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Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1912 were held for members of the 63rd Congress, coinciding with the election of President Woodrow Wilson.

1912 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1910 November 5, 1912[Note 1] 1914 →

All 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  ChampClark.jpg James Robert Mann 1909.jpg
Leader Champ Clark James Mann
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since March 4, 1909 March 4, 1911
Leader's seat Missouri 5th Illinois 2nd
Last election 230 seats 163 seats[Note 2]
Seats won 291[1][2] 134[1][2]
Seat change Increase 61 Decrease 29

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Socialist Progressive
Last election 1 seat 0 seats
Seats won 0[1][2] 9[1][2]
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 9

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1
Seat change Increase 1

1912 House of Rep. Diagram.svg

Speaker before election

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Champ Clark
Democratic

Wilson's victory was partly due to the division of the opposition Republican Party into conservative and progressive factions. While many progressives stayed within the party framework, they maintained lukewarm relationships with Republican leadership. Others formed a third party known as the Progressives and several switched allegiance to the Democrats. A message of unity was portrayed by the Democrats, allowing this group to present themselves as above the bickering and corruption that had become associated with the Republican internal feud. Many of the new seats that were added after the prior census ended up in Democratic hands. In addition, William Kent, who had been elected to the House as a Republican in 1908, was elected to California's 1st congressional district as an Independent.

The number of representatives was increased for this election to 435, where it currently stands (aside from 1959 when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted as states).

Election summariesEdit

In reapportionment following the 1910 census,[citation needed] 41 new seats were added, bringing the House to its modern size. This would be the last time the size of the House changed, except for a temporary addition of two seats in 1959 after the admission of Alaska and Hawaii and subsequent return to 435 in 1963. In the reapportionment, 1 state lost 1 seat, 22 states had no change in apportionment, 16 states gained 1 seat each, 5 states gained 2 seats each, 2 states gained 3 seats, 1 state gained 4 seats, and 1 state gained 6 seats. Twelve states used at-large seats in addition to districts to elect new seats.

291 1 9 134
Democratic I P Republican
House seats
Democratic
66.90%
Republican
30.80%
Progressive
2.07%
Independent
0.23%
State Type Total seats
(Reapportionment)
Democratic Republican Progressive Independent
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District
+at-large[Note 3]
10   1 10   1 0   0   0  
Arizona At-large 1   1   0   0   0  
Arkansas District 7   7   0   0   0  
California District 11   3 3   2 7   0   1   1
Colorado District
+2 at-large[Note 3]
4   1 4   1 0   0   0  
Connecticut District[Note 4] 5   5   4 0   4 0   0  
Delaware At-large 1   1   1 0   1 0   0  
Florida District
+at-large[Note 3]
4   1 4   1 0   0   0  
Georgia District 12   1 12   1 0   0   0  
Idaho At-large 2   1 0   2   1 0   0  
Illinois District
+2 at-large[Note 3]
27   2 20   9 5   9 2   2 0  
Indiana District 13   13   1 0   1 0   0  
Iowa District 11   3   2 8   2 0   0  
Kansas District 8   5   5 3   5 0   0  
Kentucky District 11   9   2   0   0  
Louisiana District 8   1 8   1 0   0   0  
Maine[Note 5] District 4   1   1 3   1 0   0  
Maryland District 6   6   1 0   1 0   0  
Massachusetts District 16   2 7   3 9   1 0   0  
Michigan District
+at-large[Note 3]
13   1 2   9   1 2   2 0  
Minnesota District
+at-large[Note 3]
10   1 1   9   1 0   0  
Mississippi District 8   8   0   0   0  
Missouri District 16   15   2 1   2 0   0  
Montana At-large 2   1 2   2 0   1 0   0  
Nebraska District 6   3   3   0   0  
Nevada At-large 1   0   1   0   0  
New Hampshire District 2   2   2 0   2 0   0  
New Jersey District 12   2 11   4 1   2 0   0  
New Mexico At-large 1   1 1   0   1 0   0  
New York District 43   6 31   8 11   3 1   1 0  
North Carolina District 10   10   0   0   0  
North Dakota District 3   1 0   3   1 0   0  
Ohio District
+at-large[Note 3]
22   1 19   3 3   2 0   0  
Oklahoma District
+3 at-large[Note 3]
8   3 6   3 2   0   0  
Oregon District 3   1 0   3   1 0   0  
Pennsylvania District
+4 at-large[Note 3]
36   4 12   4 22   2 2   2 0  
Rhode Island District 3   1 2   1 1   0   0  
South Carolina District 7   7   0   0   0  
South Dakota District[Note 6] 3   1 0   3   1 0   0  
Tennessee District 10   8   2   0   0  
Texas District
+2 at-large[Note 3]
18   2 18   2 0   0   0  
Utah At-large 2   1 0   2   1 0   0  
Vermont[Note 5] District 2   0   2   0   0  
Virginia District 10   9   1   0   0  
Washington District
+2 at-large[Note 3]
5   2 0   3   2   2 0  
West Virginia District
+at-large[Note 3]
6   1 2   2 4   3 0   0  
Wisconsin District 11[Note 7]   3   1 8   0   0  
Wyoming At-large 1   0   1   0   0  
Total 435   41 291
66.9%
  61 134
30.8%
  29 9
2.1%
  9 1
0.2%
  1
 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation (stripes indicate mixed gains)
  6+ Democratic gain
   
  3-5 Democratic gain
 
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Progressive gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

Two states, with 6 seats between them, held elections early in 1912:

This was the last year that Vermont held early elections.

AlabamaEdit

ArizonaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Arizona at-large

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Kent
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1910 Incumbent re-elected as an Independent.
Independent gain.
William Kent (Independent) 37.27%
I. G. Zumwalt (Democratic) 34.37%
Edward H. Hart (Republican) 19.40%
Joseph Bredsteen (Socialist) 8.96%
California 2 John E. Raker
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected. John E. Raker (Democratic) 62.64%
Frank M. Rutherford (Republican) 27.17%
J. C. Williams (Socialist) 10.19%
California 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Charles F. Curry (Republican) 58.85%
Gilbert McMillan Ross (Democratic) 28.79%
William L. Wilson (Socialist) 12.36%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected. Julius Kahn (Republican) 56.09%
Bert Schlesinger (Democratic) 32.72%
Norman W. Pendleton (Socialist) 11.19%
California 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
John I. Nolan (Republican) 52.27%
Stephen V. Costello (Democratic) 34.69%
E. L. Reguin (Socialist) 13.04%
California 6 Joseph R. Knowland
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph R. Knowland (Republican) 53.70%
J. Stitt Wilson (Socialist) 40.00%
Hiram A Luttrell (Democratic) 6.31%
California 7 James C. Needham
Redistricted from the 6th district
Republican 1898 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Denver S. Church (Democratic) 44.05%
James C. Needham (Republican) 42.65%
J. S. Cato (Socialist) 13.30%
California 8 Everis A. Hayes
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1904 Incumbent re-elected. Everis A. Hayes (Republican) 50.95%
James B. Holohan (Democratic) 35.18%
Robert Whitaker (Socialist) 13.86%
California 9 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Progressive gain.
Charles W. Bell (Progressive) 47.25%
Thomas H. Kirk (Democratic) 23.87%
Ralph L. Criswell (Socialist) 18.22%
George S. Yarnall (Prohibition) 10.66%
California 10 William Stephens
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1910 Incumbent re-elected to different party.
Progressive gain.
William Stephens (Progressive) 53.45%
George Ringo (Democratic) 21.91%
Fred C. Wheeler (Socialist) 20.98%
Emory D. Martindale (Prohibition) 3.67%
California 11 Sylvester C. Smith
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1904 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Incumbent died before the Congress ended.
William Kettner (Democratic) 42.69%
Samuel C. Evans (Republican) 36.85%
Noble A. Richardson (Socialist) 12.14%
Helen M. Stoddard (Prohibition) 8.33%

