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Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1916 were held for members of the 65th Congress, coinciding with the re-election of President Woodrow Wilson.

1916 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1914 November 7, 1916[Note 1] 1918 →

All 435 seats to the United States House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  James Robert Mann 1909.jpg ChampClark.jpg
Leader James Mann Champ Clark
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 4, 1911 March 4, 1909
Leader's seat Illinois-2nd Missouri-9th
Last election 196 seats 230 seats
Seats won 216[Note 2] 214[Note 3]
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 16

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Progressive Socialist
Last election 6 seats 1 seat
Seats won 3 1
Seat change Decrease 3 Steady

  Fifth party Sixth party
 
Party Prohibition Independent
Last election 1 seat 1 seat
Seats won 1 0
Seat change Steady Decrease 1

Speaker before election

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Champ Clark
Democratic

Wilson eked out a narrow re-election, but his Democratic Party lost seats to the opposition Republican Party. Wilson's hybrid approach, which injected a progressive element into Democratic policies, had proved to be dissatisfying to much of the nation. International affairs also became important in the traditionally non-interventionist United States, as voters attempted to determine which party would be best served to keep the nation from entering The Great War.

Although the Republicans gained a plurality, the Democrats narrowly maintained control of the House with minor party support, forming an alliance with the remaining third-party Progressives and Socialist Meyer London. This is the last example (to date) of a type of coalition holding power in the House, rather than a single party winning a majority of seats. Specifically, this is also the only election in U.S. history when three different parties were able to form a coalition government instead of just two. Because of this, it was only the second Congress where the party with the most seats was in opposition (versus being part of the ruling government) in the House, the first being the 34th Congress elected in 1854. This rare occurrence may have been why the parties' plan to form a coalition backfired, as voters quickly rejected the Progressive and Socialist parties in the next election. Meanwhile, the Democrats also lost support afterwards and would not control the House again until after the 1930 elections.

Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana was the first woman ever elected to congress.

Contents

Election summariesEdit

214 1 3 1 216
Democratic S P Pn Republican
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Progressive Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District[Note 4] 10 0   10   0   0  
Arizona At-large 1 0   1   0   0  
Arkansas District 7 0   7   0   0  
California District 11 5   1 4   1 1   1 1[Note 5]   1
Colorado District 4 1   3   0   0  
Connecticut District 5 4   1 1   1 0   0  
Delaware At-large 1 0   1 1   1 0   0  
Florida District 4 0   4   0   0  
Georgia District 12 0   12   0   0  
Idaho At-large 2 2   0   0   0  
Illinois District
+2 at-large
27 21   5 6   4 0   1 0  
Indiana District 13 9   7 4   7 0   0  
Iowa District 11 11   1 0   1 0   0  
Kansas District 8 3   1 5   1 0   0  
Kentucky District 11 2   9   0   0  
Louisiana District 8 0   7   1 1   1 0  
Maine[Note 6] District 4 4   1 0   1 0   0  
Maryland District 6 2   1 4   1 0   0  
Massachusetts District 16 12   4   0   0  
Michigan District 13 12   1 1   1 0   0  
Minnesota District 10 9   1   0   0  
Mississippi District 8 0   8   0   0  
Missouri District 16 2   14   0   0  
Montana At-large 2 1   1 1   1 0   0  
Nebraska District 6 3   3   0   0  
Nevada At-large 1 1   0   0   0  
New Hampshire District 2 2   2 0   2 0   0  
New Jersey District 12 9   1 3   1 0   0  
New Mexico At-large 1 0   1 1   1 0   0  
New York District 43 26   4 16   3 0   1 1[Note 7]  
North Carolina District 10 0   1 10   1 0   0  
North Dakota District 3 3   0   0   0  
Ohio District 22 9   4 13   4 0   0  
Oklahoma District 8 2   1 6   1 0   0  
Oregon District 3 3   0   0   0  
Pennsylvania District
+4 at-large
36 29   1 6   1   1 0  
Rhode Island District 3 2   1   0   0  
South Carolina District 7 0   7   0   0  
South Dakota District 3 2   1   0   0  
Tennessee District 10 2   8   0   0  
Texas District
+2 at-large
18 0   18   0   0  
Utah District 2 0   1 2   1 0   0  
Vermont District 2 2   0   0   0  
Virginia District 10 1   9   0   0  
Washington District 5 4   1 1   1 0   2 0  
West Virginia District[Note 4] 6 4   1 2   1 0   0  
Wisconsin District 11 11   3 0   3 0   0  
Wyoming At-large 1 1   0   0   0  
Total 435 216[Note 2]
49.7%
  19 214
49.2%
  16 3
0.7%
  2 2[Note 8]
0.5%
  1
House seats
Republican
49.66%
Democratic
49.20%
Progressive
0.69%
Prohibition
0.23%
Socialist
0.23%

The Democrats retained control of the House by forming a coalition with the three Progressive members and the single Socialist member, combining to form a razor-thin majority of 218 Representatives.

 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
 
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Progressive gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dateEdit

Maine held its election early, on September 11, 1916. There had previously been multiple states with earlier elections, but between 1914 and 1958, Maine was alone in holding early elections.

A slash between two labels indicates a fusion ticket

Special electionsEdit

There were special elections in 1916 to the 64th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

District Incumbent This election
Member Party First elected Results Candidates


California 10 William Stephens Progressive 1910 Incumbent resigned July 22, 1916 to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
New member elected November 7, 1916.
Progressive hold.
Successor was not elected to the next term, see below.

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Kent Independent 1910 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
 Y Clarence F. Lea (Democratic) 48.8%
Edward H. Hart (Republican) 42.8%
Mary M. Morgan (Socialist) 5.5%
Jay Scott Ryder (Prohibition) 2.9%
California 2 John E. Raker Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected.  Y John E. Raker (Democratic) 71%
James T. Matlock (Republican) 29%
California 3 Charles F. Curry Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected.  Y Charles F. Curry (Republican) 66.7%
O. W. Kennedy (Democratic) 23.4%
Ben Cooper (Socialist) 6.2%
Edwin F. Van Vlear (Prohibition) 3.7%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.  Y Julius Kahn (Republican) 77.2%
J. M. Fernald (Democratic) 15.7%
Allen K. Gifford (Socialist) 5.6%
Henry W. Hutchinson (Prohibition) 1.5%
California 5 John I. Nolan Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected.  Y John I. Nolan (Republican) 84.7%
Charles A. Preston (Socialist) 9.6%
Frederick Head (Prohibition) 5.8%
California 6 John A. Elston Progressive 1912 Incumbent re-elected.  Y John A. Elston (Progressive) 64.6%
H. Avery Whitney (Democratic) 22.6%
Luella Twining (Socialist) 8.7%
Harlow E. Wolcott (Prohibition) 4.1%
California 7 Denver S. Church Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.  Y Denver S. Church (Democratic) 51%
W. W. Phillips (Republican) 36.4%
Harry M. McKee (Socialist) 7.2%
J. F. Butler (Prohibition) 5.3%
California 8 Everis A. Hayes Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected.  Y Everis A. Hayes (Republican) 68.6%
George S. Walker (Prog/D) 23.8%
Cora Pattleton Wilson (Socialist) 7.5%
California 9 Charles H. Randall Prohibition 1914 Incumbent re-elected.  Y Charles H. Randall (Proh.) 57.8%
Charles W. Bell (Independent) 32.7%
Ralph L. Criswell (Socialist) 9.5%
California 10 Vacant William Stephens (Progressive) had resigned July 22, 1916 to become Lieutenant Governor of California.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Successor was not elected to finish the term.
 Y Henry Z. Osborne (Republican) 49.5%
Rufus V. Bowden (Democratic) 25.7%
Henry S. Benedict (Progressive) 11.1%
James H. Ryckman (Socialist) 7%
Henry Clay Needham (Prohibition) 6.8%
California 11 William Kettner Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.  Y William Kettner (Democratic) 44.5%
Robert C. Harbison (Republican) 35.7%
James S. Edwards (Prohibition) 15.6%
Marcus W. Robbins (Socialist) 4.1%

MontanaEdit

This was the last time Montana used an at-large district until its representation was reduced to one in 1992. This was also the first time a woman was elected to Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Montana at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John M. Evans Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected. John M. Evans (Democratic) 26.7%
Jeannette Rankin (Republican) 24.3%
Harry B. Mitchell (Democratic) 22.3%
George W. Farr (Republican) 21.2%
John McGuffey (Socialist) 2.8%
Albert F. Meissner (Socialist) 2.7%
Tom Stout Democratic 1912 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

North DakotaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Dakota 1 Henry Thomas Helgesen Republican 1910 Incumbent re-elected. Henry Thomas Helgesen (Republican) 59.9%
George A. Bangs (Democratic) 38.3%
V. Gram (Socialist) 1.8%
North Dakota 2 George M. Young Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected. George M. Young (Republican) 71.7%
Hugh McDonald (Democratic) 24.6%
Samuel O. Olson (Socialist) 3.7%
North Dakota 3 Patrick Daniel Norton Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Patrick Daniel Norton (Republican) 65.2%
Charles Simon (Democratic) 26.5%
Anton Klemmens (Socialist) 8.3%

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Richard S. Whaley Democratic 1913 (special) Incumbent re-elected. Richard S. Whaley (Democratic) 95.4%
J. O. Ladd (Republican) 4.6%
South Carolina 2 James F. Byrnes Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected. James F. Byrnes (Democratic) 98.5%
Isaac Myers (Republican) 1.5%
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Frederick H. Dominick (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 4 Samuel J. Nicholls Democratic 1915 (special) Incumbent re-elected. Samuel J. Nicholls (Democratic) 99.4%
G. F. Mills (Republican) 0.6%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected. David E. Finley (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 6 J. Willard Ragsdale Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected. J. Willard Ragsdale (Democratic) 99.1%
W. L. McFarlan (Republican) 0.9%
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Incumbent re-elected. Asbury F. Lever (Democratic) 93.5%
I. S. Leevy (Republican) 6.5%

South DakotaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Dakota 1 Charles H. Dillon Republican 1912 Incumbent re-elected. Charles H. Dillon (Republican) 58.1%
O.D. Anderson (Democratic) 40.2%
H.W. Fenner (Socialist) 1.7%
South Dakota 2 Royal C. Johnson Republican 1914 Incumbent re-elected. Royal C. Johnson (Republican) 60.1%
J.J. Batterton (Democratic) 34.7%
E. Francis Atwood (Socialist) 3.4%
R. Clendening (Prohibition) 1.8%
South Dakota 3 Harry L. Gandy Democratic 1914 Incumbent re-elected. Harry L. Gandy (Democratic) 55.6%
John G. Bartine (Republican) 40.9%
B.M. Mulcahy (Socialist) 3.4%

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Maine held early elections on September 11, 1916.
  2. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  3. ^ Democrats maintained control of the U.S. House after the 1916 elections by forming a 218-member coalition with the three Progressive members and the one Socialist member.
  4. ^ a b At-large seat eliminated in redistricting.
  5. ^ Prohibition
  6. ^ Elections held early.
  7. ^ Socialist
  8. ^ 1 Socialist and 1 Prohibition.

BibliographyEdit

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External linksEdit