Universal basic income

Universal basic income (UBI), also called unconditional basic income, basic income, citizen's income, citizen's basic income, basic income guarantee, basic living stipend, guaranteed annual income, universal income security program or universal demogrant, is a theoretical governmental public program for a periodic payment delivered to all citizens of a given population without a means test or work requirement.[2] A basic income can be implemented nationally, regionally, or locally. If the level is sufficient to meet a person's basic needs (i.e., at or above the poverty line) it is sometimes called a full basic income; if it is less than that amount, it may be called a partial basic income.

In 2013, eight million 5-cent coins (one per inhabitant) were dumped on the Bundesplatz, Bern to support the 2016 Swiss referendum for a basic income (which was rejected, 75%–25%).[1]

There are several welfare arrangements that can be viewed as related to basic income, in one way or the other. Many countries have something like a basic income for children, for example. And the pension system in many cases also include a part that is similar to basic income. There are also quasi-basic income systems, like Bolsa Familia in Brasil, which has been described as a kind of basic income, but is concentrated to the poor and includes some conditions. The Alaska Permanent Fund is, in all essence, a partial basic income, with the average payout being $1,600 annually per resident (adjusted to 2019 dollars), though the amount varies substantially, from year to year.[3] The negative income tax is also strongly related to basic income.

Several political discussions are related to the basic income debate, including those regarding automation, artificial intelligence (AI), and the future of work. A key issue in these debates is whether automation and AI will significantly reduce the number of available jobs and whether a basic income could help alleviate such problems, as well as whether a UBI could be a stepping stone to a resource based economy or post scarcity.[4]

HistoryEdit

The history of UBI has many strands,[5] but is largely concentrated on the development in the 20th century. Experiments with negative income tax took place in the 1960s and the 1970s in the United States and Canada, and were followed by an increased debate in Europe from the 1980s and forward. There were also debates, mostly in the English speaking world, in the 1920s and 1930s. Thomas Paine, an English-born American philosopher, was an influential contributor to the concept in his Agrarian Justice from 1797. Thomas More's Utopia is also sometimes considered to have contributed, along with a few other books and examples from older times. Basic income is generally viewed as an alternative kind of welfare state, so it can then be seen in the perspective of the development of that, where social insurances is a core feature. Many people also view the automation as something that makes basic income, or something along these lines, additionally necessary. For these people the history of the basic income idea is interwoven with the debate around automation, Robotization and the 4th Industrial Revolution.

16th to 18th centuryEdit

The idea of a state-run basic income dates back to the early 16th century when Sir Thomas More's Utopia depicted a society in which every person receives a guaranteed income.[6] It can perhaps also be traced back to Johannes Ludovicus Vives (1492–1540) who proposed that the municipal government should be responsible for securing a subsistence minimum to all its residents "not on the grounds of justice but for the sake of a more effective exercise of morally required charity." However, Vives also argued that to qualify for poor relief, the recipient must "deserve the help he or she gets by proving his or her willingness to work."[7] In the late 18th century, English radical Thomas Spence and American revolutionary Thomas Paine both had ideas in the same direction.

Thomas Paine, an English-born American philosopher, authored Common Sense (1776) and The American Crisis (1776–1783), the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution. But he is also the author of Agrarian Justice, published in 1797. In it, he proposed concrete reforms to abolish poverty. In particular he proposed a universal social insurance system comprising old-age pensions and disability support and universal stakeholder grants for young adults, funded by a 10% inheritance tax focused on land. It is the latter mechanism that can be viewed as a predecessor to basic income.

19th century to the 1940sEdit

The nineteenth-century debate on basic income seem to have been quite limited, even though some of the classical economists touched on the topic. Around 1920, support for basic income started growing, primarily in England. Its proponents included:

  • Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) argued for a new social model that combined the advantages of socialism and anarchism, and that basic income should be a vital component in that new society.
  • Dennis and Mabel Milner, a Quaker married couple of the Labour Party, published a short pamphlet entitled "Scheme for a State Bonus" (1918) that argued for the "introduction of an income paid unconditionally on a weekly basis to all citizens of the United Kingdom." They considered it a moral right for everyone to have the means to subsistence, and thus it should not be conditional on work or willingness to work.
  • C. H. Douglas was an engineer who became concerned that most British citizens could not afford to buy the goods that were produced, despite the rising productivity in British industry. His solution to this paradox was a new social system he called social credit, a combination of monetary reform and basic income.

