UPDATE: The ruling National Democratic Party won in convincing fashion, and had secured victory early in the night solely on the basis of the district seats (results for the at-large seats take longer to count and normally only come in the next day). In the event, the NDP won all four at-large seats as well to complete a landslide victory, becoming the first party to win back-to-back elections in the British Virgin Islands since the Virgin Islands Party achieved the feat in the 1999 general election. The NDP's margin of victory (9 seats) and share of the total votes cast (60.2%) were both records for an election.
Incumbent Julian Fraser won his sixth election but his first as the leader of the PU after leaving the VIP. He has never lost an election in his 3rd district stronghold. His opponents, Aaron Parillon (NDP) and Arlene Smith-Thompson (VIP) were each contesting their first election.
2019 general election results - 4th District
Incumbent Mark Vanterpool (NDP) won his fifth election in six contests, narrowly holding off newcomer Luce Hodge-Smith.
2019 general election results - 5th District
Incumbent Delores Christopher died prior to the election leaving the seat vacant. Newcomer Kye Rymer (VIP) overcame fellow newcomer Wade Smith (PVIM) and Elvis "Juggy" Harrigan (NDP), who was contesting his fifth election (including once as an at-large candidate).
2019 general election results - 6th District
Incumbent Alvera Maduro-Caines (NDP) won her third consecutive election narrowly defeating newcomer John Samuel (VIP).
Incumbent Kedrick Pickering running as an independent in his fifth election, having won his previous four contests, lost to Natalio Wheatley who was contesting his third ever general election for a third different party.
2019 general election results - 8th District
Marlon Penn (NDP) won his third consecutive contest, comfortably defeating Dean Fahie (VIP) who was standing for election for the first time.
2019 general election results - 9th District
Political newcomer Vincent Wheatley (VIP) easily defeated incumbent Hubert O'Neal (NDP) who was contesting his seventh general election (having won only once previously, in 2015).
The VIP candidates won all four of the at-large seats. Each of them other than Sharie DeCastro (contesting her second election, after being unsuccessful in 2015), were standing for election for the first time.
Incumbents Myron Walwyn and Ronnie Skelton were not returned (the two other previous incumbents, Orlando Smith and Archie Christian, did not run).
In terms of terminology, confusion sometimes arises as to the level of distinction between "tax havens" and offshore financial centres. One commentator has gone so far as to suggest that offshore financial centre is simply "a politically correct term for what used to be called a tax haven.". There is some merit in the suggestion: one of the leading texts on the subject, by Milton Grundy (ISBN0 421 58590 0), was first published in 1969 under the title Tax Havens: A World Survey, which title was retained with small changes until the 6th edition in 1993, which was entitled Grundy's Tax Havens-Offshore Business Centres: A World Survey. The 7th edition published in 1997 was entitled Offshore Business Centres: A World Survey.
Part of the difficulty usually stems from the fact that both terms have evolved over the years and have a fluid meaning. Tax havens were originally thought of as low tax jurisdictions to which wealthy individuals could retire and avoid taxation. Now personal residence as a means of avoiding tax is much less common, and a "tax haven" is usually used to either refer to a low tax or no-tax jurisdiction, or jurisdictions who structure their legal architecture to facilitate the mitigation of tax liabilities in third countries. However, the term "tax haven" is also used sometimes in a perjorative fashion, suggesting that a jurisdiction which facilitates cross-border financial crime or unlawful tax evasion. In their 1998 report, OECD dedicated fully half of their criterea for identifying a jurisdiction as a tax haven to issues such as "lack of effective exchange of information" and "lack of transparency", and put very little emphasis on tax indicating only that "no or nominal taxation is the starting point..."
By contrast term offshore financial centre reflects the broader scope of financial services offered within those jurisdictions. For example, Bermuda (which often refers to itself as the first offshore financial centre) now has a relatively minor role in international tax structuring, but a booming economy based on offshore reinsurance markets and management of collective investment vehicles. But it is probably correct to note that most jurisdictions which label themselves as offshore financial centres, also tend to be tax havens by most popular definitions.
^Tolley's International Initiatives Affecting Financial Havens (ISBN0-406-94264-1), in the Glossary of Terms definition for an "offshore financial centre". However, he then qualifies this by adding "The use of this term makes the important point that a jurisdiction may provide specific facilities for offshore financial centres without being in any general sense a tax haven."
^Referring to the jurisdictions which are considered both tax havens and OFCs, Tolley's Offshore Service comments: "The term ... offshore financial centre is now more appropriate, for it better reflects the wide range of commercial and financial activities carried on in the jurisdictions concerned", at para INT.29