Upland chorus frog

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The upland chorus frog (Pseudacris feriarum) is a species of chorus frog found in the United States. It was recently separated from the Western chorus frog, (Pseudacris triseriata), being identified as an individual species rather than a subspecies. They are a rarely seen species, but their calls are frequently heard soon after rains in the spring time.[2]

Upland chorus frog
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae
Genus: Pseudacris
Species:
P. feriarum
Binomial name
Pseudacris feriarum
Baird, 1854
Synonyms

Pseudacris triseriata feriarum

Habitat edit

Within their range, this species is found in a variety of habitats that include: swampy areas of broad valleys, grassy swales, moist areas of woodlands and borders of heavily vegetated ponds.[3]

Description edit

Upland chorus frogs are usually brown, grey-brown, or reddish-brown in color, with darker blotching. They grow from 0.75–1.5 inches (1.9–3.8 cm) in size. A white line is present on the head, above the upper lip. Dorsally, there are 3 longitudinal lines which may be complete or broken into spots and a triangular spot on the head usually connects with the middle stripe.[3]

Geographic distribution edit

Found in the southern and eastern United States, the upland chorus frog is found from the state of New Jersey to the Florida panhandle; west to eastern Texas and southeast Oklahoma. In West Virginia their distribution is limited to the eastern panhandle and Ridge and Valley region where they are very rare and imperiled.[4]

Behavior edit



Upland chorus frogs are secretive, freeze-tolerant,[3] nocturnal frogs, and are rarely seen (or heard) except immediately after rains. Their chorus will vary depending on the area they are found within, because they have significantly different pulse patterns in many different locations across their distribution.[2] They are an almost entirely terrestrial species, and found in a variety of habitats, but usually moderately moist, vegetated areas, not far from a permanent water source. Like most frogs, they are insectivorous. Breeding occurs throughout the year, but most frequently during the cooler, more rainy periods from November to March. Eggs are laid in clusters of 60 or so, and females will lay 197–835 eggs (average 441.314 ± 50.26).[5] Breeding sites are typically small temporary pools and puddles in grassy fields; they do not breed in permanent water.[6] The female can lay upwards of 1,000 eggs at a time. The egg period lasts from 3–17 days, followed by a larval period of 5.1 weeks.[3]

Conservation status edit

The upland chorus frog is listed as a protected species in the state of New Jersey, primarily due to habitat destruction. Because of its restrictive habitat preferences, this species is declining in several states, particularly in areas where roadside ditches and other ephemeral pools are being drained or destroyed for new developments.

References edit

  1. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2021). "Pseudacris feriarum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T55893A118979646. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-3.RLTS.T55893A118979646.en. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  2. ^ a b Malone, John H.; Ribado, Jessica; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty (May 2014). "Sensory drive does not explain reproductive character displacement of male acoustic signals in the upland chorus frog (Pseudacris feriarum)". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 68 (5): 1306–1319. doi:10.1111/evo.12366. PMID 24475782. S2CID 205123385.
  3. ^ a b c d Sias, Jaime (2006). Natural History and distribution of the upland chorus frog, Pseudacris feriarum Baird, in West Virginia (Thesis). ProQuest 304934126.
  4. ^ Albaugh, Scott (2008-01-01). "Habitat Comparison of Pseudacris f. feriarum and Pseudacris c. crucifer with Emphasis on Associated Plant Communities and Distribution of Clemmys guttata and Pseudacris f. feriarum in West Virginia". Theses, Dissertations and Capstones.
  5. ^ Mitchell, Joseph A.; Pague, Christopher A. (2014). "FILLING GAPS IN LIFE-HISTORY DATA: CLUTCH SIZES FOR 21 SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN ANURANS" (PDF). Herpetological Conservation and Biology. 9 (3): 495–501.
  6. ^ Ethier, Jeffrey P.; Fayard, Aurore; Soroye, Peter; Choi, Daeun; Mazerolle, Marc J.; Trudeau, Vance L. (27 August 2021). "Life history traits and reproductive ecology of North American chorus frogs of the genus Pseudacris (Hylidae)". Frontiers in Zoology. 18 (1): 40. doi:10.1186/s12983-021-00425-w. hdl:10393/42605. PMC 8394169. PMID 34452622. S2CID 255962312.

External links edit