In 1944 and 1945, the Beveridge Committee, led by the British economist William Beveridge, developed a proposal for a comprehensive new welfare system of social insurance, means-tested benefits, and unconditional allowances for children. Committee member Lady Rhys-Williams argued that the incomes for adults should be more like a basic income. She was also the first to develop the negative income tax model.[8][9] Her son Brandon Rhys Williams proposed a basic income to a parliamentary committee in 1982, and soon after that in 1984, the Basic Income Research Group, now the Citizen's Basic Income Trust, began to conduct and disseminate research on basic income.[10]

1950–2000Edit

In the 1960s the American president Lyndon B. Johnson made "The War on Poverty" his prime political issue. Johnson believed in expanding the federal government's roles in education and health care as poverty reduction strategies. In this political climate the idea of a guaranteed income for every American also took root. Especially there was a document, signed by 1200 economists, who called for a guaranteed income for every American. Six ambitious basic income experiments started up on the related concept of negative income tax. Nixon explained it like this: "The purpose of the negative income tax was to provide both a safety net for the poor and a financial incentive for welfare recipients to work."[11] Congress eventually approved a guaranteed minimum income for the elderly and the disabled, not for all citizens.[11]

In the mid-1970s the main competitor to basic income and negative income tax, the Earned income tax credit (EITC), or its advocates, had won over enough legislators for the Congress to pass laws on that policy instead. In the 1980s United States had a radical rightwing turn, with Reaganomics, deregulations and privatisations. During that time basic income was simply not an issue in United States, at least not an issue in the forefront as it had been a few years in late 1960s and early 1970s.[12] But on the other hand the idea started to gain some traction in Europe, obviously partly inspired by the debates in the United States. Basic Income European Network, later renamed to Basic Income Earth Network, was founded in 1986 and they immediately started to arrange academic conferences every second year.[2] Apart from these academics there were also some political parties here and there, for example within the green political movement, who got inspired of the idea, as well as activits and some groups of unemployed people.[13]

Meanwhile, there were also several related debates in the latter part of the 20th century. For example, discussions around automatisation and jobless growth, whether it is possible to combine economic growth with ecological sustainable development, and discussion on how to reform the welfare state bureaucracy. Basic income was and is interwoven in these and many other debates. During the BIEN:s academic conferences there were papers about basic income from a wide variety of perspectives, from economics to sociology, from ideology to human right approaches.

2000–2020Edit

Basic income was discussed in several parts of the world from 1980s and forward, but was in many cases portrayed as a rather utopian proposal. However, in recent years the idea has seemingly come to the forefront more than before. The referendum about basic income in Switzerland 2016 was covered in media worldwide. Even though the activist in the YES-campaign ultimately lost, it was nevertheless a campaign that made headlines. In Europe and elsewhere there have been several polls that show that a majority are positive to the idea as such. Business people like Mark Zuckerberg and Elon Musk are perhaps the most famous and well-known people who have spelled out their support. Some high figure politicians, like Jeremy Corbyn, have done the same. In the US Democratic Party primaries, a newcomer, Andrew Yang, had basic income as his core policy. He phrased the policy as "Freedom Dividend" and the idea was to give every American 1000 dollars every month, which they would be free to choose how to spend. Yang received some support, but ultimately lost to Joe Biden as the Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States 2020.

2020: Universal basic income and COVID-19Edit

The COVID-19 pandemic, starting in Wuhan in China in December 2019, exploded in January and February 2020.

Spain introduced minimum basic income, reaching about 2% of the population, in response to COVID-19 in May 2020 "to fight a spike in poverty due to the coronavirus pandemic". "The scheme [...] aims to guarantee an income of 462 euros ($546) per month for an adult living alone, while for families, there would be an additional 139 euros per person, whether adult or child, up to a monthly maximum of 1,015 euros per home. It is expected to cost state coffers three billion euros ($3.5 billion) a year."[14]

Basic income vs negative income taxEdit

 
Two ways of looking at basic income when combined with a flat income tax.

The diagram shows a basic income/negative tax system combined with flat income tax (the same percentage in tax for every income level).

Y is here the pre-tax salary given by the employer and y' is the net income.

Negative income tax

For low earnings there is no income tax in the negative income tax system. They receive money, in the form of a negative income tax, but they don't pay any tax. Then, as their labour income increases, this benefit, this money from the state, gradually decreases. That decrease is to be seen as a mechanism for the poor, instead of the poor paying tax.

Basic income

That is however not the case in the corresponding basic income system in the diagram. There everyone typically pays income taxes. But on the other hand everyone also gets the same amount in basic income.

But the net income is the same

But, as the orange line in the diagram shows, the net income is anyway the same. No matter how much or how little one earns, the amount of money one gets in one's pocket is the same, regardless of which of these two systems is used.

Difference between Basic income and Negative income taxEdit

Basic income and Negative income tax are generally seen to be similar in economic net effects, but there are some differences:

  • Psychological. Philip Harvey accepts that "both systems would have the same redistributive effect and tax earned income at the same marginal rate" but does not agree that "the two systems would be perceived by taxpayers as costing the same".[15]:15, 13
  • Tax profile. Tony Atkinson made a distinction based on whether the tax profile was flat (for basic income) or variable (for NIT).[16]
  • Timing. Philippe van Parijs states that "the economic equivalence between the two programs should not hide that the fact that they have different effects on recipients because of the different timing of payments: ex-ante in Basic Income, ex-post in Negative Income Tax".[17]

When the level of the basic income is high enough for people to live purely from that income, it is sometimes referred to as a "full basic income". If not, it is often referred to as a "partial basic income". No country has yet introduced either to all its citizens.

