University constituency

A university constituency is a constituency, used in elections to a legislature, that represents the members of one or more universities rather than residents of a geographical area. These may or may not involve plural voting, in which voters are eligible to vote in or as part of this entity and their home area's geographical constituency.

When James VI inherited the English throne in 1603, the system was adopted by the Parliament of England. The system was continued in the Parliament of Great Britain (from 1707 to 1800) and the United Kingdom Parliament, until 1950. It was also used in the Parliament of Ireland, in the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1613 to 1800, and in the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936.

Such constituencies have also existed in Japan and in some countries of the British Empire such as India.

At present there are four instances in two countries of university constituencies: two in the Seanad Éireann (the upper—and in general less powerful—house of the legislature of the Republic of Ireland) and two in the Senate of Rwanda.

Summary edit

University Parliament Years No. of
Cambridge England, Great Britain, United Kingdom 1603–1950 2
Oxford England, Great Britain, United Kingdom 1603–1950 2
Dublin Ireland 1613–1800 2
Dublin United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1801–1922 1 (1801–1832)
2 (1832–1922)
Edinburgh and St Andrews United Kingdom 1868–1918 1 between
Glasgow and Aberdeen United Kingdom 1868–1918 1 between
London United Kingdom 1868–1950 1
Combined English Universities United Kingdom 1918–1950 2 between
Combined Scottish Universities United Kingdom 1918–1950 3 between
National University of Ireland United Kingdom 1918–1922 1
Queen's University of Belfast United Kingdom 1918–1950 1
University of Wales United Kingdom 1918–1950 1
Dublin University Southern Ireland (UK) 1921–1922 4
National University of Ireland Southern Ireland (UK) 1921–1922 4
Queen's University of Belfast Northern Ireland (UK) 1921–1969 4
Queen's University of Belfast Irish Republic (revolutionary) 1918–1922 1 (1918–1921)
4 (1921–1922)
Dublin University Irish Republic 1918–1922 2 (1918–1921)
4 (1921–1922)
National University of Ireland Irish Republic 1918–1922 1 (1918–1921)
4 (1921–1922)
Dublin University Irish Free State 1922–1937 3
National University of Ireland Irish Free State 1922–1937 3
Dublin University Republic of Ireland (Seanad Éireann) 1938–present 3
National University of Ireland Republic of Ireland (Seanad Éireann) 1938–present 3

As shown, at Westminster (in the English then successor British parliaments) 4 seats were incepted in 1603 and the final total, 12, were abolished in 1950.

The Northern Irish body was the last in the UK to abolish such seats: it abolished its four for Queens, Belfast in 1969.

Six such seats continue in Seanad Éireann, the upper chamber of the Oireachtas (legislature of the Republic of Ireland). They are the sole directly elected members of the Seanad, with the remainder of the seats being elected by a combination of members of Oireachtas, incoming TDs and outgoing Senators, and local councillors, along with 11 members appointed by the Taoiseach.[1]

Historical representation by party (UK) edit

A cell marked → has a different colour background to the preceding cell and denotes an incumbent who defected or won a re-election for another party.

1885 to 1918 edit

  Conservative   Irish Unionist   Liberal   Liberal Unionist

Constituency 1885 1886 87 88 90 91 1892 1895 95 96 99 00 1900 03 1906 Jan 1910 Dec 1910 11 12 14 16 17
Cambridge University Raikes Jebb Butcher Larmor
Hope Stokes Gorst Rawlinson
London University Lubbock Foster Magnus
Oxford University Talbot Cecil
Mowbray Anson Prothero
Edinburgh and St Andrews Universities Macdonald Darling Pearson Priestley Tuke Finlay Johnston Cheyne
Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities Campbell Craik
Dublin University Holmes Madden Carson
Plunket Lecky Campbell Samuels

1918 to 1950 edit

Some of these seats were filled through STV.[2]

  Christian Pacifist   Coalition Liberal (1918–22) / National Liberal (1922–23)   Conservative   Independent   Independent Conservative   Independent Liberal   Independent Progressive   Independent Unionist   Labour   Liberal   National Government   National Labour   National Liberal (1931–68)   Sinn Féin   Ulster Unionist

Constituency (UK) 1918 19 1922 1923 24 1924 26 27 1929 1931 34 35 1935 36 37 38 40 43 45 1945 46
Cambridge University Rawlinson Withers Hill Harris
Larmor J. Butler G. Butler Wilson Pickthorn
Combined English Universities Fisher Hopkinson Rathbone Strauss
Conway Craddock Harvey Lindsay
Oxford University Cecil Salter
Prothero Oman Herbert
London University Magnus Russell-Wells Graham-Little
University of Wales J. Lewis T. Lewis Davies Evans Gruffydd
Combined Scottish Universities Cheyne Berry Skelton MacDonald Anderson
Cowan Morrison Boyd-Orr Elliot
Craik Buchan Kerr
Queen's University of Belfast Whitla Sinclair Savory
Dublin University Woods See Ireland section below
Samuels Jellett See Ireland section below
National University of Ireland MacNeill See Ireland section below

Historical representation by party (Ireland) edit

A cell marked → has a different colour background to the preceding cell and denotes an incumbent who defected or won a re-election for another party.

Dáil Éireann edit

  Independent Unionist   Sinn Féin   Ulster Unionist   Cumann na nGaedheal   Independent   Fianna Fáil   Ceann Comhairle

Constituency 1918 19 1921 1922 1923 23 Jun 1927 Sep 1927 1932 1933 33 36
Queen's University of Belfast Whitla Campbell Not represented in Irish Free State Dáils
Robb Not represented in Irish Free State Dáils
Johnstone Not represented in Irish Free State Dáils
Morrison Not represented in Irish Free State Dáils
Dublin University Woods Alton
Samuels Jellett Craig Rowlette
National University of Ireland MacNeill McGilligan
English Magennis Clery Tierney Maguire
Hayes Concannon

Seanad Éireann edit

  Independent   Fianna Fáil   Labour   Fine Gael   Human Dignity Alliance

Constituency 1938 1943 1944 47 1948 1951 52 53 1954 1957 60 1961 1965 1969 70 1973 1977 79 1981 1982 1983 1987 1989 1993 1997 2002 2007 09 2011 2016 18 2020
Dublin University Alton Kingsmill Moore Bigger Budd Jessop Sheehy-Skeffington J. Ross Sheehy-Skeffington West S. Ross Barrett Ruane
Rowlette Johnston Stanford Robinson Hederman Henry Bacik
Johnston Fearon Jessop Browne C. C. O'Brien McGuinness West McGuinness Norris
National University of Ireland Barniville Ó Conalláin Horgan Hussey Dooge O'Toole Crown McDowell
Tierney M.J. Ryan G. O'Brien Alton Martin L. Ryan B. Ryan Lee B. Ryan Mullen
Concannon Cunningham McHugh Quinlan Murphy M. D. Higgins Murphy Quinn A. M. Higgins

United Kingdom edit

King James VI of Scotland, on ascending the English throne, brought to the English Parliament a practice which endured in the Scottish Parliament of allowing the universities to elect members. The king believed that the universities were often affected by the decisions of Parliament, and ought therefore to have representation in it. James gave the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford two seats each from 1603. On the formal Union (1707), Scottish universities lost their representatives as none were appointed to the Parliament of Great Britain (at Westminster). The voters were the graduates of the university, whether they were resident or not;[3] they could vote for the university seats in addition to any other vote that they might have[citation needed].

After the Act of Union 1800 with Ireland, the University of Dublin (Trinity College), which had elected two MPs to the Parliament of Ireland since 1613, was allowed one member from 1801 and two from 1832.

In 1868, three new one-member seats were created: University of London; Glasgow and Aberdeen universities combined; and St Andrews and Edinburgh universities combined.

In 1918, the Queen's University of Belfast and the National University of Ireland each received seats. Both these, as well as the University of Dublin, also received four seats in the devolved Stormont parliament and the Southern Ireland parliament respectively that were established in 1920 and first used in elections in 1921. Also in 1918, the Scottish universities switched to all electing three members jointly (see Combined Scottish Universities).

In 1918, all the other English universities (i.e. except for Cambridge, Oxford and London) were enfranchised as a single constituency with two seats, as Combined English Universities. They were Birmingham, Bristol, Durham, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, and Sheffield. Reading was added in August 1928. The University of Wales also received one seat in 1918.

1918 also saw the introduction of the Single Transferable Vote for university constituencies.

