User:Dcljr/Sandbox

American ExperienceEdit

Season Episode Title Original air date Production code Website
1 1 The Great San Francisco Earthquake 1988-10-04
1 2 Radio Bikini 1988-10-11
1 3 Indians, Outlaws, and Angie Debo 1988-10-18
1 4 Eric Sevareid's Not So Wild a Dream 1988-10-25
1 5 The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter 1988-11-01
1 6 Do You Mean There Are Still Real Cowboys? 1988-11-08
1 7 Kennedy vs. Wallace: A Crisis Up Close 1988-11-15
1 8 Geronimo and the Apache Resistance 1988-11-22
1 9 Let Us Now Praise Famous Men: Revisited 1988-11-29
1 10 That Rhythm... Those Blues 1988-12-06
1 11 The Radio Priest 1988-12-13
1 12 Hearts and Hands 1988-12-20
1 13 Views of a Vanishing Frontier 1988-12-27
1 14 Eudora Welty: One Writer's Beginnings 1989-01-03
1 15 The World That Moses Built 1989-01-10
1 16 Sins of Our Mothers 1989-01-17
2 1 The Great Air Race of 1924 1989-10-03
2 2 Demon Rum 1989-10-10
2 3 A Family Gathering 1989-10-17
2 4 Ida B. Wells: A Passion for Justice 1989-10-24
2 5 The Great War: 1918 1989-10-31
2 6 Forever Baseball 1989-11-07
2 7 Adam Clayton Powell 1989-11-14
2 8 Mr. Sears' Catalogue 1989-11-21
2 9 Battle for Wilderness 1989-12-05
2 10 Ballad of a Mountain Man 1989-12-12
2 11 Forbidden City, USA 1989-12-19
2 12 Wildcatter: A Story of Texas Oil 1990-01-01
2 13 Roots of Resistance: The Story of the Underground Railroad 1990-01-16
2 14 Yosemite: The Fate of Heaven 1990-01-29
2 15 God Bless America and Poland, Too 1990-02-12
3 1 Lindbergh 1990-08
3 2 Nixon: Part I 1990-10-10
3 3 Richard Nixon: Part II 1990-08-15
3 4 Nixon: Part III 1990-10-22
3 5 The Crash of 1929 1990-11-19
3 6 The Iron Road 1991-11-19
3 7 The Satellite Sky 1990-11-05
3 8 Insanity on Trial 1990-10-30
3 9 After the Crash 1991-01-07
3 10 Los Mineros 1991-01-28
3 11 Coney Island 1991-02-04
3 12 Journey to America 1991-04-22
3 13 Orphans of the Storm 1991-05-06
4 1 LBJ: Parts 1 & 2 - Beautiful Texas / My Fellow Americans 1991-09-30
4 2 LBJ: Parts 3 & 4 - We Shall Overcome / The Last Believer 1991-10-01
4 3 The Massachusetts 54th Colored Infantry 1991-10-07
4 4 Barnum's Big Top 1991-10-14
4 5 Scandalous Mayor 1991-10-28
4 6 Pearl Harbor: Surprise and Remembrance 1991-11-11
4 7 G-Men: The Rise of J. Edgar Hoover 1991-11-18
4 8 Duke Ellington: Reminiscing in Tempo 1991-12-09
4 9 The Quiz Show Scandal 1992-01-06
4 10 Love in the Cold War 1992-01-13
4 11 Wild by Law 1992-02-10
4 12 In the White Man's Image 1992-02-17
5 1 The Kennedys, Part 1: The Father, 1900-61 1992-01-20
5 2 The Kennedys, Part 2: The Sons, 1961-80 1992-09-21
5 3 The Donner Party 1992-10-28
5 4 The Johnstown Flood 1992-11-04
5 5 Liberators: Fighting on Two Fronts in World War II 1992-11-11
5 6 George Washington: The Man Who Wouldn't Be King 1992-11-18
5 7 Last Stand at Little Big Horn 1992-11-25
5 8 Ishi: The Last Yahi Indian 1992-12-02
5 9 If You Knew Sousa 1993-01-11
5 10 Simple Justice 1993-01-18
5 11 Sit Down and Fight 1993-02-01