Perspectives and argumentsEdit

Main themesEdit

Basic income and automationEdit

There is a prevailing opinion that we are in an era of technological unemployment – that technology is increasingly making skilled workers obsolete.

Prof. Mark MacCarthy (2014)[18]

One central rationale for basic income is the belief that automation and robotisation could lead to a world with fewer paid jobs. U.S. presidential candidate and nonprofit founder Andrew Yang has stated that automation caused the loss of 4 million manufacturing jobs and advocated for a UBI (which he calls a Freedom Dividend) of $1,000/month rather than worker retraining programs.[19] Andrew Yang has stated that he is heavily influenced by Martin Ford. Ford, in his turn, believes that the emerging technologies will fail to deliver a lot of employment, on the contrary, because the new industries will "rarely, if ever, be highly labor-intensive".[20] There has been similar ideas many times before in history, that "the machines will take the jobs", so the debate is not new. But what is quite new is that there have been several academic studies that indeed forecast a future with substantially less employment in the decades to come.[21][22][23] Also President Barack Obama, has stated that he believes that the growth of artificial intelligence will lead to increased debates around the topic, around "unconditional free money for everyone".[24]

Basic income and economicsEdit

Some proponents of UBI have argued that basic income can increase economic growth because it would sustain people while they invest in education to get higher-skilled and well-paid jobs.[25][26] However, there is also a discussion of basic income within the degrowth movement, which argues against economic growth.[27]

The cost of basic income is one of the biggest questions in the public debate as well as in the research. But the cost depend on many things. It first and foremost depend on the level of the basic income as such, but it also depends on many technicalities regarding exactly how it is constructed. According to Karl Widerquist it also depends heavily on what one means with the concept of "cost".

Basic income and workEdit

Many critics of basic income argue that people in general will work less, which in turn means less tax revenue and less money for the state and local governments.[28][29][30] Although it is difficult to know for sure what will happen if a whole country introduces basic income, but there are nevertheless some studies who have attempted to look at this question.

  • In the negative income tax experiments in the United States in the 1970 there was a five percent decline in the hours worked. The work reduction was largest for second earners in two-earner households and weakest for the main earner. The reduction in hours was higher when the benefit was higher.[29]
  • In the Mincome experiment in rural Dauphin, Manitoba, also in the 1970s, there were slight reductions in hours worked during the experiment. However, the only two groups who worked significantly less were new mothers and teenagers working to support their families. New mothers spent this time with their infant children, and working teenagers put significant additional time into their schooling.[31]
  • A study from 2017 showed no evidence that people worked less because of the Iranian subsidy reform (a basic income-reform)[32]

Regarding the question of basic income vs jobs there is also the aspect of so called welfare traps. Advocates of basic income often argue that basic income make work pay more, by reducing these traps.

Philosophy and moralityEdit

By definition, universal basic income does not make a distinction between "deserving" and "undeserving" individuals when making payments. Opponents argue that this lack of discrimination is unfair: "Those who genuinely choose idleness or unproductive activities cannot expect those who have committed to doing productive work to subsidize their livelihood. Responsibility is central to fairness."[33] Proponents argue that this lack of discrimination is a way to reduce social stigma.[33]

Basic income, health and povertyEdit

The first comprehensive systematic review of the health impact of basic income (or rather unconditional cash transfers in general) in low- and middle-income countries, a study which included 21 studies of which 16 were randomized controlled trials, found a clinically meaningful reduction in the likelihood of being sick by an estimated 27%. Unconditional cash transfers, according to the study, may also improve food security and dietary diversity. Children in recipient families are also more likely to attend school and the cash transfers may increase money spent on health care.[34]

The Canadian Medical Association passed a motion in 2015 in clear support of basic income and for basic income trials in Canada.[35]

Academics on basic incomeEdit

EconomistsEdit

  • James Meade advocated for a social dividend scheme funded by publicly owned productive assets.[36]
  • Bertrand Russell argued for a basic income alongside public ownership as a means of shortening the average working day and achieving full employment.[37]
  • Guy Standing has proposed financing a social dividend from a democratically accountable sovereign wealth fund built up primarily from the proceeds of a tax on rentier income derived from ownership or control of assets—physical, financial, and intellectual.[38][39] Standing also generally argues that basic income would be a much simpler and more transparent welfare system.[40]
  • Douglas Rushkoff, a professor of Media Theory and Digital Economics at the City University of New York, has stated that he sees basic income as a sophisticated way for corporations to get richer at the expense of public money.[41]
  • Milton Friedman, world famous economist, supported UBI by reasoning that it would help to reduce poverty. He said: "The virtue of [a negative income tax] is precisely that it treats everyone the same way. [...] [T]here's none of this unfortunate discrimination among people."[42]
  • Eric Maskin has stated that "a minimum income makes sense, but not at the cost of eliminating Social Security and Medicare".[43] Simeon Djankov, professor at the London School of Economics, argues the costs of a generous system are prohibitive.[44]
  • Ailsa McKay, a Scottish economist, has argued that basic income is a way to promote gender equality.[45][46][47] She has specifically argued that "social policy reform should take account of all gender inequalities and not just those relating to the traditional labor market" and that "the citizens' basic income model can be a tool for promoting gender-neutral social citizenship rights".[45]

Other academicsEdit

  • Erik Olin Wright argues that basic income will empower labor by giving the workers greater bargaining power.[48]
  • Harry Shutt proposed basic income and other measures to make most or all businesses collective rather than private. These measures would create a post-capitalist economic system.[49]
  • Philippe van Parijs, a Belgian philosopher, has argued that basic income at the highest sustainable level is needed to support real freedom, or the freedom to do whatever one "might want to do".[50] Karl Widerquist and others have proposed a theory of freedom in which basic income is needed to protect the power to refuse work.[51]
  • Frances Fox Piven argues that an income guarantee would benefit all workers by liberating them from the anxiety that results from the "tyranny of wage slavery" and provide opportunities for people to pursue different occupations and develop untapped potentials for creativity.[52]
  • André Gorz, a French sociologist, saw basic income as a necessary adaptation to the increasing automation of work, yet basic income also enables workers to overcome alienation in work and life and to increase their amount of leisure time.[53]

Pilot programs and experimentsEdit

 
Omitara, one of the two poor villages in Namibia where a local basic income was tested in 2008–2009

Since the 1960s, but in particular since 2010, there have been a number of basic income pilot programs. Some examples include:

  • Experiments with negative income tax in United States and Canada in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • The province of Manitoba, Canada experimented with Mincome, a basic guaranteed income, in the 1970s. In the town of Dauphin, Manitoba, labor only decreased by 13%, much less than expected.[54][55]
  • The basic income grant in Namibia, launched in 2008 and ended in 2009.[56]
  • An independent pilot implemented in São Paulo, Brazil launched in 2009.[57]
  • Basic income trials in several villages in India.[58] whose government has proposed a guaranteed basic income for all citizens.[59]
  • Iran introduced a national basic income program in autumn 2010. It is paid to all citizens and replaces the gasoline subsidies, electricity and some food products,[60] that the country applied for years to reduce inequalities and poverty. The sum corresponded in 2012 to approximately US $40 per person per month, US $480 per year for a single person and US $2,300 for a family of five people.[61][62]
  • In Israel, in 2018 a non-profit initiative GoodDollar started with an objective to build a global economic framework for providing universal, sustainable and scalable universal basic income through new digital asset technology of blockchain. The non-profit aims to launch a peer-to-peer money transfer network in which money can be distributed to those most in need, regardless of their location, based on the principles of UBI. The project raised US $1 million from eToro.[63][64]
  • The GiveDirectly experiment in a disadvantaged village of Nairobi, Kenya, the longest-running basic income pilot as of November 2017, which is set to run for 12 years .[65][66][67]
  • An experiment in the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands, launched in early 2017, that is testing different rates of aid.[59]
  • A three-year basic income pilot that the Ontario provincial government, Canada, launched in the cities of Hamilton, Thunder Bay and Lindsay in July 2017.[68] Although called basic income, it was only made available to those with a low income and funding would be removed if they obtained employment,[69] making it more related to the current welfare system than true basic income. The pilot project was canceled on 31 July 2018 by the newly elected Progressive Conservative government under Ontario Premier Doug Ford.
  • A two-year pilot the Finnish government began in January 2017 which involved 2,000 subjects[70][71] In April 2018, the Finnish government rejected a request for funds to extend and expand the program from Kela (Finland's social security agency).[72]
  • A project called Eight in a village in Fort Portal, Uganda, that a nonprofit organization launched in January 2017, which provides income for 56 adults and 88 children through mobile money.[73]
  • Social Income started paying out basic incomes in the form of mobile money in 2020 to people in need in Sierra Leone. The international initiative is financed by contributions from people world-wide, who donate 1% of their monthly paychecks.[74]
  • In a study in several Indian villages, basic income in the region raised the education rate of young people by 25%.[75]
  • In August 2020, a project in Germany started that gives a 1,200 Euros monthly basic income to 120 citizens, which will last three years and be compared against 1,380 people who do not receive basic income.[76]
  • In Spain, the ingreso mínimo vital is an economic benefit guaranteed by the Social security in Spain [77]
  • The Rythu Bandhu scheme is a welfare scheme started in the state of Telangana, India in May 2018, aimed at helping farmers. Each farm owner receives 4,000 INR per acre twice a year for rabi and kharif harvests. To finance the program a budget allocation of 120 billion INR (1.6 million USD as of June 2020) was made in the 2018–2019 state budget.[78]

