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2008 United States presidential election in Illinois

The 2008 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 4, 2008, and was part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 21 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

2008 United States presidential election in Illinois

← 2004 November 4, 2008 2012 →
  Obama portrait crop.jpg John McCain official portrait 2009.jpg
Nominee Barack Obama John McCain
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Illinois Arizona
Running mate Joe Biden Sarah Palin
Electoral vote 21 0
Popular vote 3,419,348 2,031,179
Percentage 61.85% 36.74%

Illinois presidential election results 2008.svg
County Results

President before election

George W. Bush
Republican

Elected President

Barack Obama
Democratic

Barack Obama won the race in his home state with a 25.1 percent margin of victory. Prior to the election, every major news organization considered this a state Obama would win, or otherwise considered as a safe blue state. One of the most reliably blue states in the nation, Illinois has not voted for a Republican presidential nominee since 1988, when George H.W. Bush narrowly carried the state. In 2008, continuing that trend, it appeared that a generic Democratic presidential nominee could have easily won Illinois. Thus, it surprised no one that Barack Obama, who represented Illinois in the U.S. Senate, won Illinois in 2008 over Republican John McCain in a landslide victory, clinching near 62 percent of the total vote.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time a Democrat won the following counties: Boone, Bureau, Cass, Calhoun, Coles, Gallatin, Grundy, Kankakee, Kendall, LaSalle, Macon, Macoupin, Madison, Mason, McDonough, McHenry, McLean, Montgomery, Pulaski, Sangamon, Schuyler, Stephenson, and Vermillion.

Democratic primaryEdit

2008 Illinois Democratic Primary
 
← 2004 February 5, 2008 (2008-02-05) 2016 →
     
Candidate Barack Obama Hillary Clinton
Home state Illinois New York
Delegate count 104 49
Popular vote 1,318,234 667,930
Percentage 64.66% 32.76%

 
Results of the Illinois Democratic Primary by County. Dark blue counties were won by Obama; gray counties were won by Clinton.

The 2008 Illinois Democratic Presidential Primary took place on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008, with 153 delegates at stake. The winner in each of Illinois's 19 congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates, totaling 100. Another 53 delegates were awarded to the statewide winner, Barack Obama. The 153 delegates represented Illinois at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Thirty-two other unpledged delegates, known as superdelegates, also attended the convention and cast their votes as well.

PollsEdit

Polls indicated that then-U.S. Senator Barack Obama was leading then-U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton by double digits in the days before the contest in his home state of Illinois.[1]

ResultsEdit

2008 Illinois Democratic Presidential Primary Results
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Delegates
Democratic Barack Obama 1,318,234 64.66% 104
Democratic Hillary Clinton 667,930 32.76% 49
Democratic John Edwards 39,719 1.95% 0
Democratic Dennis Kucinich 4,234 0.21% 0
Democratic Joe Biden 3,788 0.19% 0
Democratic Bill Richardson 3,538 0.17% 0
Democratic Christopher Dodd 1,171 0.06% 0
Totals 2,038,614 100.00% 153
Voter turnout %

Chicago Public Radio reported on March 13, 2008, that the delegate counts were recalculated and Obama won 106 delegates to 47 for Clinton.[2]

During the state by state roll-call at the Democratic National Convention, the Illinois delegation declined to cast their votes.[3]

AnalysisEdit

It was no surprise that Barack Obama cruised to a landslide victory in Illinois, the state he had represented in the U.S. Senate since 2005. He enjoyed massive support in his state among all demographics. According to exit polls, 57 percent of voters in the Illinois Democratic Primary were Caucasian and they opted for Obama 57-41; 24 percent of voters were African American and they, too, backed Obama 93-5; and 17 percent of voters in the primary were Hispanic/Latino and they narrowly backed Obama 50-49. Obama won all age groups but tied Clinton among senior citizens aged 65 and over. He won all voters in the state of all educational attainment levels as well as income/socioeconomic classes. He won all ideological groups and voters from both parties as well as self-identified Independents. Regarding religion, Obama won every major denomination except Roman Catholics, who narrowly backed Clinton 50-48 percent. Obama won Protestants by a margin of 58-38, other Christians 79-19, other religions 82-17, and atheists/agnostics 78-21.