5 12 Knute Rockne and His Fighting Irish 1993-02-08
5 13 Rachel Carson's Silent Spring 1993-02-15
5 14 French Dance Tonight 1993-02-22
5 15 Goin' Back to T-Town 1993-03-01
6 1 Ike (Part I) 1993-09-20
6 2 Ike: Part II 1993-09-27
6 3 Amelia Earhart: The Price of Courage 1993-10-27
6 4 The Hunt for Pancho Villa 1993-11-06
6 5 Malcolm X: Make It Plain 1994-01-26
6 6 America and the Holocaust: Deceit and Indifference 1994-04-06
6 7 D-Day Remembered 1994-05-25
7 1 FDR: Part I 1994-10-12
7 2 FDR: Part II 1994-10-13
7 3 Telegrams from the Dead 1994-10-19
7 4 Midnight Ramble 1994-10-26
7 5 The Battle of the Bulge: World War II's Deadliest Battle 1994-11-09
7 6 Troublesome Creek: A Midwestern 1995
7 7 One Woman, One Vote 1995
7 8 The Way West: Part I 1995-05-08
7 9 The Way West: Part II 1995-05-09
8 1 Murder of the Century 1995-10-16
8 2 Edison's Miracle of Light 1995-10-23
8 3 Chicago 1968 1995-11-13
8 4 The Orphan Trains 1995-11-27
8 5 Freedom on My Mind 1995-11-13
8 6 Daley: The Last Boss 1996-01-22
8 7 The Battle Over Citizen Kane 1996-01-29
8 8 The Wright Stuff 1996-02-12
8 9 Spy in the Sky 1996-02-26
9 1 T.R.: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt (Part I) 1996-10-06
9 2 T.R.: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt (Part II) 1996-10-07
9 3 The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie 1997-01-20
9 4 Hawaii's Last Queen 1997-01-27
9 5 The Telephone 1997-02-03
9 6 Big Dream, Small Screen 1997-02-10
9 7 New York Underground 1997-02-17
9 8 Around the World in 72 Days 1997-04-28
9 9 Gold Fever 1997
10 1 Truman: Part I 1997-10-05
10 2 Truman: Part II 1997-10-06
10 3 Vietnam: Parts I & II - Roots of War/America's Mandarin 1997-10-13
10 4 Vietnam: Parts III & IV - LBJ Goes to War/America Takes Charge 1997-10-20
10 5 Vietnam: Parts V & VI - America's Enemy/Tet 1968 1997-10-27
10 6 Vietnam: Parts VII & VIII - Vietnamizing the War/Cambodia and Laos 1997-12-02
10 7 Vietnam: Parts IX & X - Peace Is at Hand/Homefront USA 1997-12-09
10 8 A Midwife's Tale 1998-01-19
10 9 Mr. Miami Beach 1998-02-02
10 10 Influenza 1918 1998-02-09
10 11 Reagan: Part I 1998-02-23
10 12 Reagan: Part II 1998-02-24
10 13 Surviving the Dust Bowl 1998-03-02
11 1 America 1900 1998-11-18
11 2 Race for the Superbomb 1999-01-11
11 3 Hoover Dam 1999-01-18
11 4 Alone on the Ice 1999-02-08
11 5 Rescue at Sea 1999-02-15
11 6 Meltdown at Three Mile Island 1999-02-22
11 7 Lost in the Grand Canyon 1999
11 8 Riding the Rails 1999-04-12
11 9 Fly Girls 1999
11 10 MacArthur 1999-05-17
12 1 New York: Part I - The Country and the City 1999-11-14
12 2 New York: Part II - Order and Disorder 1999-11-15
12 3 New York: Part III - Sunshine and Shadow 1999-11-16
12 4 New York: Part IV - The Power and the People 1999-11-17
12 5 New York: Part V - Cosmopolis 1999-11-18
12 6 Eleanor Roosevelt 2000-01-10
12 7 Nixon's China Game 1999
12 8 Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory 2000-02-10
12 9 The Duel 2000
12 10 John Brown's Holy War 2000-02-28