Examples of payments with similaritiesEdit

Alaska Permanent FundEdit

The Permanent Fund of Alaska in the United States provides a kind of yearly basic income based on the oil and gas revenues of the state to nearly all state residents. More precisely the fund resembles a sovereign wealth fund, investing resource revenues into bonds, stocks, and other conservative investment options with the intent to generate renewable revenue for future generations. The fund has had a noticeable yet diminishing effect on reducing poverty among rural Alaska Indigenous people, notably in the elderly population.[79] However, the payment is not high enough to cover basic expenses (it has never exceeded $2,100) and is not a fixed, guaranteed amount. For these reasons, it is not considered a basic income.

MacauEdit

Macau's Wealth Partaking Scheme provides some annual basic income to permanent residents, funded by revenues from the city's casinos. However, the amount disbursed is not sufficient to cover basic living expenses, so it is not considered a basic income.[80]

Quasi-UBI programsEdit

  • Pension: A payment which in some countries is guaranteed to all citizens above a certain age. The difference from true basic income is that it is restricted to people over a certain age.
  • Child benefit: A program similar to pensions but restricted to parents of children, usually allocated based on the number of children.
  • Conditional cash transfer: A regular payment given to families, but only to the poor. It is usually dependent on basic conditions such as sending their children to school or having them vaccinated. Programs include Bolsa Família in Brazil and Programa Prospera in Mexico.
  • Guaranteed minimum income differs from a basic income in that it is restricted to those in search of work and possibly other restrictions, such as savings being below a certain level. Example programs are unemployment benefits in the UK, the revenu de solidarité active in France and citizens' income in Italy.

Bolsa FamiliaEdit

Bolsa Família is a large social welfare program in Brazil that provides money to many low-income families in the country. The system is related to basic income, but has more conditions, like asking the recipients to keep their children in school until graduation. As of March 2020, the program covers 13.8 million families, and pays an average of $34 per month, in a country where the minimum wage is $190 per month.[81]

Public opinionEdit

Support for basic income varies widely across Europe. In general the attitudes are more positive towards the idea in southern and Eastern Europe, while several of the countries in the northern part of Europe have somewhat less support.[82] Overall, support tends to be on average higher in countries where existing unemployment benefits are not generous or the receipt of benefits is conditioned on certain job search behavior.[83]