Abolition edit

The Labour government in 1930 attempted to abolish the university constituencies but was defeated in the House of Commons. Although the members for the university constituencies were usually Conservatives, in the later years independent candidates began to win many of the seats. The Labour government finally abolished the university constituencies via the Representation of the People Act 1948, with effect from the dissolution of Parliament in 1950, along with all other examples of plural voting.[4]

The Queen's University, Belfast constituency survived in the Parliament of Northern Ireland until it was abolished in 1968 (with effect from the dissolution of Parliament in 1969) by the Electoral Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1968 (c. 20 (N.I.)).[5] This was one of several measures by the then Northern Ireland Prime Minister Terence O'Neill to reform elements of the election franchise and deal with many long-standing civil rights grievances.[citation needed]

Notable members for these constituencies edit

The members for the university constituencies include many notable statesmen: William Pitt the Younger and Lord Palmerston both served as MPs for Cambridge University, and Robert Peel and William Ewart Gladstone each served as MP for Oxford University for portions of their careers. In his last years Ramsay MacDonald was MP for Combined Scottish Universities after losing his previous seat in the 1935 general election. Many criticised this, as he had previously sought to abolish the seats whilst Labour prime minister and many now felt the seats were being used to provide a failed politician with a seat he could not find elsewhere.

The humorist and law reform activist A. P. Herbert sat as an independent member for Oxford University from 1935 to 1950. He described the counting of the votes at the 1935 election in a chapter entitled 'P.R.': Or, Standing for Oxford in his 1936 book Mild and Bitter.[6]

India edit

India had university constituencies before independence, but these were abolished with the adoption of the modern Constitution of India. Nevertheless, today the President of India has the authority to appoint not more than twelve scientists, artists, or other persons who have special knowledge in similar fields, to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house in the Parliament of India. Currently, the upper houses of the state legislatures in the six states that have them have graduates' constituencies, that elect one-twelfth of their members. Each graduates' constituency is defined geographically rather than by university; graduates of any approved Indian university may choose to register in the graduates' constituency of their place of residence instead of registering in the ordinary constituency.[citation needed]

Ireland edit

There are two university constituencies in Seanad Éireann, with graduates of the Dublin University and National University of Ireland entitled to elect three Senators each. Only graduates who are Irish citizens are entitled to vote in these elections. There is no residency requirement so those qualifying who are resident outside the State may vote. Elections are conducted under the single transferable vote and by postal ballot.[7]

The Parliament of Ireland that existed until 1801 included the university constituency of Dublin University. This was continued in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, and in 1918, the National University of Ireland was also given representation there.[citation needed]

When the Irish Free State seceded from the UK in 1922, its new lower house of parliament, the Free State Dáil, had three seats each for the two university constituencies. However, under the Electoral Act 1923 voters registered in a university constituency were not permitted to also vote in a geographical one. Both university constituencies were ultimately abolished by the Constitution (Amendment No. 23) Act 1936 and the Electoral (University Constituencies) Act 1936, which took effect on the dissolution of the Dáil in 1937. These two constituencies were recreated in Seanad Éireann under the Constitution of Ireland adopted in 1937, with the first Seanad election in 1938.[8]

In 1979, the Seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland permitted a redistribution of the six university seats between graduates of these named universities and any other institutes of higher education in the state. This was in anticipation of a possible dissolution of the National University of Ireland, but this did not in fact occur, and no change was made to the electorate of these constituencies.[citation needed]

Some politicians have called for university representation to be abolished, on the ground that it is unacceptable that possession of a degree should confer greater electoral rights than those available to other voters. An example of this view can be found in the Green Party submission on Seanad reform in 2004.[9] The Socialist Party also stand for the abolition of these constituencies.[citation needed]

Other countries edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Seanad". Citizens Information.
  2. ^ "The history of university representation". Wonkhe. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  3. ^ Ratcliffe, Mike. "The history of university representation". Wonkhe. Wonkhe Ltd. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  4. ^ Registrar General (1954). The Registrar General's Statistical Review of England and Wales For the Five Years 1946-1950. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. p. 175.
  5. ^ "Electoral Law Act (Northern Ireland) 1968". 28 November 1968. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  6. ^ Herbert, A. P. (1936). "XV: 'PR': Or, Standing for Oxford". Mild and Bitter. London: Methuen. ISBN 9780755151578. OCLC 559753655.
  7. ^ Seanad Electoral (University Members) Act 1937, s. 22: Method of voting (No. 30 of 1937, s. 22). Enacted on 19 November 1937. Act of the Oireachtas. Retrieved from Irish Statute Book on 2023-01-07.
  8. ^ "Seanad100 | Members of the First Seanad". Houses of the Oireachtas. 18 February 2022. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  9. ^ "Seanad Reform". Green Party. 11 January 2006. Archived from the original on 11 January 2006.
  10. ^ Adams, Herbert B. (1887). The College of William and Mary, with Suggestions for the National Promotion of Higher Education. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. pp. 15, 28.