12 11 Houdini 2000
12 12 George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire - Part I 2000-04-24
12 13 George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire - Part II 2000-04-25
12 14 Joe DiMaggio: The Hero's Life 2000-05-08
12 15 George Eastman: The Wizard of Photography 2000
13 1 The Rockefellers: Part 1 2000
13 2 The Rockefellers: Part 2 2000
13 3 Secrets of a Master Builder: The Story of James B. Eads 1999
13 4 Return with Honor 2000-11-24
13 5 The Hurricane of '38 2001
13 6 Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind 2001-01-19
13 7 Abraham and Mary Lincoln: A House Divided - Part 1 2001-02-19
13 8 Abraham and Mary Lincoln: A House Divided - Part 2 2001-02-20
13 9 Abraham and Mary Lincoln: A House Divided - Part 3 2001-02-21
13 10 Scottsboro: An American Tragedy 2001-04-02
13 11 Fatal Flood 2001-04-16
13 12 Stephen Foster 2001-04-23
13 13 Streamliners: America's Lost Trains 2001
14 1 New York: Part 6 - The City of Tomorrow 2001-10-01
14 2 New York: Part 7 - The City and the World 2001-10-08
14 3 War Letters 2001-11-11
14 ? Lady Bird 2001-12-16
14 5? Woodrow Wilson: Episodes One - A Passionate Man 2002
14 5? Woodrow Wilson: Episode Two - The Redemption of the World 2002
14 6 Mount Rushmore 2002-01-20
14 7 Miss America 2002-01-27
14 8 Public Enemy Number 1 2002-02-24
14 9 Monkey Trial 2002
14 10 Zoot Suit Riots 2001-03-01
14 11 Ulysses S. Grant (Part 1) 2002-04-01
14 12 Ulysses S. Grant: Part 2 2001-04-02
14 13 Ansel Adams: A Documentary Film 2002-04-21
14 14 A Brilliant Madness 2002-04-28
15 1 Jimmy Carter (Part I) 2002
15 2 Jimmy Carter: Part 2 2002-11-12
15 3 Chicago: City of the Century: Part 1 2003-01-13
15 4 Chicago: City of the Century: Part 2 2003-01-14
15 5 Chicago: City of the Century: Part 3 2003-01-15
15 6 The Murder of Emmett Till 2003-01-17
15 7 Transcontinental Railroad 2003-01-27
15 8 Partners of the Heart 2003-02-10
15 9 The Pill 2003-01-20
15 10 Daughter from Danang 2003-04-07
15 11 Seabiscuit 2003-03-29
15 12 Bataan Rescue 2003-07-07
15 13 Murder at Harvard 2003-07-14
16 1 New York: Center of the World 2003-09
16 2 Reconstruction: The Second Civil War, Part 1 - Revolution 2003
16 3 Reconstruction: The Second Civil War, Part 2 - Retreat 2003
16 4 Citizen King 2004-01-19
16 5 Remember the Alamo 2004-02-02
16 6 Tupperware! 2004-02-09
16 7 Emma Goldman 2004-04-12
16 8 Patriots Day 2004
16 9 Golden Gate Bridge 2004-05-03
17 1 RFK 2004-10-04
17 2 The Fight 2004-01
17 3 Fidel Castro 2005-01-31
17 4 Building the Alaska Highway 2005-02-07
17 5 Kinsey 2005-02-14
17 6 Mary Pickford 2005-04-04
17 7 The Great Transatlantic Cable 2005-04-11
17 8 The Fall of Saigon 2005-04-25
17 9 Victory in the Pacific 2005-05
17 10 The Carter Family: Will the Circle Be Unbroken 2005
17 11 Guerrilla: The Taking of Patty Hearst 2004-01
17 12 The Massie Affair 2005-07-04
18 1 Two Days in October 2005-11-01
18 2 Race to the Moon 2005-10-31
18 3 Las Vegas: An Unconventional History: Part 1 2005-11-14
18 4 Las Vegas: An Unconventional History: Part 2 2005-11-15
18 5 John & Abigail Adams 2006-01-23
18 6 The Nuremberg Trials 2006-01-30
18 7 Jesse James 2006-02-06
18 8 Hijacked 2006-02-25
18 9 Eugene O'Neill: A Documentary Film 2006-03-21
18 10 The Boy in the Bubble 2006-04-10
18 11 The Alaska Pipeline 2006-04-24
18 12 Annie Oakley 2006-05-08
18 13 The Man Behind Hitler 2006-03-18
19 1 Eyes on the Prize: Parts 1 & 2 - Awakenings/Fighting Back 2006-10-02
19 2 Eyes on the Prize: Parts 3 & 4 - Ain't Scared of Your Jails/No Easy Walk 2006-10-09
19 3 Eyes on the Prize: Parts 5 & 6 - Is This America?/Bridge to Freedom 2006-10-16
19 4 Test Tube Babies 2006-10-23
19 5 The Great Fever 2006-10-30
19 6 The Gold Rush 2006-11-06
19 7 The Berlin Airlift 2006-01-29
19 8 The Living Weapon 2007-02-05
19 9 New Orleans 2007-02-12
19 10 Sister Aimee 2007-04-02
19 11 Jonestown: The Life and Death of the Peoples Temple 2007-04-09
19 12 Summer of Love 2007-04-23
19 13 The Mormons: Part I 2007-04-30
19 14 The Mormons: Part II 2007-05-01
19 15 Alexander Hamilton 2007-05-15
20 1 Oswald's Ghost 2008-01-14
20 2 The Lobotomist 2008-01-21
20 3 Eyes on the Prize II (Parts I & II): The Time Has Come/Two Societies 2008-02-03
20 4 Grand Central 2008-02-04
20 5 Eyes on the Prize II (Parts III & IV): Power!/The Promised Land 2008-02-10
20 6 Eyes on the Prize II (Parts V & VI): Ain't Gonna' Shuffle No More/A Nation of Law? 2008-02-17
20 7 Kit Carson 2008-02-18
20 8 Eyes on the Prize II (Parts VII & VIII): The Keys to the Kingdom/Back to the Movement 2008-02-24
20 9 Buffalo Bill 2008-02-25
20 10 Minik, the Lost Eskimo 2008-03-31
20 11 Walt Whitman 2008-04
20 12 Roberto Clemente 2008-04-21
20 13 George H.W. Bush: Part I 2008-05-05
20 14 George H.W. Bush: Part II 2008-05-06
21 1 The Trials of J. Robert Oppenheimer 2009-01-26
21 2 The Polio Crusade 2009-02-02
21 3 The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln 2009-02-09
21 4 A Class Apart 2009-02-23
21 5 We Shall Remain: Part I - After the Mayflower 2009-04-13
21 6 We Shall Remain: Part II - Tecumseh's Vision 2009-04-20
21 7 We Shall Remain: Part III - Trail of Tears 2009-04-27
21 8 We Shall Remain: Part IV - Geronimo 2009-05-04
21 9 We Shall Remain: Part V - Wounded Knee 2009-05-11
21 10 The Kennedys 2009-05-18
22 1 Civilian Conservation Corps 2009-11-02
22 2 Wyatt Earp 2010-01-25
22 3 The Bombing of Germany 2010-02-08
22 4 Dolley Madison 2010-03-01
22 5 Earth Days 2010-04-19
22 6 My Lai 2010-04-26
22 7 Roads to Memphis 2010-05-03
22 8 Into the Deep: America, Whaling & the World 2010-05-10
23 4? Robert E. Lee 2011-01-03
23 ? U.S. Grant: Warrior 2011-01-10
23 5 Dinosaur Wars 2011-01-17
23 6 Panama Canal 2011-01-24
23 7 The Greely Expedition 2011-01-31
23 ? Jimmy Carter 2011-02-21
23 8 Triangle Fire 2011-02-28
23 9 The Great Famine 2011-04-11
23 10 Stonewall Uprising 2011-04-25
23 11 Soundtrack for a Revolution 2011-05-09
23 12 Freedom Riders 2011-05-16


Summary of arguments in portal RFCEdit

8 April 2018
  • Arguments in support of deprecating and deleting portals
    • Lack of maintenance
      1. Portals are not well maintained.
      2. Portals contain out-of-date information for readers (including getting out of sync with the portal's topic article).
      3. Portals contain out-of-date information for editors (e.g., things to do).
      4. Many portal pages are badly formatted (e.g. on small screens).
      5. Many portal pages have redlinks / broken links (e.g. to Wikispecies).
      6. Editor-related stuff in portals often gets out of date.
      7. Vandalism may last longer in portal space (since bots may not be checking the portal space for vandalism).
    • Lack of usefulness
      1. Portals are "not useful" / "useless".
      2. Most portals show randomly selected content.
      3. Showing randomly-selected information in portals is useless to readers.
      4. Although some portals have some "useful stuff worth salvaging", "99%" of them should be deleted.
      5. "I" have never looked at / noticed / edited / ... portals.
      6. Portals do not have a "net benefit" to the encyclopedia.
    • Lack of relevance
      1. Portals have low readership / page views.
      2. Readers "don't care" about portals.
      3. Some portals have high readership only because they are linked to from the Main Page.
      4. Page views of portals linked to from the Main Page are largely due to "random clicks".
      5. Page views of portals linked to from the Main Page are not reflective of reader interest.
      6. The {{Portal}} template should be removed from articles.
      7. The "idea" of portals is "obsolete".
    • Lack of effectiveness
      1. Portals try to be of use to both readers and editors, and "are terrible at both".
      2. Portals do not encourage people to improve articles, unlike the Main Page.
    • Poor fit in the encyclopedia
      1. Portals do not aid in navigation.
      2. Portals "aren't really part of the encyclopedia".
      3. Portals have inconsistent formats.
      4. Portals often break the convention of separating reader-side stuff from editor-side stuff (e.g. when portals have things like a to-do list).
    • Redundancy / lack of purpose
      1. Outlines can serve the navigational roles of portals.
      2. Curation of featured content can be done by WikiProjects.
      3. The function of portals is "duplicated (and done better) elsewhere".
      4. Portals are sometimes confused with WikiProjects (e.g. editors asking for help at a portal talk page instead of at the corresponding WikiProject talk page).
      5. Editor-related stuff (e.g. to-do lists) in portals often duplicate WikiProject stuff.
    • Waste of resources
      1. Portals waste editor resources that could be better spent doing other things (time spent creating/editing/maintaining portals, watchlist and edit history noise on other pages as links to portals are added/removed, deletion discussions, etc.)
      2. Links to portals cause clutter on other pages (including category pages).
      3. Portals can lead to the creation of many templates and other supporting pages (infrastructure), requiring more maintenance activity.
      4. Bots may not be checking the portal space for vandalism, so users have to do that manually.
    • Lack of coverage
      1. The system of portals is incomplete and "strange and random" in its coverage of topics.
    • Target of bad behaviors
      1. Portals attract POV edits.
      2. Portals seem to attract bad edits.
      3. Portals can be content forks.
      4. Portals are prone to vandalism.
  • Other statements of (purported) fact cited in "Support" comments
    1. Approximately "99%" of links to portals occur in WikiProject banners.
    2. Some portals were created as a result of "the hype" surrounding them in the past.

through DexDor's comment at 16:25

9 April 2018

ProposalEdit

What I am proposing is the following:

  1. Certain cleanup templates that require subject-area knowledge to effectively respond to should accept a parameter marking the subject area of the article being tagged.
  2. This information should be used to categorize tagged articles into subcategories by subject area (as is currently done by month).
Background

Many of our cleanup templates (and some other types of templates) tag articles for the kinds of attention that only editors familiar with the subject matter will be able to effectively provide (e.g., {{lead rewrite}}, {{context}}, {{expand section}}, {{missing information}}, {{confusing}}, {{disputed}}, {{undue weight}}, {{clarify}}, {{dubious}}, {{original research}}, {{more citations needed}}, {{citation needed}}, {{clarify}}, and several others). While the dating of templates (using |date=) has become almost universal, indicating the subject matter in a similar way has not (although {{expert needed}} does have a mechanism for associating the tag with a WikiProject). As far as I know, only stub templates are routinely marked with the subject area, allowing "sorting" into an appropriate stub category, but this is done by creating a separate template for each subject area.

The proposal

...

Record labelsEdit

(Information for eventual use on Template talk:Timeline of Major Record Labels, discussing Template:Timeline of Major Record Labels.)

"Majors"Edit

North American Majors (according to User:78.26) in:

According to Record label#Major labels, there were six major record labels in 1988.

Big Six (1988–1999)

PolyGram was merged into UMG in 1999.

Big Five (1999–2004)
  • Warner Music Group
  • EMI
  • Sony Music
  • BMG
  • Universal Music Group

In 2004, Sony and BMG agreed to a joint venture to create the Sony BMG label (which would be renamed Sony Music Entertainment after a 2008 merger).

Big Four (2004–2012)
  • Warner Music Group
  • EMI
  • Sony BMG / Sony Music
  • Universal Music Group

In 2012, the major divisions of EMI were sold off separately by owner Citigroup: most of EMI's recorded music division was absorbed into UMG; EMI Music Publishing was absorbed into Sony/ATV Music Publishing; finally, EMI's Parlophone and Virgin Classics labels were absorbed into Warner Music Group in July 2013.

Big Three (2012–present)

TableEdit

Large chunks of text from the relevant articles (sometimes verbatim, sometimes heavily edited) have been inserted when the history was too complicated to easily add to the table — although I am in the process of trying to do that.

Company Start date Started how End date Ended how Additional notes
Columbia Phonograph Company 1887 founded
Columbia Graphophone Company
Cameo Record Corporation
Pathé Records / Pathé Phonograph and Radio Corporation
Plaza Music Company
American Record Corporation 1929 merger of Cameo Record Corporation, Pathé Phonograph and Radio Corporation, and Plaza Music Company. 1938-12 purchased by the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
Columbia Recording Corporation 1938-12 renaming of American Record Corporation after purchase by CBS
Brunswick Records
Vocalion Records
Okeh Records
Philips Records
CBS Records 1961
Columbia Records / CBS Records 1887 founded as Columbia Phonograph Company subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment history until c. 1988 is very complicated

Columbia was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company, in 1925.

American Record Corporation founded as a 1929 merger of Cameo Record Corporation, Pathé Phonograph and Radio Corporation, and Plaza Music Company.

In 1931, the British Columbia Graphophone Company merged with the Gramophone Company to form Electric & Musical Industries Ltd. (EMI). EMI was forced to sell its American Columbia operations (because of anti-trust concerns) to the Grigsby-Grunow Company.

Grigsby-Grunow went under in 1934 and was forced to sell Columbia to the American Record Corporation (ARC).

In December 1938, the entire ARC complex was purchased by the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). The record company was renamed Columbia Recording Corporation.

In 1938 ARC, including the Columbia label in the USA, was bought by William S. Paley of the Columbia Broadcasting System (Columbia Records had originally co-founded CBS in 1927 along with New York talent agent Arthur Judson, but soon cashed out of the partnership leaving only the name; Paley acquired the fledgling radio network in 1928). CBS revived the Columbia label in place of Brunswick and the Okeh label in place of Vocalion. CBS renamed the company Columbia Recording Corporation and retained control of all of ARC's past masters, but in a complicated move, the pre-1931 Brunswick and Vocalion masters, as well as trademarks of Brunswick and Vocalion, reverted to Warner Bros. (who had leased their whole recording operation to ARC in early 1932) and Warners sold the lot to Decca Records in 1941.

In 1961, CBS ended its arrangement with Philips Records and formed its own international organization, CBS Records, in 1962, which released Columbia recordings outside the US and Canada on the CBS label (until 1964 marketed by Philips in Britain).

In 1988, the CBS Records Group, including the Columbia Records unit, was acquired by Sony, which re-christened the parent division Sony Music Entertainment in 1991.

Victor Talking Machine Company 1901-10


Victor Company
Victor Company of Japan (JVC) 1927
Radio-Victor / RCA Manufacturing Company 1929 ? Victor became a division of Radio Corporation of America (RCA)
RCA Victor 1946 (?) name used on disc labels from 1946
RCA Records 1968
RCA Records 1901-10 founded as Victor Talking Machine Company label owned by Sony Music Entertainment history is complicated

In 1926, Johnson sold his controlling (but not holding) interest in the Victor Company to the banking firm of Seligman & Spyer, who in 1929 sold Victor to the Radio Corporation of America. It then became known briefly as the Radio-Victor Division of the Radio Corporation of America, then the RCA Manufacturing Company, the RCA Victor Division and in 1968, RCA Records. Most record labels continued to bear only the "Victor" name until 1946, when the labels changed to "RCA Victor" and eventually, to simply "RCA" in 1968.

Victor by the 1920s was able to establish markets outside of the original Camden, NJ base of operations. Emile Berliner was sent from the U.S to manage the remaining holdings of the Gramophone Company (a company in which Victor owned a significant portion in part due to patent pooling agreements, and Victor's success in its first two decades). Eventually, this meant that Victor, in addition to owning studios, offices, and plants in Camden, New York City, Los Angeles, Oakland, Chicago, South America, also owned controlling interests in the Gramophone Company of Canada and England, as well as the Deutsche Gramophone Co. in Europe. Victor formed the Victor Company of Japan (JVC), founded in 1927. As Radio Corporation of America acquired Victor, the Gramophone Co. in England became EMI, giving RCA a controlling interest in JVC, Columbia (UK), and EMI. During World War II, JVC severed its ties to RCA Victor and today remains one of the oldest and most successful Japanese record labels as well as an electronics giant. Meanwhile, RCA sold its remaining shares in EMI during this time. Today the "His Master's Voice" trademark in music is split amongst several companies including JVC (in Japan), HMV (in the UK), and RCA (in the US).

Columbia Graphophone Company
Gramophone Company / His Master's Voice
Deutsche Gramophone Co.
EMI ("Electric and Musical Industries") 1931-03-31 merger of Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company ("His Master's Voice" label) 2012-09-28 divisions bought primarily by Universal Music Group and Warner Music Group was one of the "big four"
PolyGram was one of the "big six"
  • Hollandsche Decca Distributie (HDD), 1929–1950
    In 1929, Decca Records (London) licensed record shop owner H.W. Van Zoelen as a distributor in the Netherlands. By 1931, his company Hollandsche Decca Distributie (HDD) had become exclusive Decca distributor for all of the Netherlands and its colonies. Over the course of the 1930s, HDD put together its own facilities for A&R, recording, and manufacturing.
    Philips purchased HDD in 1942.
    After the war, Philips built a large factory in Doetinchem to produce 78 rpm records.
  • Philips Phonografische Industrie (PPI), 1950–1962
    During the late 1940s, Philips combined its various music businesses into Philips Phonografische Industrie (PPI), a wholly owned subsidiary.
    Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft (DGG), owned by Siemens AG, and well known for its classical repertoire, had been the German licensee for Decca from 1935. DGG also owned Polydor Records. Shortly after PPI was founded it had made a formal alliance with DGG to manufacture each other's records, coordinate releases, and refrain from poaching each other's artists or bidding against each other for new talent. PPI and DGG finally merged in 1962.
    In 1951, after Columbia had failed to renew its international distribution agreement with EMI, PPI agreed to distribute Columbia recordings outside the United States. Columbia became PPI's distributor within the US. This agreement ran until 1961 when Columbia set up its own European network. PPI signed a worldwide distribution deal with Mercury Records in 1961. PPI's parent company Philips, through its U.S. affiliate Consolidated Electronics Industries Corp (a.k.a. Conelco), acquired Mercury in 1962.
  • GPG and PolyGram, 1962–1980
    [PolyGram founded 1962 as Grammophon-Philips Group (GPG), joint venture of Philips and Siemens (Polydor and Deutsche Grammophon); self-distributed; defunct 1998; sold to Seagram and merged into Universal Studios creating Universal Music Group]
    In 1962, PPI and DGG formed the Grammophon-Philips Group (GPG) as a joint-venture holding company, with Philips taking a 50% share in DGG and Siemens a 50% share in PPI. In 1971, the UK record labels of Philips, Fontana, Mercury, and Vertigo were amalgamated into a new company called Phonogram, Ltd. In 1972, Grammophon-Philips Group reorganized all its operations and was renamed The PolyGram Group (in some countries, like Argentina, its name was Phonogram), of which Philips and Siemens each owned 50%. In 1977, both organizations merged operationally, integrating the recording, manufacturing, distribution and marketing into a single organization.
    The various record labels within PolyGram continued to operate separately. PolyGram gave its labels, as A&R organizations, great autonomy.
    After the merger, PolyGram began to move into the US and UK markets, and did so by a process of both formation and acquisition: Polydor Records established its American operations, Polydor Incorporated in 1969, Mercury Record Productions (US) was acquired in 1972 from sister company North American Philips Corp., and became Phonogram, Inc. MGM Records and Verve (US) were acquired in 1972, RSO (UK) in 1975, a 50% stake in Casablanca (US) in 1977 (with the remaining 50% in 1980), Pickwick in 1978, and Decca (UK) in 1980 (the latter acquisition basically brought PolyGram full circle, see the HDD section above). PolyGram acquired United Distribution Corporation (UDC) in 1973, and changed its name to Phonodisc, Inc., and signed international distribution deals with MCA and 20th Century Records in 1976.
    During the boom in disco, PolyGram's US market share had gone from 5% to 20%. This can also be attributed to multi-million selling LPs and 45s by ABBA, the Bee Gees, Donna Summer, the Village People, Andy Gibb, Kool & the Gang, and rock band Kiss. For a short while in the late 1970s, it was the world's largest record company.
    In 1969, PolyGram established a direct mail-order business in the UK, Britannia Music Club, which ran till 2007.
  • Reorganization, 1980–1999
    In 1981, Philips executive, Jan Timmer became a member of the Group Management of PolyGram and was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of newly formed parent company, PolyGram International Ltd. in 1983. He cut the workforce from 13,000 to 7,000, reduced PolyGram's LP and cassette plants from eighteen to five, and decreased the company's dependence on superstars by spreading the repertoire across different genres and nurturing national and regional talent. Also in 1983, PolyGram's U.S. roster of labels by this time included: Polydor, Mercury, London, London/FFRR, Casablanca (until 1986, later to be reincarnated in 1994), RSO, De-Lite, Riva, Threshold (owned by the Moody Blues), Tin Pan Apple (under Polydor Records), Total Experience (founded by Lonnie Simmons, from 1981 to 1984) and Atlanta Artists (founded by Cameo lead singer Larry Blackmon). They were all consolidated into PolyGram Records, Inc.
    Under the new company, PolyGram decided to discontinue Philips as a pop and rock label in the UK and throughout much of Europe, though it was still frequently issued records in France and South East Asia by Chinese and Hong Kong pop artists. The majority of PolyGram's rock and pop music signings went to Mercury, and Polydor in the UK and Europe, though the label was used sparingly in America. Philips became part of PolyGram Classics as a classical music label along with Decca Records and Deutsche Grammophon. By 1985, PolyGram was profitable once more.
    In 1982, PolyGram purchased 20th Century Fox Records from 20th Century Fox, which had just recently been bought out by oil magnate Marvin Davis, who was not interested in keeping the record company. The assets of the former 20th Century Fox Records were consolidated with the company's Casablanca label.
    After an attempted 1983 merger with Warner Elektra Atlantic failed, Philips bought 40% of PolyGram from Siemens, acquiring the remaining 10% in 1987.
    In 1988, Philips acquired the remaining 50% of PolyGram from long time partner Siemens and later in 1989, floated 16% of PolyGram on the Amsterdam stock exchange, valuing the whole company at $5.6 billion. PolyGram embarked on a new program of acquisitions, including A&M and Island Records in 1989, Swedish company Polar Music which held the rights to the ABBA catalogue, Motown and Def Jam in 1994, and Rodven (Venezuela) in 1995.
    In 1990, after acquiring Island Records and A&M Records, Alain Levy (then) executive vice president of PolyGram N.V., re-organized the U.S. operations of PolyGram Record's, Inc. into a new expanded conglomerate entitled PolyGram Group Distribution, Inc. In addition to overseeing the sales, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution of music and video products created by PolyGram, PGD was also responsible for supervising a number of other divisions within PolyGram (US) such as: PolyGram Music Group, PolyGram Video, PolyMedia, PolyGram Special Markets, PolyGram Merchandising, Independent Label Sales (ILS), and New Media & Business Development.
    PolyGram was sold to Seagram and merged into Universal Music Group. The name survives via reissue of music under the Polydor Records label as well as a publishing arm of Universal Music Publishing Group. The Japanese branches of the PolyGram labels that were absorbed to form Universal Music Japan were merged into one label named Universal Sigma.
Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG) 1987 2008-10-01 assets sold to Sony Corporation of America was one of the "big five"
Sony Music Entertainment (until 2004) 1991-01-01 renaming of CBS Records following its 1987 sale to Sony 2004-03-04 merged with Bertelsmann Music Group to become Sony BMG was one of the "big five"
WEA ("Warner Elektra Atlantic")
Warner Music
Warner Music Group
Warner Music / Warner Music Group 1991 renaming of WEA ("Warner Elektra Atlantic") one of today's "big three"
Music Corporation of America (MCA)
MCA Records
MCA Music Entertainment Group
Universal Music Group 1996 renaming of MCA Music Entertainment Group one of today's "big three"
Sony BMG 2004-03-04 joint venture of Sony Music Entertainment and Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG) 2008-10-01 renamed Sony Music Entertainment after buyout of Bertelsmann share by Sony Corporation of America was one of the "big four"
Sony Music Entertainment (from 2009) 2009-01 renaming of Sony BMG one of today's "big three"

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