Petitions, polls and referendumsEdit

  • 2008: An official petition for basic income was launched in Germany by Susanne Wiest.[84] The petition was accepted, and Susanne Wiest was invited for a hearing at the German parliament's Commission of Petitions. After the hearing, the petition was closed as "unrealizable."[85]
  • 2013–2014: A European Citizens' Initiative collected 280,000 signatures demanding that the European Commission study the concept of an unconditional basic income.[86]
  • 2015: A citizen's initiative in Spain received 185,000 signatures, short of the required number to mandate that the Spanish parliament discuss the proposal.[87]
  • 2016: The world's first universal basic income referendum in Switzerland on 5 June 2016 was rejected with a 76.9% majority.[1][88] Also in 2016, a poll showed that 58% of the EU's population is aware of basic income, and 65% would vote in favour of the idea.[89]
  • 2017: Politico/Morning Consult asked 1,994 Americans about their opinions on several political issues including national basic income; 43% either "strongly supported" or "somewhat supported" the idea.[90]
  • 2019: In a September poll conducted by The Hill and HarrisX, 49% of U.S. registered voters support basic income, up 6% from a similar survey conducted six months earlier.[91]
  • 2019: In November, an Austrian initiative received approximately 70,000 signatures but failed to reach the 100,000 signatures needed for a parliamentary discussion. The initiative was started by Peter Hofer. His proposal suggested a basic income of 1,200 for every Austrian citizen.[92]
  • 2020: A study by Oxford University found that 71% of Europeans are now in favour of basic income. The study was conducted in March, with 12,000 respondents and in 27 EU-member states and the UK.[93] A YouGov-poll likewise found a majority for universal basic income in United Kingdom[94] and a poll by University of Chicago found that 51% of Americans aged 18–36 support a monthly basic income of $1,000.[95] In the UK there was also a letter, signed by over 170 MPs and Lords from multiple political parties, calling on the government to introduce a universal basic income during the COVID-19 pandemic.[96]
  • 2020: A Pew Research Center Survey, conducted online in August 2020, of 11,000 U.S. adults found that a narrow majority (54%) oppose the federal government providing a guaranteed income of $1,000 per month to all adults, while 45% support it.[97]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ a b "Vorlage Nr. 601 – Vorläufige amtliche Endergebnisse". admin.ch (in German). Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b "BIEN | Basic Income Earth Network". BIEN. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  3. ^ DeMarban, Alex (28 September 2019). "This year's Alaska Permanent Fund dividend: $1,606". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 24 September 2020. [See graphs] The annual check this year will be delivered to 631,000 Alaskans, most of the state population, and come largely from earnings of the state’s $64 billion fund that for decades has been seeded with income from oil-production revenue. ... This year’s dividend amount, similar to last year’s, is in line with the average annual payment since they began at $1,000 in 1982 when inflation is taken into account, said Mouhcine Guettabi, an economist with the University of Alaska Anchorage Institute of Social and Economic Research.
  4. ^ Clifford, Catherine (18 June 2018). "Elon Musk: Free cash handouts 'will be necessary' if robots take humans' jobs". CNBC. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  5. ^ Universal Basic Income: A Review. Poverty, Income Distribution & Income Assistance eJournal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed 15 February 2021.
  6. ^ Bryce Covert, "What Money Can Buy: The promise of a universal basic income – and its limitations", The Nation, vol. 307, no. 6 (10 / 17 September 2018), p. 33.
  7. ^ "History of Basic Income". Basic Income Earth Network.
  8. ^ Sloman, Peter (2015). Beveridge's rival: Juliet Rhys-Williams and the campaign for basic income, 1942-55 (PDF) (Report). New College, Oxford. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  9. ^ Fitzpatrick, Tony (1999). Freedom and Security: an introduction to the basic income debate (1st publ. ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-312-22313-7.
  10. ^ "Citizen's Income – An unconditional, nonwithdrawable income paid to every individual as a right of citizenship". Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  11. ^ a b "American President: Richard Milhous Nixon: Domestic Affairs". MillerCenter.org. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  12. ^ "Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada". see chapter 19
  13. ^ Blaschke, Ronald (January 2010). "The basic income debate in Germany and some basic reflections".
  14. ^ Davidson (now), Helen; Doherty (earlier), Ben (30 August 2020). "Coronavirus live news: Global cases pass 25m; Auckland prepares to exit lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  15. ^ Philip Harvey, "The Relative Cost of a Universal Basic Income and a Negative Income Tax" (2006).
  16. ^ A. B. Atkinson, "Public Economics in Action: The Basic Income/Flat Tax Proposal" (1995) quoted in Davide Tondani, "Universal Basic Income and Negative Income Tax: Two Different Ways of Thinking Redistribution" (2008).
  17. ^ Tondani's paraphrase of Van Parijs's interpolated comments in Eduardo Suplicy's interview with Milton Friedman. Davide Tondani, "Universal Basic Income and Negative Income Tax: Two Different Ways of Thinking Redistribution" (2008); E. Suplicy, "Um Diálogo com Milton Friedman sobre o Imposto de Renda Negativo" (2000).
  18. ^ MacCarthy, Mark (30 September 2014). "Time to kill the tech job-killing myth". The Hill. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  19. ^ Simon, Matt (1 April 2019). "Andrew Yang's Presidential Bid Is So Very 21st Century". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019. ...in order to pay for meaningful retraining, if retraining works. My plan is to just give everyone $1,000 a month, and then have the economy geared more to serve human goals and needs.