Obama performed extremely well statewide and racked up massive victories in his home city of Chicago as well as its suburbs and the metropolitan area. He also won Northern Illinois as well as the collar counties by substantial victories. Clinton’s best performance was in Southern Illinois among the more rural and conservative counties that are majority white, although Obama still won the region as a whole.

Republican primaryEdit

2008 Illinois Republican primary
 
← 2004 February 5, 2008 (2008-02-05) 2012 →
       
Candidate John McCain Mitt Romney Mike Huckabee
Party Republican Republican Republican
Home state Arizona Massachusetts Arkansas
Delegate count 54 3 0
Popular vote 426,777 257,265 148,053
Percentage 47.45% 28.60% 16.46%

 
2008 Illinois Republican primary county map.

The 2008 Illinois Republican primary was held on February 5, 2008. Illinois was one of 24 States holding a primary or caucus on Super Tuesday. Delegates from each of Illinois' 19 congressional districts are selected by direct election. In addition, the primary ballot also contains a preference poll that lists the presidential candidates.

Official Results[4][5]
Candidate Votes Percentage Delegates
John McCain 426,777 47.45% 54
Mitt Romney 257,265 28.60% 3
Mike Huckabee 148,053 16.46% 0
Ron Paul 45,055 5.01% 0
Rudy Giuliani* 11,837 1.32% 0
Fred Thompson* 7,259 0.81% 0
Alan Keyes 2,318 0.26% 0
Jim Mitchell, Jr. 483 0.05% 0
Tom Tancredo* 375 0.04% 0
Total 899,422 100% 57

*Candidate withdrew prior to the primary

Green Party primaryEdit

2008 Illinois Green Party primary
 
← 2004 February 5, 2008 (2008-02-05) 2012 →
     
Candidate Cynthia McKinney Howie Hawkins
Party Green Green
Home state Georgia New York
Percentage 56.62% 17.37%

     
Candidate Kent Mesplay Jared A. Ball
Party Green Green
Home state California
Percentage 14.37% 11.64%

The Illinois chapter of the Green Party held a presidential primary on February 5.

 
Illinois delegation at the 2008 Green Party National Convention
Illinois Green Party presidential primary, February 5, 2008[6]
Candidate Votes Percentage National delegates
Cynthia McKinney - 56.62% -
Howie Hawkins 17.37% -
Kent Mesplay - 14.37% -
Jared A. Ball - 11.64% -
Total - 100% -

General election campaignEdit

PredictionsEdit

There were 16 news organizations who made state-by-state predictions of the election. Here are their last predictions before election day:

PollingEdit

Obama won every single pre-election poll, and each by a double-digit margin and with at least 52% (with the exception of an ARG poll). The final 3 polls averaged Obama leading 60% to 35%.[20]

FundraisingEdit

Obama raised $35,307,625. McCain raised $7,207,428.[21]

Advertising and visitsEdit

Obama spent $23,319. McCain and interest groups spent $52,865.[22] The Democratic ticket visited the state 13 times. McCain's ticket visited the state twice.[23]

AnalysisEdit

For most of the second half of the 20th century, Illinois was reckoned as a Republican-leaning swing state. It voted Republican in every election from 1952 to 1988, save for 1960 and 1964. However, George H. W. Bush just barely won the state in 1988, and it swung heavily to Bill Clinton and the Democrats in 1992. Since then, Democrats have won the state by fairly comfortable margins, and it is now reckoned as the most solidly Democratic state in the Midwest.

The blue trend in the Land of Lincoln in presidential elections can be largely attributed to Cook County, home to Chicago, which makes up about 41.2% of the state's total population.[24] While Chicago has been a Democratic stronghold for decades, the suburban areas of Cook County have historically tilted Republican. The brand of Republicanism in the suburbs, however, has historically been a moderate one, and these areas swung Democratic as the national party moved more to the right. Democrats also do very well in the Illinois portions of the Quad Cities and St. Louis areas. Additionally, the historically Republican collar counties near Chicago – DuPage, Lake, McHenry, Kane, and Will – have become friendlier to Democrats at the national level.

Barack Obama, the junior U.S. Senator from Illinois at the time of the election, carried the state handily, defeating John McCain of Arizona by a margin of 1.38 million votes. Obama carried his home county, Cook County, with roughly 76 percent of the vote, the highest percentage of any presidential candidate since its incorporation in 1831. He also swept all five collar counties, becoming the first Democratic candidate since Franklin Pierce in 1852 to so, with DuPage, Kendall, Lake and Will giving him double-digit margins. Notably, DuPage and McHenry had not supported a Democrat for president since that election.[25]

Obama also did very well in several rural counties that historically voted Republican. He became the first Democrat to win Carroll County since that county was created in 1839, in the process breaking the last remaining Republican streak stretching from initial GOP candidate John C. Frémont in 1856, and the first Democrat to win Boone County since James K. Polk in 1844. McCain did, however, win several of the more rural counties in Southern Illinois. It was not nearly enough, however, to put a serious dent in Obama’s 25-point margin in the state.[26]

During the same election, senior U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Whip Dick Durbin, a Democrat, was reelected to the U.S. Senate with 67.84% of the vote over Republican Dr. Steve Sauerberg who received 28.53%. At the state level, Democrats picked up three seats in the Illinois House of Representatives.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last presidential election that a Democrat won all of Chicago's collar counties.

ResultsEdit

2008 United States presidential election in Illinois
Party Candidate Running mate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Barack Obama Joe Biden 3,419,348 61.85% 21
Republican John McCain Sarah Palin 2,031,179 36.74% 0
Independent Ralph Nader Matt Gonzalez 31,152 0.56% 0
Libertarian Bob Barr Wayne Allyn Root 19,642 0.36% 0
Green Cynthia McKinney Rosa Clemente 11,838 0.21% 0
Constitution Chuck Baldwin Darrell Castle 8,256 0.15% 0
Write-Ins Write-ins 7,084 0.13% 0
Totals 5,528,499 100.00% 21
Voter turnout 58.1%

