United States post office murals

United States post office murals are notable examples of New Deal art produced during the years 1934–1943.

Mail Transportation (1938) by Fletcher Martin, in the San Pedro, California, post office

They were commissioned through a competitive process by the United States Department of the Treasury. Some 1,400 murals were created for federal post office buildings in more than 1,300 U.S. cities. Murals still extant are the subject of efforts by the U.S. Postal Service to preserve and protect them.

In 2019, the USPS issued a sheet of 10 Forever stamps commemorating the murals.[1]

HistoryEdit

The Corn Parade (1941) by Orr C. Fisher, in the Mount Ayr, Iowa, post office
Rachel Silverthorne's Ride (1938) by John W. Beauchamp, in the Muncy, Pennsylvania, post office
Texas Farm (1940) by Julius Woeltz, in the Elgin, Texas, post office
External video
 
  A Common Canvas- Somerset, Pennsylvania (2:36) Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
  A Common Canvas- Renovo, Pennsylvania (4:46) Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission

As one of the projects in the New Deal during the Great Depression in the United States, the Public Works of Art Project (1933–34) was developed to bring artist workers back into the job market and assure the American public that better financial times were on the way. In 1933, nearly $145 million in public funds was appropriated for the construction of federal buildings, such as courthouses, schools, libraries, post offices and other public structures, nationwide. Under the direction of the Public Works of Art Project, the agency oversaw the production of 15,660 works of art by 3,750 artists. These included 700 murals on public display.[2]: 43 

With the ending of the Public Works of Art Project in the summer of 1934, it was decided that the success of the program should be extended by founding the Section of Painting and Sculpture (renamed the Section of Fine Arts in 1938) under the U.S. Treasury Department, through Treasury Secretary Morgenthau's executive order of October 14, 1934.[2]: 48  The Section of Painting and Sculpture was initiated to commission 1,400 murals in federal post offices buildings in more than 1,300 cities across America.[3]

The Section focused on reaching as many American citizens as possible. Since the local post office seemed to be the most frequented government building by the public, the Section requested that the murals, approximately 12 by 5 feet (3.7 by 1.5 m) oil paintings on canvas, be placed on the walls of the newly constructed post offices exclusively. It was recommended that 1% of the money budgeted for each post office be set aside for the creation of the murals.[3][4]

The Treasury Relief Art Project (1935–1938), which provided artistic decoration for existing Federal buildings, produced a smaller number of post office murals.[5] TRAP was established with funds from the Works Progress Administration. The Section supervised the creative output of TRAP, and selected a master artist for each project. Assistants were then chosen by the artist from the rolls of the WPA Federal Art Project.[6]: 62–63 

The Section and the Treasury Relief Art Project were overseen by Edward Bruce, who had directed the Public Works of Art Project. They were commission-driven public work programs that employed artists to beautify American government buildings, strictly on the basis of quality.[6]: 58–59 [7] This contrasts with the work-relief mission of the Federal Art Project (1935–1943) of the Works Progress Administration, the largest of the New Deal art projects. So great was its scope and cultural impact that the term "WPA" is often mistakenly used to describe all New Deal art, including the U.S. post office murals.[6]: 63–64 [7]

The murals are the subject of efforts by the U.S. Postal Service to preserve and protect them. This is particularly important and problematical as some of them have disappeared or deteriorated. Some are installed in buildings that are worth far less than the artwork.[8]

ProcessEdit

Whereas the Public Works of Art Project paid artists hourly wages, the Section of Fine Arts program awarded contracts to artists based on works entered in both regional and national competitions. For this purpose, the country was divided into 16 regions.[9]

Artists submitted sketches anonymously to a committee of their peers for judging. The committees, composed of art critics, fellow artists and architects, selected the finest works. These were then sent, along with the artists' names in sealed envelopes, to the Section of Fine Arts for ultimate selection.[2] This anonymity was to ensure that all competing artists had an equal opportunity of winning a commission. However, many local painters felt they were being kept out of the process, with the majority of contracts going to the better known artists.[10]

Artists were asked to paint in an "American scene" style, depicting ordinary citizens in a realistic manner. Abstract and modern art styles were discouraged. Artists were also encouraged to produce works that would be appropriate to the communities where they were to be located and to avoid controversial subjects.[11] Projects were closely scrutinized by the Section for style and content, and artists were paid only after each stage in the creative process was approved.[6]