  20. ^ Ehrenreich, Barbara (11 May 2015). "'Rise of the Robots' and 'Shadow Work'". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  21. ^ Waters, Richard (3 March 2014). "Technology: Rise of the replicants" ((registration required)). Financial Times. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  22. ^ Carl Benedikt Frey & Michael A. Osborne (17 September 2013). "The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation" (PDF). Oxford University, Oxford Martin School. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  23. ^ Thompson, Derek (23 January 2014). "What Jobs Will the Robots Take?". The Nation. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  24. ^ "President Obama: We'll be debating unconditional free money 'over the next 10 or 20 years'". 12 October 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  25. ^ Tanner, Michael. "The Pros and Cons of a Guaranteed National Income." Policy Analysis. Cato institute, 12 May 2015, Web. 2, 7 March 2016.
  26. ^ Sheahen, Allan. Basic Income Guarantee: Your Right to Economic Security. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
  27. ^ "Basic Income, sustainable consumption and the 'DeGrowth' movement". BIEN. 13 August 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  28. ^ "urn:nbn:se:su:diva-7385: Just Distribution : Rawlsian Liberalism and the Politics of Basic Income". Diva-portal.org. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  29. ^ a b Gilles Séguin. "Improving Social Security in Canada – Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper, Government of Canada, 1994". Canadiansocialresearch.net. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  30. ^ The Need for Basic Income: An Interview with Philippe Van Parijs, Imprints, Vol. 1, No. 3 (March 1997). The interview was conducted by Christopher Bertram.
  31. ^ Belik, Vivian (5 September 2011). "A Town Without Poverty? Canada's only experiment in guaranteed income finally gets reckoning". Dominionpaper.ca. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  32. ^ Mostafavi-Dehzooei, Mohammad H.; Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad (2017). "Consumer Subsidies in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Simulations of Further Reforms" (PDF). The Quest for Subsidy Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa Region. Natural Resource Management and Policy. Springer. 42: 259–289. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-52926-4_10. ISBN 978-3-319-52925-7.
  33. ^ a b Bidadanure, Juliana Uhuru (11 May 2019). "The Political Theory of Universal Basic Income". Annual Review of Political Science. 22 (1): 481–501. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-050317-070954. ISSN 1094-2939.
  34. ^ Pega, Frank; Liu, Sze; Walter, Stefan; Pabayo, Roman; Saith, Ruhi; Lhachimi, Stefan (2017). "Unconditional cash transfers for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities: effect on use of health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11: CD011135. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011135.pub2. PMC 6486161. PMID 29139110.
  35. ^ "Opinion – Basic income: just what the doctor ordered". Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Basic Income". Media Hell. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  37. ^ Russell, Bertrand. Roads to Freedom. Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism, London: Unwin Books (1918), pp. 80–81 and 127
  38. ^ Standing, Guy (2017). Basic Income: And how we can make it happen. London: Pelican Books. ISBN 9780141985480. OCLC 993361670.
  39. ^ Standing, Guy (2016). The Corruption of Capitalism: Why rentiers thrive and work does not pay. London: Biteback Publishing. ISBN 9781785900440. OCLC 954428078.
  40. ^ Standing, Guy (2008). "How Cash Transfers Promote the Case for Basic Income" (PDF). Basic Income Studies. 3 (1). doi:10.2202/1932-0183.1106. ISSN 1932-0183. S2CID 155048477.
  41. ^ Rushkoff, Douglas (10 October 2018). "Universal Basic Income Is Silicon Valley's Latest Scam". Medium. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  42. ^ Orfalea, Matt (11 December 2015). "Why Milton Friedman Supported a Guaranteed Income (5 Reasons)". Medium. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  43. ^ "Poll Results | IGM Forum". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  44. ^ "The Changing Nature of Work". Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  45. ^ a b McKay, Ailsa (2001). "Rethinking Work and Income Maintenance Policy: Promoting Gender Equality Through a Citizens' Basic Income". Feminist Economics. 7 (1): 97–118. doi:10.1080/13545700010022721. S2CID 153865511.
  46. ^ McKay, Ailsa (2005). The Future of Social Security Policy: Women, Work and a Citizens Basic Income. Routledge. ISBN 9781134287185.
  47. ^ McKay, Ailsa (2007). "Why a citizens' basic income? A question of gender equality or gender bias". Work, Employment & Society. 21 (2): 337–348. doi:10.1177/0950017007076643. S2CID 154859811.
  48. ^ Wright, Erik Olin. "Basic Income as a Socialist Project," paper presented at the annual US-BIG Congress, 4–6 March 2005 (University of Wisconsin).
  49. ^ Shutt, Harry (2010). Beyond the Profits System: Possibilities for the Post-Capitalist Era. Zed Books. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-84813-417-1. a flat rate payment as of right to all resident citizens over the school leaving age, irrespective of means of employment status...it would in principle replace all existing social-security entitlements with the exception of child benefits.
  50. ^ "A Basic Income for All". bostonreview.net. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  51. ^ Widerquist, Karl. Independence, Propertylessness, and Basic Income – A Theory of Freedom as the Power to Say No. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  52. ^ Frances Goldin, Debby Smith, Michael Smith (2014). Imagine: Living in a Socialist USA. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-230557-3 p. 132.
  53. ^ André Gorz, Pour un revenu inconditionnel suffisant, published in Transversales/Science-Culture (n° 3, 3e trimestre 2002) (in French)
  54. ^ Forget, Evelyn L. (2011). "The Town With No Poverty: The Health Effects of a Canadian Guaranteed Annual Income Field Experiment". Canadian Public Policy. 37 (3): 283–305. doi:10.3138/cpp.37.3.283.
  55. ^ "Innovation series: Does the gig economy mean 'endless possibilities' or the death of jobs?". 8 October 2016.
  56. ^ Krahe, Dialika (10 August 2009). "How a Basic Income Program Saved a Namibian Village". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  57. ^ "BRAZIL: Basic Income in Quatinga Velho celebrates 3-years of operation | BIEN". Basicincome.org. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  58. ^ "INDIA: Basic Income Pilot Project Finds Positive Results," Archived 9 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Basic Income News, BIEN (22 September 2012)
  59. ^ a b Tognini, Giacomo. "Universal Basic Income, 5 Experiments From Around The World". www.worldcrunch.com. WorldCrunch. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  60. ^ "Economic jihad". The Economist. 23 June 2011. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  61. ^ "Iran introduced a basic income scheme, and something strange happened". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  62. ^ Tabatabai, Hamid (2012), Caputo, Richard K. (ed.), "Iran: A Bumpy Road toward Basic Income", Basic Income Guarantee and Politics, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 285–300, doi:10.1057/9781137045300_16, ISBN 978-1-349-29762-7, retrieved 9 February 2021
  63. ^ "GoodDollar: Send Not For Whom The Bell Tolls, It Tolls For Thee". The Fintech Times. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  64. ^ Moya, Valentina. "GoodDollar: cryptocurrencies would end inequality". LatinAmerican Post. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  65. ^ Mathews, Dylan (6 March 2017). "This Kenyan village is a laboratory for the biggest basic income experiment ever". Vox.com. Vox. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  66. ^ "How a universal basic income stabilized Kenyans in bad times". MIT Sloan. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  67. ^ Suri, Tavneet. "Universal basic income helped Kenyans weather COVID-19 - but it's not a silver bullet". The Conversation. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  68. ^ Monsebraaten, Laurie (24 April 2017). "Ontario launches basic income pilot for 4,000 in Hamilton, Thunder Bay, Lindsay". Toronto Star. Star Media Group. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  69. ^ "Ontario Basic Income, Pilot". www.ontario.ca.
  70. ^ Henley, Jon (1 August 2018). "Money for nothing: is Finland's universal basic income trial too good to be true?". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  71. ^ Sodha, Sonia (19 February 2017). "Is Finland's basic universal income a solution to automation, fewer jobs and lower wages?". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  72. ^ Henley, Jon (1 August 2018). "Finland to end basic income trial after two years". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  73. ^ "EIGHT HOME". eight.world.
  74. ^ "Social Income". socialincome.org.
  75. ^ Roy, Abhishek. "Part 2 of SPI's Universal Basic Income Series". Seven Pillars Institute. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  76. ^ Payne, Adam (19 August 2020). "Germany is beginning a universal-basic-income trial with people getting $1,400 a month for 3 years". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  77. ^ "Real Decreto-ley 20/2020, de 29 de mayo, por el que se establece el ingreso mínimo vital". boe.es. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  78. ^ "Telangana proposes Rs 5L insurance cover, Rs 12,000 crore support scheme for farmers". The Economic Times. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  79. ^ "Resource rents, universal basic income, and poverty among Alaska's Indigenous peoples". World Development. 106: 161–172. 1 June 2018. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.01.014. ISSN 0305-750X.
  80. ^ [1]
  81. ^ Osborn, Catherine (31 August 2020). "Coronavirus-Hit Brazil Considers Major Public Funds For Poor And Unemployed". NPR. Retrieved 2 September 2020. Family allowance - Brazil is renowned for its massive, nearly 2-decade-old cash-transfer program for the poor, Bolsa Família (often translated as "family allowance"). As of March, it reached 13.8 million families, paying an average of $34 per month. (The national minimum wage is about $190 per month.)
  82. ^ Tim Vlandas, "The Politics of the Basic Income Guarantee: Analysing Individual Support in Europe," Basic Income Studies, vol. 14, no. 1 (6 June 2019) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bis-2018-0021
  83. ^ Tim Vlandas, "The Political Economy of Individual Level Support for the Basic Income in Europe", Journal of European Social Policy, forthcoming (2020) https://vlandas.files.wordpress.com/2019/12/vlandas_jesp_basic-income_december2019_acceptedversion.pdf
  84. ^ "Bundestag will Petition zum bedingungslosen Grundeinkommen ohne Diskussion abschließen › Piratenpartei Deutschland". Piratenpartei.de. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  85. ^ "Deutscher Bundestag – Problematische Auswirkungen auf Arbeitsanreize" (in German). Bundestag.de. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  86. ^ "More than 280,000 sign EU initiative for basic income". BIEN. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  87. ^ "Spanish Popular initiative for basic income collects 185.000 signatures". Basicincome.org. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  88. ^ Ben Schiller 02.05.16 7:00 AM (5 February 2016). "Switzerland Will Hold The World's First Universal Basic Income Referendum | Co.Exist | ideas + impact". Fastcoexist.com. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  89. ^ "EU Survey: 64% of Europeans in Favour of Basic Income". Basicincome.org. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  90. ^ "US: New POLITICO/Morning Consult poll finds that 43% of Americans are in favour of a UBI - Basic Income News". 5 October 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  91. ^ Bonn, Tess (25 September 2019). "Voter support for universal basic income grows: poll". The Hill. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  92. ^ "Österreich: Volksbegehren für Grundeinkommen gescheitert". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  93. ^ New study reveals most Europeans support basic income after COVID-19 University of Oxford. 6 May 2020
  94. ^ Stone, Jon (27 April 2020). "Public support universal basic income". The Independent. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  95. ^ Bowden, John (30 March 2020). "Majority of young Americans support universal basic income, public healthcare: poll". The Hill. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  96. ^ Stone, Jon (20 March 2020). "Over 170 MPs and Lords call for universal basic income during pandemic". The Independent. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  97. ^ Gilbertstadt, Hannah (19 August 2020) "More Americans oppose than favor the government providing a universal basic income for all adult citizens".

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit