency", and put very little emphasis on tax indicating only that "no or nominal taxation is the starting point..."[3]

By contrast term offshore financial centre reflects the broader scope of financial services offered within those jurisdictions.[4] For example, Bermuda (which often refers to itself as the first offshore financial centre) now has a relatively minor role in international tax structuring, but a booming economy based on offshore reinsurance markets and management of collective investment vehicles. But it is probably correct to note that most jurisdictions which label themselves as offshore financial centres, also tend to be tax havens by most popular definitions.

CA JudgesEdit

Lord/Lady Justice Mandatory
Date of
High Court
Alma mater High Court
Other roles
1 Dame Mary Arden[n 1] 23 January 2022 2 October 2000 30 April 1993 Girton College, Cambridge
Harvard Law School
2 Sir Andrew Longmore[n 1] 25 August 2019 11 January 2001 25 October 1993 Lincoln College, Oxford Queen's Bench
3 Dame Heather Hallett 16 December 2019 3 October 2005 14 April 1999 St Hugh's College, Oxford Queen's Bench Vice-President of the Criminal Division
4 Sir Rupert Jackson 7 March 2018 2 October 2008 12 January 1999 Jesus College, Cambridge Queen's Bench
5 Sir Nicholas Patten 7 August 2020 4 June 2009 2 October 2000 Chancery
6 Sir Peter Gross 13 February 2022 9 July 2010 1 October 2001 Queen's Bench
7 Dame Anne Rafferty 26 February 2020 5 July 2011 21 February 2000 University of Sheffield Queen's Bench Chair of the Judicial College
8 Sir Andrew McFarlane 20 June 2024 28 July 2011 18 April 2005 Collingwood College, Durham Family
9 Sir Nigel Davis 10 March 2021 3 October 2011 1 October 2001 University College, Oxford Queen's Bench
10 Sir Kim Lewison 1 May 2022 3 October 2011 29 April 2003 Downing College, Cambridge Chancery
11 Sir David Kitchin 30 April 2025 3 October 2011 3 October 2005 Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge Chancery
12 Sir Colman Treacy 28 July 2019 1 October 2012 1 October 2002 Jesus College, Cambridge Queen's Bench Chairman of the Sentencing Council
13 Sir Richard McCombe 23 September 2022 26 October 2012 11 January 2001 Downing College, Cambridge Queen's Bench
14 Sir Jack Beatson 3 November 2018 11 January 2013 29 April 2004 Brasenose College, Oxford Queen's Bench
15 Dame Elizabeth Gloster 5 June 2019 9 April 2013 21 April 2004 Girton College, Cambridge Queen's Bench Vice-President of the Civil Division
16 Sir Ernest Ryder 19 December 2027 9 April 2013 4 May 2004 Peterhouse, Cambridge Family Senior President of Tribunals
17 Sir Nicholas Underhill 12 May 2022 9 April 2013 20 January 2006 New College, Oxford Queen's Bench
18 Sir Christopher Floyd 20 December 2021 9 April 2013 8 November 2007 Trinity College, Cambridge Chancery
19 Sir Adrian Fulford 8 January 2023 10 May 2013 21 November 2002 University of Southampton Queen's Bench Investigatory Powers Commissioner
20 Dame Julia Macur 17 April 2027 31 July 2013 3 October 2005 University of Sheffield Family Senior Presiding Judge[5]
21 Dame Victoria Sharp 8 February 2026 1 October 2013 13 January 2009 University of Bristol Queen's Bench Vice-President of the Queen's Bench Division
22 Sir David Bean 25 March 2024 1 October 2014 19 July 2004 Trinity Hall, Cambridge Queen's Bench Chairman of the Law Commission
23 Dame Eleanor King 13 September 2027 1 October 2014 4 April 2008 University of Hull Family
24 Sir Philip Sales 11 February 2032 10 November 2014 1 October 2008 Churchill College, Cambridge
Worcester College, Oxford
25 Sir Peregrine Simon 20 June 2020 1 October 2015 1 October 2002 Trinity Hall, Cambridge Queen's Bench
26 Sir Keith Lindblom 20 September 2026 2 November 2015 4 October 2010 St John's College, Oxford Queen's Bench
27 Sir David Richards 9 June 2021 16 November 2015 1 October 2003 Trinity College, Cambridge Chancery
28 Sir Nicholas Hamblen 23 August 2027 17 February 2016 19 November 2008 St John's College, Oxford
Harvard Law School
Queen's Bench
29 Sir Stephen Irwin 5 February 2023 4 October 2016 18 May 2006 Jesus College, Cambridge Queen's Bench
30 Sir Launcelot Henderson 20 November 2021 3 November 2016 11 January 2007 Balliol College, Oxford Chancery
31 Sir Julian Flaux 11 May 2025 8 December 2016 14 May 2007 Worcester College, Oxford Queen's Bench
32 Dame Kathryn [Kate] Thirlwall 21 November 2027 1 February 2017 13 April 2010 University of Bristol Queen's Bench Deputy Senior Presiding Judge
33 Sir Gary Hickinbottom 22 December 2025 15 March 2017 13 January 2009 University College, Oxford Queen's Bench
34 Sir Andrew Moylan 23 June 2023 29 March 2017 23 February 2007 Family
35 Sir Peter Jackson 9 December 2025 4 October 2017 1 October 2010 Brasenose College, Oxford Family
36 Sir Guy Newey 21 January 2029 5 October 2017 12 January 2010 Queens' College, Cambridge Chancery
37 Sir Rabinder Singh 6 March 2034 5 October 2017 3 October 2011 Trinity College, Cambridge
UC Berkeley School of Law
Queen's Bench
38 Dame Sarah Asplin 16 September 2029 9 October 2017 1 October 2012 Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge
St Edmund Hall, Oxford
39 Sir Timothy Holroyde 18 August 2025 31 October 2017 13 January 2009 Wadham College, Oxford Queen's Bench
  1. Is for apple
  2. Is for boy
  3. Is for fishes


  1. ^ Tolley's International Initiatives Affecting Financial Havens (ISBN 0-406-94264-1), in the Glossary of Terms definition for an "offshore financial centre". However, he then qualifies this by adding "The use of this term makes the important point that a jurisdiction may provide specific facilities for offshore financial centres without being in any general sense a tax haven."
  2. ^ See for example
  3. ^ At paragraph 52.
  4. ^ Referring to the jurisdictions which are considered both tax havens and OFCs, Tolley's Offshore Service comments: "The term ... offshore financial centre is now more appropriate, for it better reflects the wide range of commercial and financial activities carried on in the jurisdictions concerned", at para INT.29
  5. ^
WARNING! Scuba diving can be dangerous. Divers should never attempt decompression diving without proper training and equipment.

Cite error: There are <ref group=n> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=n}} template (see the help page).