ColoradoEdit

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected. Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) 78.5%
C. C. Allen (Socialist) 12.0%
George W. Beall (Republican) 4.9%
J. D. Hazzard (Progressive) 3.0%
George C. Kelley (Prohibition) 1.6%
Florida 2 Frank Clark Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected. Frank Clark (Democratic) 81.1%
J. J. Collins (Socialist) 7.3%
John W. Howell (Republican) 6.7%
C. E. Speir (Progressive) 4.9%
Florida 3 Dannite H. Mays Democratic 1908 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Emmett Wilson (Democratic) 86.4%
W. M. Lamberry (Socialist) 6.3%
Thomas F. McGourin (Republican) 4.7%
John T. Poder (Progressive) 2.7%
Florida at-large None (District created) New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Claude L'Engle (Democratic) 77.4%
A. N. Jackson (Socialist) 8.2%
George W. Allen (Republican) 6.6%
E. R. Gunby (Progressive) 6.0%
Frances P. Coffin (Prohibition) 1.8%

GeorgiaEdit

IdahoEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Idaho at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Burton L. French Republican 1902
1908 (Retired)
1910
Incumbent re-elected. Burton L. French (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New seat New member elected.
Republican gain.
Addison T. Smith (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

MissouriEdit

MontanaEdit

NebraskaEdit

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New MexicoEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Mexico at-large Harvey B. Fergusson Democratic 1911 Incumbent re-elected. Harvey B. Fergusson (Democratic) 45.6%
Nathan Jaffa (Republican) 36.9%
Andrew J. Eggum (Socialist) 12.1%
Marcos DeBaca (Progressive) 5.5%
George Curry Republican 1911 Incumbent retired.
Seat eliminated in reapportionment.
Republican loss.

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

North DakotaEdit

OhioEdit

OklahomaEdit

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 George Swinton Legaré Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected. George Swinton Legaré (Democratic) 97.2%
Aaron P. Prioleau (Republican) 1.8%
William Eberhard (Socialist) 1.0%
South Carolina 2 James F. Byrnes Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected. James F. Byrnes (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 3 Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1902 Incumbent re-elected. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph T. Johnson (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected. David E. Finley (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 6 J. Edwin Ellerbe Democratic 1904 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
J. Willard Ragsdale (Democratic) 100%
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (special) Incumbent re-elected. Asbury F. Lever (Democratic) 98.4%
A. D. Dantzler (Republican) 1.6%

South CarolinaEdit

South DakotaEdit

TennesseeEdit

TexasEdit

UtahEdit

The Utah election consisted of an all-party general ticket election to the two at-large seats. Howell was elected to the first at-large seat, while Johnson was elected to the second at-large seat, but they were nevertheless placed in districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Utah 1
New district
Joseph Howell
Redistricted from the at-large seat
Republican 1902 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Howell (Republican) 19.45%
Jacob Johnson (Republican) 18.96%
Mathonihah Thomas (Democratic) 16.77%
Tollman D. Johnson (Democratic) 16.52%
S.H. Love (Progressive) 10.08%
Lewis Larson (Progressive) 9.89%
Murray E. King (Socialist) 4.05%
William M. Knerr (Socialist) 4.04%
Elias Anderson (Socialist Labor) 0.23%[3]
Utah 2
New district
New seat New member elected.
Republican gain.

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

WashingtonEdit

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
West Virginia 1 John W. Davis Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected. John W. Davis (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
West Virginia 2 William Gay Brown Jr. Democratic 1910 Incumbent re-elected. William Gay Brown Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
West Virginia 3 Adam Brown Littlepage Democratic 1910 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Samuel B. Avis (Republican)
Adam Brown Littlepage (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
West Virginia 4 John M. Hamilton Democratic 1910 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Hunter Holmes Moss Jr. (Republican)
John M. Hamilton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
West Virginia 5 James A. Hughes Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected. James A. Hughes (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
West Virginia at-large New seat New member elected.
Republican gain.
Howard Sutherland (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

WisconsinEdit

WyomingEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Wyoming at-large

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Maine and Vermont held elections early in September 1912.
  2. ^ Included one Progressive Republican.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Additional seat or seats elected at-large due to state not redistricting.
  4. ^ At-large seat eliminated in redistricting.
  5. ^ a b Elections held early.
  6. ^ Changed from at-large.
  7. ^ Previous election had 1 Socialist.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Martis, pp. 166–167.
  3. ^ 1912 Election Results

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit