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1902 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives held in 1902 occurred in the middle of President Theodore Roosevelt's first term, about a year after the assassination of President William McKinley in September 1901.

1902 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1900 November 4, 1902[a] 1904 →

All 386 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
194 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JGCannon.jpg John Sharp Williams.jpg
Leader Joseph Cannon John Sharp Williams
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 4, 1903 March 4, 1903
Leader's seat Illinois 18th Mississippi 8th
Last election 201 seats[b] 151 seats
Seats before 199 seats[c] 152 seats[d]
Seats won 210[1][2][e] 176[1][2]
Seat change Increase 9 Increase 25

Speaker before election

David Henderson
Republican

Elected Speaker

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Due to the increased size of the House and the reapportionment that resulted from the 1900 U.S. Census, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party both gained seats simultaneously, which has not occurred in any elections since. The Democrats increased their share of the House, but not by enough to regain control.

With a stable economy and no cornerstone issue, Democratic gains can mostly be linked to the effects of redistricting. Many of the new seats were in areas with high numbers of immigrants (mostly Eastern and Southern European industrial workers, and Northern European farmers), with new immigrants tending to vote Democrat. The Populist Party disappeared from the House, with its supporters almost unanimously switching to the Democratic Party.[citation needed]

This election marked the third and most recent time in American history where the incumbent President's party gained House seats in a midterm election while still losing seats in the Senate, the first two being in 1814 and 1822.

Election summariesEdit

29 new seats were added in reapportionment following the 1900 Census.[3] No states lost seats, 16 had no change in apportionment, 14 gained 1 seat, 3 gained 2 seats, and 3 gained 3 seats. Two of the states that gained representation elected the new seat at-large.

176 3 207
Democratic IR Republican
State Type Total seats Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama Districts 9   9   0  
Arkansas Districts 7   1 7   1 0  
California Districts 8   1 3   3 5   2
Colorado District
+at-large[f]
3[g]   1 0   3   2[h]
Connecticut District
+at-large[f]
5   1 0   5   1
Delaware At-large 1   1   1 0   1
Florida Districts 3   1 3   1 0  
Georgia Districts 11   11   0  
Idaho At-large 1[g]   0   1   1
Illinois Districts 25   3 8   3 17   6
Indiana Districts 13   4   9  
Iowa Districts 11   1   1 10   1
Kansas District
+at-large
8   0   1 8   1
Kentucky Districts 11   10   1 1   1
Louisiana Districts 7   1 7   1 0  
Maine[i] Districts 4   0   4  
Maryland Districts 6   2   2 4   2
Massachusetts Districts 14   1 4   1 10  
Michigan Districts 12   1   1 11   1
Minnesota Districts 9   2 1   1 8   1
Mississippi Districts 8   1 8   1 0  
Missouri Districts 16   1 15   3 1   2
Montana At-large 1[g]   0   1   1
Nebraska Districts 6[j]   1   1 5   3
Nevada At-large 1   1   0  
New Hampshire Districts 2   0   2  
New Jersey Districts 10   2 3   1 7   1
New York Districts 37   3 17   4 20   1
North Carolina Districts 10   1 10   3 0   2
North Dakota At-large 2   1 0   2   1
Ohio Districts 21   4   17  
Oregon[i] Districts 2   0   2  
Pennsylvania District[k] 32   2 3   1 29[e]   3
Rhode Island Districts 2   1   1 1   1
South Carolina Districts 7   7   0  
South Dakota At-large 2   0   2  
Tennessee Districts 10   8   2  
Texas Districts 16   3 16   3 0  
Utah At-large 1   0   1  
Vermont[i] Districts 2   0   2  
Virginia Districts 10   9   1 1   1
Washington At-large 3   1 0   3   1
West Virginia Districts 5   1 0   5   1
Wisconsin Districts 11   1 1   1 10  
Wyoming At-large 1   0   1  
Total 386   29 176
45.6%
  25 210[e]
54.4%
  9
House seats
Democratic
45.60%
Republican
54.40%

The previous election had 5 Populists, but the party completely disappeared from the U.S. House in the 1902 elections.

 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election datesEdit

In 1902, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:


CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Samuel D. Woods
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1900 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y James N. Gillett (Republican) 50.5%
  • Thomas S. Ford (Democratic) 46.7%
  • M. E. Shore (Socialist) 1.9%
  • W. O. Clark (Prohibition) 0.9%
California 2 Frank Coombs
Redistricted from the 1st district
Republican 1900 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  •  Y Theodore A. Bell (Democratic) 49.2%
  • Frank Coombs (Republican) 48.3%
  • G. H. Rogers (Socialist) 1.7%
  • W. P. Fassett (Prohibition) 0.8%
California 3 Victor H. Metcalf Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Victor H. Metcalf (Republican) 66.2%
  • Calvin B. White (Democratic) 27.7%
  • M. W. Wilkins (Socialist) 5%
  • T. H. Montgomery (Prohibition) 1.1%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  •  Y Edward J. Livernash (Democratic) 49.2%
  • Julius Kahn (Republican) 48.7%
  • William Costley (Socialist) 1.9%
  • Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 0.2%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  •  Y William J. Wynn (Democratic) 56.5%
  • Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 41.2%
  • Joseph Lawrence (Socialist) 1.5%
  • Frank W. Caton (Prohibition) 0.7%
California 6 James C. Needham
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y James C. Needham (Republican) 53.5%
  • Gaston N. Ashe (Democratic) 42.5%
  • J. L. Cobb (Socialist) 2.5%
  • L. C. Jolley (Prohibition) 1.4%
California 7 James McLachlan
Redistricted from the 6th district
Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y James McLachlan (Republican) 64.8%
  • Carl A. Johnson (Democratic) 27%
  • George H. Hewes (Socialist) 4.2%
  • Frederick F. Wheeler (Prohibition) 4%
California 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Robert Wyche Davis Democratic 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William Elliott Democratic 1886
1896
Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for Governor of South Carolina.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y George W. Croft (Democratic) 94.9%
  • W. S. Dixon (Republican) 5.0%
  • Others 0.1%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  •  Y Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 98.9%
  • John Scott (Republican) 1.1%
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 Robert B. Scarborough Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Asbury F. Lever (Democratic) 96.2%
  • Alexander D. Dantzler (Republican) 3.8%

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 2 and September 18.
  2. ^ Included 1 member of the Silver Republican faction, John F. Shafroth, of CO-01.
  3. ^ Includes five vacancies.
  4. ^ Includes six vacancies.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 3 Independent Republicans elected to PA-29, PA-31, and PA-32 in the Pittsburgh area.
  6. ^ a b Additional seat elected at-large due to Colorado delaying redistricting.
  7. ^ a b c Election of 1900 saw the election of 1 Populist.
  8. ^ There was one member of the Silver Republican Party faction elected in 1900, John F. Shafroth. Shafroth attempted to get elected as a Democrat in 1902, but his election was contested and overturned.
  9. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  10. ^ Election of 1900 saw the election of 2 Populists in Nebraska.
  11. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Martis, pp. 156–157.
  3. ^ Apportionment Act of 1901

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit