Urethritis

Urethritis is the inflammation of the urethra. The most common symptoms include painful or difficult urination and urethral discharge.[1] It is a commonly treatable condition usually caused by infection with bacteria. This bacterial infection is often sexually transmitted, but not in every instance; it can be idiopathic, for example.[2] Some incidence of urethritis can appear asymptomatic as well.[3]

Urethritis
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Etiology/CausesEdit

The disease is classified as either gonococcal urethritis, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), most commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, which is accounted for 20-50% of routinely tested cases.[4] NGU, sometimes called nonspecific urethritis (NSU), has both infectious and noninfectious causes.

Other causes include:[1][5]

SymptomsEdit

Symptoms vary based on the cause of the diseases. For infectious causes of urethritis, symptoms may start a few weeks to several months after infection. Non-infectious causes of urethritis commonly show symptoms after a few days.[14] Common symptoms include painful urination, continuous urge to urinate, itching and, urethral discharge. Additional symptoms vary based on gender.[13] Men may experience blood in the urine or semen, itching, tenderness, or swelling of the penis, enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area, and/or pain with intercourse or ejaculation. Women may experience abdominal pain, pelvic pain, pain with intercourse, or vaginal discharge.[15] Non-gonococcal urethritis typically does not have noticeable symptoms in women, however, the infection can spread to parts of the female reproductive system.[14]

ComplicationsEdit

Serious, yet rare complications associated with Neisseria gonorrhea, may include penile edema, abscessed tissue surrounding the urethra, urethral strictures such as scarring, and penile lymphangitis.[13] If left untreated, the bacteria that cause non-gonococcal urethritis can lead to various complications. In men, complications can lead to epididymitis, Reiter's syndrome, conjunctivitis, skin lesions, and discharge. In women, complications can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, vaginitis, mucopurulent cervicitis, and miscarriages.[16]

DiagnosisEdit

Urethritis is usually diagnosed through collecting history on the individual and through a physical examination. In females, urethritis can be diagnosed with a number of tests including: urine test, blood test, vaginal culture, cytoscopy, or a nucleic acid test.[17] Women will also have abdominal and pelvic exams to check for urethral discharge, and tenderness of the lower abdomen or urethra.[15]

In men, urethritis is diagnosed by at least one of the following: mucopurlent or purulent urethral discharge on examination, ≥ 2 white blood cells per oil immersion field from a Gram stain of a urethral swab, or positive leukocyte esterase and/or ≥10 white blood cells per high power field of the first-void urine. Men who meet the criteria for urethritis commonly get Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae to determine the type of urethritis.[13] Men will have an exam on the abdomen, bladder area, penis, and scrotom.[15] Additionally, a digital rectal examination of the prostate may be used if rectal pain is reported or if the individual is of older age.[18]

PreventionEdit

Primary prevention can be accomplished by the reduction of modifiable risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing urethritis. These factors include, but are not limited to, sexual intercourse (particularly unprotected intercourse) and genital irritation from contact with tight clothing, physical activity, and various irritants such as soap, lotion and spermicides.[13]

Bacterial infections leading to gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis can be prevented by:

Chlorhexidine is an antibacterial agent that covers a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Rinsing with 15 ml of a 0.12% or 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 30 seconds produced large and prolonged reductions in salivary bacterial counts within 7 hours of its use. One hypothesis in 2010 posed the potential use of chlorhexidine rinsing before oral sex as a prevention strategy of recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis caused by bacteria entering the urethra from oral cavity following "insertive oral intercourse", particularly in men.[20] However, actual clinical studies are yet to be carried out in order to prove this hypothesis.

TreatmentEdit

Antimicrobials are generally the drug of choice for gonococcal and non-gonococcal infections. The CDC in 2015 suggests using a dual therapy that consists of two antimicrobials that have different mechanisms of action would be an effective treatment strategy for urethritis and it could also potentially slow down antibiotic resistance.[21]

A variety of drugs may be prescribed based on the cause of urethritis:

Treatment for both gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis is suggested to be given under direct observation in a clinic or healthcare facility in order to maximize compliance and effectiveness.

For non-medication management, proper perineal hygiene should be stressed. This includes avoiding use of vaginal deodorant sprays and proper wiping after urination and bowel movements. Sexual intercourse should be avoided at least 7 days after completion of treatment (and until symptoms resolves, if present).[6] Past and current sexual partners should also be assessed and treated.[14]

Individuals displaying persistence or recurrence of symptoms should be instructed for possible re-evaluation. Although there is no standard definition, persistent urethritis is defined as urethritis that has failed to display improvement within the first week of initial therapy. Additionally, recurrent urethritis is defined as urethritis reappearing within 6 weeks after a previous episode of non-gonococcal urethritis.[22] If recurrent symptoms are supported by microscopic evidence of urethritis, then re-treatment is appropriate.[4] The following treatment recommendations are limited and based on clinical experience, expert opinions and guidelines for recurrent or persistent non-gonococcal urethritis:[4]

Appropriate treatment for these individuals may require further referral to a urologist if symptoms persist after initial treatment.[6]

EpidemiologyEdit

Urethritis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections found in men. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the main pathogens causing urethritis.[13] Health organizations break down the rate of urethritis based on its etiology. The estimated global prevalence of gonorrhoea is 0.9% in women and 0.7% in men. An estimated 87 million new infections of gonorrhoea occurred in 2016. Low-income countries have the highest prevalence of gonorrhoea.[23] Gonorrhea is more commonly seen in males than in females and infection rates are higher in adolescents and young adults.[13]

The estimated global prevalence of chlamydia, which is the most common cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, is 3.8% in women and 2.7% in men. An estimated 127 million new chlamydia cases occurred in 2016. Upper-middle income countries had the highest prevalence of chlamydia.[23] The rate of chlamydia is around two times higher in females than in males. Rates are also higher among adolescents and young adults.[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Urethritis". PubMed Health. StatPearls Publishing LLC. 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Urethritis". Harvard Health Publishing. Retrieved 2020-07-27.
  3. ^ Gillespie CW, Manhart LE, Lowens MS, Golden MR (March 2013). "Asymptomatic urethritis is common and is associated with characteristics that suggest sexually transmitted etiology". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 40 (3): 271–4. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31827c9e42. PMID 23407472.
  4. ^ a b c d Moi H, Blee K, Horner PJ (July 2015). "Management of non-gonococcal urethritis". BMC Infectious Diseases. 15 (1): 294. doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1043-4. PMC 4518518. PMID 26220178.
  5. ^ "Disease characterized by urethritis and cervicitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Diseases Characterized by Urethritis and Cervicitis - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  7. ^ Territo H, Ashurst JV (2020). "Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU)". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 30571032. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  8. ^ Caini S, Gandini S, Dudas M, Bremer V, Severi E, Gherasim A (August 2014). "Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Cancer Epidemiology. 38 (4): 329–38. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2014.06.002. PMID 24986642.
  9. ^ a b Hakenberg OW, Harke N, Wagenlehner F (2017-04-01). "Urethritis in Men and Women". European Urology Supplements. Incorporating the EAU-EBU Update Series. 16 (4): 144–148. doi:10.1016/j.eursup.2017.01.002.
  10. ^ Cheeti A, Chakraborty RK, Ramphul K (2020). "Reactive Arthritis (Reiter Syndrome)". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 29763006. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  11. ^ Sharma P, Singal A (September 1999). "Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus non-gonococcal urethritis". Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 79 (5): 415. doi:10.1080/000155599750010599. PMID 10494743.
  12. ^ Chowdhury MN, Pareek SS (February 1984). "Urethritis caused by group B streptococci: a case report". The British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 60 (1): 56–7. doi:10.1136/sti.60.1.56. PMC 1046272. PMID 6365237.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Young A, Wray AA (2020). "Urethritis". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. PMID 30725967. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
  14. ^ a b c "Non-gonococcal urethritis". nhs.uk. 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  15. ^ a b c "Urethritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  16. ^ "Non-Gonococcal Urethritis". www.idph.state.il.us. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  17. ^ "Urethritis in Women". Saint Luke's Health System. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  18. ^ Brill JR (April 2010). "Diagnosis and treatment of urethritis in men". American Family Physician. 81 (7): 873–8. PMID 20353145.
  19. ^ "Clinical Prevention Guidance - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc.gov. 2020-07-21. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  20. ^ Kolahi J, Abrishami M, Fazilati M, Soolari A (June 2010). "Chlorhexidine rinse for prevention of urethritis in men linked to oral sex". International Archives of Medicine. 3 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/1755-7682-3-9. PMC 2892434. PMID 20540731.
  21. ^ a b "Gonococcal Infections - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc.gov. 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  22. ^ Grant PM, Hooton TM (2007). "Chapter 7. Persistent & Recurrent Urethritis". In Klausner JD, Hook EW (eds.). Current Diagnosis & Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  23. ^ a b "WHO | Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis: global prevalence and incidence estimates, 2016". WHO. Retrieved 2020-07-31.

External linksEdit

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External resources