ControversiesEdit

The selection of out-of-state artists sometimes caused controversy, such as stereotypes of rural people being portrayed merely as hicks and hayseeds and not having the murals express their cultural values and work ethics. Many residents of small towns, most notably in the Southern states, resented the portrayal of rural lifestyles by artists who had never visited the areas where their artwork would be displayed.[2][page needed]

The controversy was of particularly acute in Arkansas, where 19 post offices received murals, with two post offices, one in Berryville, Carroll County and another in Monticello, Drew County, receiving sculpture. For seven decades following the Civil War, Arkansas had been perceived as the epitome of poverty and illiteracy by the rest of the nation. Many Arkansans had dealt with hardship and tribulation on a daily basis and the coming of the Depression had not made life easier. Although the sketches of such renowned artists as Thomas Hart Benton and Joseph P. Vorst were based on actual events and people encountered during their travels across the state, they sometimes focused on the worst aspects of life in these rural towns.[9]

This was not the legacy that Arkansans wished to leave their children and grandchildren. They wanted the murals to give hope to the younger generation in overcoming adversity, and provide inspiration for a brighter future with better things to come. In some instances, artists were asked to submit multiple drawings before being accepted by the community.[2][page needed] When approval was given by the local residents on the artists’ final sketches, work on the murals proceeded, much to the satisfaction of all those involved.[4]

Notable artistsEdit

Forty-eight state mural competitionEdit

A competition for one mural to be painted in a post office in each of the forty-eight states (plus Washington, D.C.) was held in November 1939 at the Corcoran Gallery. The jury selecting the winners was composed of four artists: Maurice Sterne (Chairman), Henry Varnum Poor, Edgar Miller, and Olin Dows.[82][83]

Winners of forty-eight state mural competition[84]
Artist Title Image[a] City State
Original[82] Revised
Robert Gwathmey Fish for the Interior The Countryside[b] Eutaw Alabama
Seymour Fogel Indian Dance History of the Gila Valley[c] Safford Arizona
Joseph P. Vorst Rural Arkansas[d]   Paris Arkansas
Lew E. Davis Indian Pony Round Early Spanish Caballeros[e] Los Banos California
John H. Fraser North Platte Country Against the Mountains Littleton, Colorado[f] Littleton Colorado
A. S. Tobey Stop of Hooker's Band in East Hartford before Crossing River[g]   East Hartford Connecticut
William H. Calfee Saw Mill Chicken Farm[101] Selbyville Delaware
Thomas I. Laughlin Seascape Scene of Town[h] De Funiak Springs Florida
Elizabeth Terrell The Ploughman[i]   Conyers Georgia
Fletcher Martin Mine Rescue Discovery[j]   Kellogg Idaho
Edmund Lewandowski Threshing Grain On the River[110] Hamilton Illinois
Joseph Meert Harvesting[111] Spencer Indiana
Marion Gilmore Band Concert[k]   Corning Iowa
Joe Jones Men and Wheat[l]   Seneca Kansas
William E. L. Bunn Mississippi Packets[m] Hickman Kentucky
Laura B. Lewis County Courthouse Louisiana Farm[n] Eunice Louisiana
Barry Greenbie River Driving Dover-Foxcroft Maine
Alexander Clayton Three Fishermen and Wild Life Typical of Cecil County Elkton Maryland
Jean Watson A Massachusetts Countryside Stoughton Massachusetts
James Calder Waiting for Mail Grand Ledge Michigan
Don Humphrey Production North St. Paul Minnesota
Stuart R. Purser Ginning Cotton[o]   Leland Mississippi
James Baare Turnbull[p] Loading Cattle[q]   Jackson Missouri
Mordi Gassner Old Time Pioneers and New Great Falls Montana
Philip von Saltza Wild Horses by Moonlight Schuyler Nebraska
Adolph Gottlieb Homestead on the Plain Yerington Nevada
Philip von Saltza Logging Milford New Hampshire
Avery Johnson Skating on Bonaparte's Pond[r]   Bordentown New Jersey
Boris Deutsch Indian Bear Dance[s]   Hot Springs New Mexico
Mary Earley Down-Rent-War, Around 1845[t]   Delhi New York
Alan Tompkins Tobacco Harvest Boone North Carolina
Edward Buk Ulreich Advance Guard of the West[u]   New Rockford North Dakota
Richard Kenah Ohio Harvest Bridgeport Ohio
Fred Conway[v] The Roundup Purcell Oklahoma
Jack Wilkinson Cattle Stampede Cattle Thieves Surprised by Posse[w]   Burns Oregon
Lorin Thompson, Jr. Clearing the Land Mercer Pennsylvania
Paul Sample Railway Station Westerly Rhode Island
Lee Gatch Tobacco Industry Mullins South Carolina
M. E. Ziegler Wheat in the Shock[x]   Flandreau South Dakota
David Stone Martin Electrification Lenoir City Tennessee
Ethel Edwards Afternoon on a Texas Ranch[y]   Lampasas Texas
Jenne Magafan Western Town[z]   Helper Utah
Barse Miller Lumber Yard Island Pond Vermont
William H. Calfee Chesapeake Fishermen Phoebus Virginia
Richard Haines Red River Ox Carts Shelton Washington
Henry Varnum Poor Cartoon for Completed Mural in the Department of Interior Building (New) Washington, D.C.
Richard Zoellner West Virginia Landscape[aa]   Mannington West Virginia
Charles W. Thwaites Threshing Barley[ab]   Chilton Wisconsin
Manuel Bromberg Chuck Wagon Serenade Greybull Wyoming

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ From the holdings of the Smithsonian American Art Museum
  2. ^ Local officials disliked the mural when it was installed; later denounced in the 1970s for "dehumanizing and offensive" depiction of Black Americans.[85] Remains on display in its original location.[46]
  3. ^ Subject revised from original at the demand of local citizens who were still resentful about Apache raids.[86] Revised set of six murals depict settlers with European heritage arriving, exploring, and settling the region.[87]
  4. ^ Reworked after local citizens objected to the original concept,[87][88] which is held at the Smithsonian American Art Museum.[89] As installed, mural depicts industrial activities in Paris instead of focusing on agriculture.[90]
  5. ^ Reworked from a concept initially submitted for the post office in Safford, Arizona.[87] Retitled Early Spanish Caballeros; moved to and displayed at the Milliken Museum,[91] although ownership was transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum.[92]
  6. ^ The mural was rediscovered in the 1970s after it had been removed and "rolled up like a piece of wallpaper"; it was cleaned and restored in 1985, and is now on display in the Littleton City Council chambers.[93][94][95][96]
  7. ^ Damaged; half remains at original location in East Hartford branch post office.[97][98] Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[99] USPS announced it would be moving from the 850 Main Street building in early 2020;[100] mural's disposition unknown.
  8. ^ Moved to new post office in 1989.[102]
  9. ^ Has since been moved to 1898 railroad depot in Olde Town Conyers.[103][104] Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[105]
  10. ^ Citizens of Kellogg objected to original theme,[87][106][107] which is held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[108] Revised mural features Noah Kellogg, a frontiersman and prospector, discovering the Bunker Hill Mine;[109] his donkey is prominently displayed above the postmaster's door.[87]
  11. ^ Installed May 10, 1941.[112][113] Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[114]
  12. ^ Jones painted murals for multiple post offices, all with harvest themes.[115] Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[116]
  13. ^ Bunn lived in Iowa.[117][118] Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[119]
  14. ^ Mural, originally entered in competition for Marfa, Texas, was redesigned with local input.[120] It was lost in 1967 during post office renovations.[121]
  15. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[122]
  16. ^ The artist selected by the jury was Fred Conway. However, because the citizens of Jackson, Missouri requested a more modern representation of their city, James Baare Turnbull's mural Farm (originally intended for Purcell, Oklahoma) was moved to Jackson and retitled.[123]
  17. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[124]
  18. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[125]
  19. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[126]
  20. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[127]
  21. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[128]
  22. ^ The artist selected by the jury was James Baare Turnbull for Farm. However, because the citizens of Jackson, Missouri requested a more modern representation of their city, Turnbull's mural was moved to Jackson, and Conway's mural originally intended for Jackson, titled Loading Cattle, was moved to Purcell, Oklahoma and retitled.[129]
  23. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[130]
  24. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[131]
  25. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[132]
  26. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[133]
  27. ^ Mural held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[134]
  28. ^ Study held by Smithsonian American Art Museum.[135]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Stamp Announcement 19-14: Post Office Murals Stamps". about.usps.com. Retrieved 2022-06-20.
  2. ^ a b c d e Marling, Karal Ann (1982). Wall-to-Wall America: A Cultural History of Post Office Murals in the Great Depression. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816636730.
  3. ^ a b Broun, Elizabeth. "Exhibitions/American Art". americanart.si.edu. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  4. ^ a b Park, Marlene; Martkowitz, Gerald (1984). Democratic Vistas: Post Office Art in the New Deal (First ed.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 978-0877223481.
  5. ^ "New Deal Artwork: GSA's Inventory Project". General Services Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-24.
  6. ^ a b c d O'Connor, Francis V. (Autumn 1969). "The New Deal Art Projects in New York". The American Art Journal. Kennedy Galleries, Inc. 1 (2): 58–79. doi:10.2307/1593876. JSTOR 1593876.
  7. ^ a b Raynor, Patricia (October–December 1997). "Articles from EnRoute: Off The Wall: New Deal Post Office Murals". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Off The Wall. 6 (4). Retrieved April 1, 2015.
  8. ^ Leonard, Devin (September 20, 2013). "Postal Service Makes Deals to Rescue New Deal-Era Murals". Bloomberg Business News. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
  9. ^ a b Smith, Sandra Taylor; Christ, Mark E. Arkansas Post Offices and the Treasury Department's Section Art Program, 1935-1942 (PDF). Little Rock: Arkansas Historic Preservation Program. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  10. ^ Parisi, Phillip (2004). The Texas Post Office Murals: Art for the People. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
  11. ^ Lembeck, David (Summer 2008). "Rediscovering the People's Art: New Deal Murals in Pennsylvania's Post Offices" (PDF). Pennsylvania Heritage. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. XXXIV (3): 28–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 26, 2014.
  12. ^ "Post Office Mural – Lewistown IL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  13. ^ "Post Office Mural – Goodland KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  14. ^ "Post Office Mural – Deming NM". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  15. ^ "Post Office and Federal Courthouse Mural – Marquette MI". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  16. ^ "Post Office Mural – Onawa IA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  17. ^ Emily M. McGowan. "Capt. Francis Eppes Making Friends with the Appomattox Indians". National Postal Museum, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2021-07-08.
  18. ^ "Public Library Mural – Enterprise AL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  19. ^ "Post Office Mural – Pacific Grove CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  20. ^ "Pettaquamscutt Historical Society Mural – Kingston RI". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
  21. ^ "Post Office Mural – La Jolla CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  22. ^ "Post Office Mural – Kennebunk ME". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  23. ^ "Post Office Mural – Crestline OH". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  24. ^ "Post Office Murals – Allentown PA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  25. ^ a b c d Murals. "Living New Deal". livingnewdeal.org. p. 1. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  26. ^ "Post Office Mural – Rushville IL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
  27. ^ "Post Office Murals – Green Bay WI". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  28. ^ "Post Office and Court House Mural – Fort Scott KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  29. ^ "Post Office Mural – Manheim PA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
  30. ^ "Post Office (former) Mural – Venice CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  31. ^ "Post Office Mural – Houston MS". Living New Deal. Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
  32. ^ "Vidalia City Hall Mural – Vidalia GA". The Living New Deal. Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  33. ^ "Indians at the Post Office". postalmuseum.si.edu. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  34. ^ "Artist: Boris Deutsch". The Living New Deal. Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  35. ^ "Post Office Mural – Canoga Park CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  36. ^ a b "Post Office Mural – Martinez CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  37. ^ "Post Office – Clarion IA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  38. ^ "Post Office (former) Mural – Ozark AL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  39. ^ "Post Office Murals – Safford AZ". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  40. ^ "Post Office Mural – Cambridge MN". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  41. ^ Carlisle, John C. A Simple and Vital Design: The Story of the Indiana Post Office Murals. Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, 1995 pp. 34-35
  42. ^ "Post Office Mural – Luverne AL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  43. ^ "Post Office Mural – Bronson MI". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  44. ^ "Post Office Mural – Lancaster NY". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  45. ^ a b c "Mural-2/38". livingnewdeal.org. Living New Deal. p. 2. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  46. ^ a b "Post Office Mural – Eutaw AL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  47. ^ "Post Office Mural – Berwyn IL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  48. ^ "Post Office Mural – Cresco IA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  49. ^ "Courthouse Murals – Wichita KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  50. ^ "Tracy Historical Museum Murals – Tracy CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  51. ^ "Post Office Mural – Van Buren AR". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  52. ^ "Post Office Relief – Iron River MI". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  53. ^ "Post Office Bas Relief – Whitinsville MA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  54. ^ "Post Office Wood Carving – Swarthmore PA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  55. ^ Petteys, Chris, "Dictionary of Women Artists: An international dictionary of women ratites born before 1900", G.K. Hall & Co., Boston, 1985
  56. ^ "Post Office (former) Mural – Magnolia AR". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  57. ^ "Post Office Mural – Anthony KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  58. ^ "Post Office Mural – Seneca KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  59. ^ "Post Office (former) frescos – Beverly Hills CA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  60. ^ "Ariel Rios Federal Building: Kent Murals – Washington DC". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  61. ^ "Post Office Mural – Eureka KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
  62. ^ "Post Office Mural – Bay Minette AL". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  63. ^ "Joel W. Solomon Post Office and Courthouse Mural – Chattanooga TN". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  64. ^ Introduction. "Indians at the Post Office". postal museum.si.edu. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  65. ^ "Post Office (former) Mural – Amherst OH". Living New Deal. Archived from the original on 2016-04-06. Retrieved 2016-03-24.
  66. ^ "Post Office Mural – Dardanelle AR". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  67. ^ "Post Office Mural – Wynne AR". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  68. ^ "West Scranton Post Office Mural – Scranton PA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  69. ^ "Post Office Mural – Altavista VA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  70. ^ "Carl Morris: History of Religions". Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  71. ^ "Post Office Mural – Rye NY". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-04-25.
  72. ^ "Post Office Mural – Piggott AR". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  73. ^ "Daniel Rhodes Mural – Storm Lake IA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  74. ^ "Burleson County Courthouse Mural – Caldwell TX". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  75. ^ "Post Office (former) Murals – Tallahassee FL". Living New Deal. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  76. ^ "National Archives, Central Plains Region Murals – Kansas City MO". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  77. ^ "Post Office Mural – New Rockford ND". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  78. ^ "U.S. Post Office and Courthouse: Van Veen Mural – Pittsburgh PA". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  79. ^ "Post Office Mural – Okemah OK". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  80. ^ "Post Office Mural – Kingman KS". Living New Deal. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  81. ^ Carlisle, John C., "A Simple and Vital Design: The Story of the Indiana Post Office Murals", Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, 1995
  82. ^ a b Loan Exhibition of Mural Designs for Federal Buildings from the Section of Fine Arts, Washington, D.C. Whitney Museum of American Art. 1940. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  83. ^ "Speaking of pictures ... this is mural America for rural Americans". Life. December 4, 1939. pp. 12–15. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  84. ^ Exhibition: Painting and Sculpture Designed for Federal Buildings. The Corcoran Gallery of Art. November 1939. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  85. ^ Beardsley, John (October 17, 1999). "Protest on Canvas". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  86. ^ "Post Office Mural – Safford AZ". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  87. ^ a b c d e Fogel, Jared A.; Stevens, Robert L. "The Safford, Arizona, Murals of Seymour Fogel: A Study in Artistic Controversy". National Council for the Social Studies. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  88. ^ "Post Office Mural – Paris AR". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  89. ^ "Rural Arkansas (mural study, Paris, Arkansas Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  90. ^ "Paris Post Office". Arkansas Post Office Murals. University of Central Arkansas. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  91. ^ "Los Banos Post Office Mural – Los Banos CA". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  92. ^ Davis, Lew (1940). "Early Spanish Caballeros (mural for Los Banos, California Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  93. ^ Hulse, Doris Farmer (April 2020). "Littleton Post Office". City of Littleton. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  94. ^ Lorance, Nancy (2005). "New Deal/WPA Art in Littleton, Colorado: Post Office New Deal Artwork". WPA Murals. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  95. ^ Mimnaugh, Andrea (June 2, 2020). Littleton Post Office Landmark Designation, Case Number HP20-0001 (PDF) (Report). City of Littleton. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  96. ^ "National Register Information System – Littleton Post Office (#100003671)". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. November 2, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
  97. ^ "Post Office Mural – East Hartford CT". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  98. ^ Jones, Todd (Spring 2020). "Mistaken Murals: The Neglected Story of the Nutmeg State's New Deal Post Office Art". Connecticut History Review. 59 (1): 40–79. doi:10.5406/connhistrevi.59.1.0040. S2CID 226615904.
  99. ^ Tobey, Alton (1939). "The Last Halt: Stop of Hooker's Band in East Hartford before Crossing River". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  100. ^ Gallo, Vin (January 14, 2020). "East Hartford post office says it's leaving Main Street site". Journal Inquirer. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  101. ^ "Post Office Mural – Selbyville DE". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  102. ^ "Post Office Mural – DeFuniak Springs FL". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  103. ^ "Post Office Mural – Conyers GA". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  104. ^ Braden, Betsy; Braden, John (1996). "Metropolitan Atlanta: Touring Metropolitan Atlanta". The New Georgia Guide. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. p. 274. ISBN 0-8203-1798-5. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  105. ^ Terrell, Elizabeth (1939). "The Ploughman (mural study)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  106. ^ "Post Office Mural – Kellogg ID". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  107. ^ McKinzie, Richard D. (1973). The New Deal for artists. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 70039053.
  108. ^ Martin, Fletcher (1939). "Mine Rescue (mural study for Kellogg, Idaho Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  109. ^ Hart, Arthur (August 15, 2015). "Idaho History: Fletcher Martin was a painter who loved action and adventure". Idaho Statesman. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  110. ^ "Post Office Mural – Hamilton IL". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  111. ^ "Post Office Mural – Spencer IN". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  112. ^ "Post Office Mural – Corning IA". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  113. ^ "Post Office Mural - did you know?". Adams County Iowa. March 26, 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  114. ^ Gilmore, Marion (1939). "Band Concert (mural study, Corning, Iowa Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  115. ^ "Post Office Mural – Seneca KS". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  116. ^ Jones, Joe (1939). "Men and Wheat (mural study, Seneca, Kansas Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  117. ^ "William Bunn to Paint Mural at Hickman, Ky". The Muscatine Journal and News-Tribune. October 25, 1939. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  118. ^ "Post Office Mural – Hickman KY". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  119. ^ Bunn, William Edward Lewis (1940). "Mississippi Packets (mural study, Hickman, Kentucky, Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  120. ^ Megraw, Richard B. (December 1990). The Uneasiest State: Art, Culture, and Society in New Deal Louisiana, 1933-1943. (Volumes I and II). History (Doctor of Philosophy thesis). Louisiana State University. pp. 95–98, 153–154. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  121. ^ Burdeau, Cain (June 26, 2004). "New Deal murals a big deal". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  122. ^ Purser, Stuart R. (1940). "Ginnin' Cotton (mural study, Leland, Mississippi Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  123. ^ "Post Office Mural – Jackson MO". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  124. ^ Turnbull, James Baare (1939). "Loading Cattle (Study for Mural, Jackson, Missouri Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  125. ^ Johnson, Avery F. (1940). "Skating on Bonaparte's Pond (mural study, Bordentown, New Jersey Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  126. ^ Deutsch, Boris (1940). "Indian Bear Dance (Color Study for Hot Springs, New Mexico Post Office Mural)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  127. ^ Earley, Mary (1939). "Down Rent War, Around 1845 (mural study, Delhi, NY post office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  128. ^ Ulreich, Edward Buk (1939). "Advance Guard of the West (mural study, New Rockford, North Dakota Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  129. ^ "Post Office Mural – Purcell OK". The Living New Deal. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  130. ^ Wilkinson, Jack (1941). "Cattle Thieves Surprised by Posse (mural study, Burns, Oregon Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  131. ^ Ziegler, Matthew E. (1940). "Wheat in the Shock (mural study, Flandreau, South Dakota Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  132. ^ Edwards, Ethel (1939). "Afternoon on a Texas Ranch (mural study, Lampasas, Texas Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  133. ^ Magafan, Jenne (1939). "Western Town (mural study, Helper, Utah Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  134. ^ Zoellner, Richard (1941). "West Virginia Landscape". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  135. ^ Thwaits, Charles W. (1939). "Threshing Barley (mural study, Chilton, Wisconsin Post Office)". American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 19 March 2021.

Further readingEdit

  • Harris, Jonathon. Federal Art and National Culture: The Politics of Identity in New Deal America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Parisi, Philip. The Texas Post Office Murals: Art for the People. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 2004.
  • Smith, Bradley. The USA: A History in Art. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1975.
  • Gibson, Lisanne. Managing the People: Art Programs in the American Depression. Queensland, Australia: Journal The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 2002.
  • Marling, Karal Ann. Wall to Wall America: Post Office Murals in the Great Depression. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982.
  • Park, Marlene and Gerald E. Markowitz. Democratic Vistas: Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal. Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 1984.
  • Jones, Todd. “Mistaken Murals: The Neglected Story of the Nutmeg State’s New Deal Post Office Art.” Connecticut History Review 59, no. 1 (spring 2020): 40–79.

External linksEdit