Results by countyEdit

County Barack Hussein Obama
Democratic
John Sidney McCain III
Republican
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast
# % # % # % # %
Adams 11,794 38.26% 18,711 60.70% 318 1.03% -6,917 -22.44% 30,823
Alexander 2,189 55.60% 1,692 42.98% 56 1.42% 497 12.62% 3,937
Bond 3,843 48.50% 3,947 49.81% 134 1.69% -104 -1.31% 7,924
Boone 11,333 51.15% 10,403 46.95% 421 1.90% 930 4.20% 22,157
Brown 986 38.38% 1,544 60.10% 39 1.52% -558 -21.72% 2,569
Bureau 8,889 51.94% 7,911 46.23% 313 1.83% 978 5.71% 17,113
Calhoun 1,423 52.72% 1,221 45.24% 55 2.04% 202 7.48% 2,699
Carroll 3,965 51.67% 3,596 46.86% 113 1.47% 369 4.81% 7,674
Cass 2,690 49.74% 2,617 48.39% 101 1.87% 73 1.35% 5,408
Champaign 48,597 57.76% 33,871 40.25% 1,675 1.99% 14,726 17.50% 84,143
Christian 6,918 45.81% 7,872 52.13% 310 2.05% -954 -6.32% 15,100
Clark 3,742 45.15% 4,409 53.20% 137 1.65% -667 -8.05% 8,288
Clay 2,425 37.57% 3,926 60.83% 103 1.60% -1,501 -23.26% 6,454
Clinton 7,657 44.22% 9,357 54.04% 300 1.73% -1,700 -9.82% 17,314
Coles 11,716 50.77% 10,978 47.57% 382 1.66% 738 3.20% 23,076
Cook 1,629,024 76.21% 487,736 22.82% 20,706 0.97% 1,141,288 53.39% 2,137,466
Crawford 3,883 42.53% 5,070 55.54% 176 1.93% -1,187 -13.00% 9,129
Cumberland 2,055 38.62% 3,156 59.31% 110 2.07% -1,101 -20.69% 5,321
DeKalb 25,784 57.53% 18,266 40.76% 768 1.71% 7,518 16.77% 44,818
DeWitt 3,308 42.40% 4,348 55.74% 145 1.86% -1,040 -13.33% 7,801
Douglas 3,228 38.63% 5,005 59.90% 123 1.47% -1,777 -21.27% 8,356
DuPage 228,698 54.72% 183,626 43.93% 5,649 1.35% 45,072 10.78% 417,973
Edgar 3,743 45.34% 4,398 53.28% 114 1.38% -655 -7.93% 8,255
Edwards 1,140 34.03% 2,137 63.79% 73 2.18% -997 -29.76% 3,350
Effingham 5,262 31.26% 11,323 67.26% 250 1.49% -6,061 -36.00% 16,835
Fayette 3,967 40.98% 5,499 56.81% 214 2.21% -1,532 -15.83% 9,680
Ford 2,227 34.87% 4,079 63.87% 80 1.25% -1,852 -29.00% 6,386
Franklin 8,880 47.64% 9,404 50.45% 357 1.92% -524 -2.81% 18,641
Fulton 9,732 59.62% 6,251 38.30% 340 2.08% 3,481 21.33% 16,323
Gallatin 1,587 55.51% 1,212 42.39% 60 2.10% 375 13.12% 2,859
Greene 2,619 45.10% 3,053 52.57% 135 2.32% -434 -7.47% 5,807
Grundy 11,063 49.90% 10,687 48.20% 421 1.90% 376 1.70% 22,171
Hamilton 1,796 42.12% 2,353 55.18% 115 2.70% -557 -13.06% 4,264
Hancock 4,141 43.73% 5,161 54.50% 167 1.76% -1,020 -10.77% 9,469
Hardin 892 39.56% 1,330 58.98% 33 1.46% -438 -19.42% 2,255
Henderson 2,215 58.08% 1,541 40.40% 58 1.52% 674 17.67% 3,814
Henry 13,181 53.18% 11,263 45.44% 341 1.38% 1,918 7.74% 24,785
Iroquois 4,643 34.15% 8,695 63.95% 258 1.90% -4,052 -29.80% 13,596
Jackson 15,248 59.72% 9,687 37.94% 597 2.34% 5,561 21.78% 25,532
Jasper 2,063 40.21% 2,964 57.77% 104 2.03% -901 -17.56% 5,131
Jefferson 7,462 43.53% 9,302 54.27% 377 2.20% -1,840 -10.73% 17,141
Jersey 5,042 47.64% 5,329 50.35% 212 2.00% -287 -2.71% 10,583
Jo Daviess 6,403 54.49% 5,170 44.00% 177 1.51% 1,233 10.49% 11,750
Johnson 1,871 31.71% 3,912 66.29% 118 2.00% -2,041 -34.59% 5,901
Kane 106,756 55.23% 83,963 43.44% 2,580 1.33% 22,793 11.79% 193,299
Kankakee 24,750 51.55% 22,527 46.92% 739 1.54% 2,223 4.63% 48,016
Kendall 24,742 53.06% 21,380 45.85% 509 1.09% 3,362 7.21% 46,631
Knox 14,191 59.16% 9,419 39.27% 378 1.58% 4,772 19.89% 23,988
Lake 177,242 59.26% 118,545 39.63% 3,318 1.11% 58,697 19.62% 299,105
LaSalle 27,443 54.68% 21,872 43.58% 870 1.73% 5,571 11.10% 50,185
Lawrence 3,016 46.14% 3,403 52.07% 117 1.79% -387 -5.92% 6,536
Lee 7,765 47.59% 8,258 50.61% 295 1.81% -493 -3.02% 16,318
Livingston 6,189 39.61% 9,191 58.82% 245 1.57% -3,002 -19.21% 15,625
Logan 5,250 40.71% 7,429 57.61% 217 1.68% -2,179 -16.90% 12,896
Macon 25,487 49.76% 24,948 48.71% 781 1.52% 539 1.05% 51,216
Macoupin 12,090 54.04% 9,891 44.21% 392 1.75% 2,199 9.83% 22,373
Madison 68,979 53.75% 57,177 44.55% 2,178 1.70% 11,802 9.20% 128,334
Marion 8,345 48.06% 8,691 50.05% 328 1.89% -346 -1.99% 17,364
Marshall 3,081 48.65% 3,145 49.66% 107 1.69% -64 -1.01% 6,333
Mason 3,542 52.03% 3,141 46.14% 125 1.84% 401 5.89% 6,808
Massac 2,693 37.48% 4,371 60.83% 122 1.70% -1,678 -23.35% 7,186
McDonough 6,783 52.01% 6,055 46.43% 204 1.56% 728 5.58% 13,042
McHenry 72,288 51.91% 64,845 46.56% 2,135 1.53% 7,443 5.34% 139,268
McLean 37,689 49.75% 36,767 48.54% 1,294 1.71% 922 1.22% 75,750
Menard 2,706 41.86% 3,672 56.81% 86 1.33% -966 -14.94% 6,464
Mercer 4,887 55.23% 3,833 43.32% 128 1.45% 1,054 11.91% 8,848
Monroe 7,953 43.98% 9,881 54.64% 249 1.38% -1,928 -10.66% 18,083
Montgomery 6,491 50.43% 6,150 47.78% 230 1.79% 341 2.65% 12,871
Morgan 7,467 48.64% 7,591 49.44% 295 1.92% -124 -0.81% 15,353
Moultrie 2,668 42.62% 3,471 55.45% 121 1.93% -803 -12.83% 6,260
Ogle 11,253 45.28% 13,144 52.89% 453 1.82% -1,891 -7.61% 24,850
Peoria 45,906 56.19% 34,579 42.32% 1,219 1.49% 11,327 13.86% 81,704
Perry 4,701 47.03% 5,086 50.89% 208 2.08% -385 -3.85% 9,995
Piatt 3,859 42.88% 4,991 55.46% 149 1.66% -1,132 -12.58% 8,999
Pike 3,024 39.71% 4,457 58.52% 135 1.77% -1,433 -18.82% 7,616
Pope 845 37.88% 1,343 60.20% 43 1.93% -498 -22.32% 2,231
Pulaski 1,638 50.09% 1,593 48.72% 39 1.19% 45 1.38% 3,270
Putnam 1,900 56.94% 1,378 41.29% 59 1.77% 522 15.64% 3,337
Randolph 7,395 48.64% 7,538 49.59% 269 1.77% -143 -0.94% 15,202
Richland 3,181 41.58% 4,329 56.59% 140 1.83% -1,148 -15.01% 7,650
Rock Island 42,210 61.71% 25,364 37.08% 827 1.21% 16,846 24.63% 68,401
Saline 5,083 44.48% 6,099 53.37% 246 2.15% -1,016 -8.89% 11,428
Sangamon 51,300 51.39% 46,945 47.03% 1,583 1.59% 4,355 4.36% 99,828
Schuyler 1,900 49.70% 1,833 47.95% 90 2.35% 67 1.75% 3,823
Scott 1,090 41.92% 1,455 55.96% 55 2.12% -365 -14.04% 2,600
Shelby 4,245 39.06% 6,396 58.85% 227 2.09% -2,151 -19.79% 10,868
St. Clair 76,160 60.57% 47,958 38.14% 1,626 1.29% 28,202 22.43% 125,744
Stark 1,357 46.68% 1,513 52.05% 37 1.27% -156 -5.37% 2,907
Stephenson 11,349 52.53% 9,909 45.86% 347 1.61% 1,440 6.67% 21,605
Tazewell 29,384 46.02% 33,247 52.07% 1,223 1.92% -3,863 -6.05% 63,854
Union 3,918 42.98% 5,003 54.88% 195 2.14% -1,085 -11.90% 9,116
Vermilion 16,246 49.42% 16,054 48.84% 572 1.74% 192 0.58% 32,872
Wabash 2,462 42.58% 3,254 56.28% 66 1.14% -792 -13.70% 5,782
Warren 4,286 53.38% 3,637 45.30% 106 1.32% 649 8.08% 8,029
Washington 3,342 42.13% 4,473 56.39% 117 1.48% -1,131 -14.26% 7,932
Wayne 2,547 31.56% 5,390 66.78% 134 1.66% -2,843 -35.22% 8,071
White 3,315 44.48% 3,987 53.50% 151 2.03% -672 -9.02% 7,453
Whiteside 15,607 58.01% 10,883 40.45% 416 1.55% 4,724 17.56% 26,906
Will 160,406 56.00% 122,597 42.80% 3,417 1.19% 37,809 13.20% 286,420
Williamson 12,589 41.77% 17,039 56.53% 513 1.70% -4,450 -14.76% 30,141
Winnebago 70,034 55.57% 53,886 42.76% 2,111 1.67% 16,148 12.81% 126,031
Woodford 6,999 35.92% 12,191 62.57% 293 1.50% -5,192 -26.65% 19,483
Totals 3,419,348 61.92% 2,031,179 36.78% 71,844 1.30% 1,388,169 25.14% 5,522,371

By congressional districtEdit

Favorite son Barack Obama won sixteen of the state’s nineteen congressional districts, including all districts held by Democrats and four districts held by Republicans.

District Obama McCain Representative
1st 86.53% 12.93% Bobby Rush
2nd 89.68% 9.86% Jesse Jackson Jr.
3rd 63.60% 35.08% Dan Lipinski
4th 85.44% 13.22% Luis Gutierrez
5th 72.82% 26.22% Rahm Emanuel (110th Congress)
Mike Quigley (111th Congress)
6th 55.91% 42.76% Peter Roskam
7th 87.77% 11.57% Danny K. Davis
8th 55.74% 42.86% Melissa Bean
9th 72.34% 26.43% Jan Schakowsky
10th 60.92% 38.13% Mark Kirk
11th 53.32% 45.14% Jerry Weller (110th Congress)
Debbie Halvorson (111th Congress)
12th 55.49% 42.89% Jerry Costello
13th 54.21% 44.60% Judy Biggert
14th 54.83% 43.77% Dennis Hastert (110th Congress)
Bill Foster (111th Congress)
15th 47.82% 50.43% Timothy V. Johnson
16th 52.78% 45.52% Donald Manzullo
17th 56.39% 42.15% Philip Hare
18th 48.32% 50.03% Ray LaHood (110th Congress)
Aaron Schock (111th Congress)
19th 43.98% 54.25% John Shimkus

ElectorsEdit

Technically the voters of Illinois cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College. Illinois is allocated 21 electors because it has 19 congressional districts and 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 21 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 21 electoral votes. Their chosen electors then vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them.[27] An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector.

The electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 15, 2008, to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols.

The following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All 21 were pledged to Barack Obama and Joe Biden:[28]

  1. Constance A. Howard
  2. Carrie Austin
  3. Shirley R. Madigan
  4. Ricardo Muñoz
  5. James DeLeo
  6. Marge Friedman
  7. Vera Davis
  8. Nancy Shepardson
  9. William Marovitz
  10. Lauren Beth Gash
  11. Debbie Halvorson
  12. Molly McKenzie
  13. Julia Kennedy Beckman
  14. Mark Guethle
  15. Lynn Foster
  16. John M. Nelson
  17. Mary Boland
  18. Shirley McCombs
  19. Don Johnston
  20. Barbara Flynn Currie
  21. John P. Daley

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Illinois Democratic Primary". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  2. ^ "Clinton Loses Two Illinois Delegates". Chicago Public Radio (WBEZ). Archived from the original on 2008-03-14. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
  3. ^ "Roll Call Vote - 27 August 2008".
  4. ^ "General Primary - 2/5/2008". 2008-02-05. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
  5. ^ "Illinois Republican Delegation 2008". Retrieved 2009-07-05.
  6. ^ "Major Third Party 2008 Presidential Primary". www.thegreenpapers.com. The Green Papers. 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  7. ^ D.C.'s Political Report: The complete source for campaign summaries
  8. ^ Presidential | The Cook Political Report Archived May 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Adnaan (2008-09-20). "Track the Electoral College vote predictions". The Takeaway. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  10. ^ Electoral-vote.com: President, Senate, House Updated Daily
  11. ^ a b c d Based on Takeaway
  12. ^ POLITICO's 2008 Swing State Map - POLITICO.com
  13. ^ RealClearPolitics - Electoral Map
  14. ^ CQ Politics | CQ Presidential Election Maps, 2008 Archived June 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Electoral College Map". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  16. ^ "October – 2008 – CNN Political Ticker - CNN.com Blogs". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  17. ^ "Winning the Electoral College". Fox News. 2010-04-27.
  18. ^ roadto270
  19. ^ Election 2008: Electoral College Update - Rasmussen Reports™
  20. ^ Election 2008 Polls - Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections
  21. ^ "Presidential Campaign Finance". Archived from the original on 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  22. ^ "Map: Campaign Ad Spending - Election Center 2008 from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  23. ^ "Map: Campaign Candidate Visits - Election Center 2008 from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  24. ^ "Cook County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  25. ^ Todd, Chuck and Gawiser, Sheldon. How Barack Obama Won. New York City: Vintage, 2009.
  26. ^ "Illinois State Board of Elections - 2008 General Election - Comma delimited text". Retrieved 2008-12-01.
  27. ^ "Electoral College". California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  28. ^ U. S. Electoral College 2008 Election - Certificates