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United States–China Relations Act of 2000

The U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000 is an Act of the United States Congress that granted China permanent normal trade relations (NTR) status (previously called most favoured nation (MFN)) when China becomes a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), ending annual review and approval of NTR. It was signed into law on October 10, 2000 by United States President Bill Clinton. The Act also establishes a Congressional-Executive Commission to ensure that China complies with internationally recognized human rights laws, meets labor standards and allows religious freedom, and establishes a task force to prohibit the importation of Chinese products that were made in forced labor camps or prisons.[1] The Act also includes so-called "anti-dumping" measures designed to prevent an influx of inexpensive Chinese goods into the United States that might hurt American industries making the same goods. It allows new duties and restrictions on Chinese imports that "threaten to cause market disruption to the U.S. producers of a like or directly competitive product."[2]

Prior to passage of the bill, China was subject to an annual review by Congress of China's trade status with the United States. Since 1980, the president has had to issue annual waivers to trade with China. The act removed the review, eased some trade barriers, and facilitated China's entry into the WTO.[3][4][5][6] China became a member of WTO on December 11, 2001, and its permanent normal trade relations status with the US was made permanent on December 27, 2001.[7]

See alsoEdit



  1. ^ HR 4444 - United States–China Relations Act of 2000. Accessed May 5, 2012.
  2. ^ Clinton Inks China Trade Bill, CBS News, September 19, 2000,.
  3. ^ U.S.-China Relations Act of 2000. Accessed May 5, 2012.
  4. ^ "Waking the Sleeping Dragon". Slate. September 28, 2016.
  5. ^ "Was Letting China Into the WTO a Mistake?". Foreign Affairs. April 2, 2018.
  6. ^ "Normalizing Trade Relations With China Was a Mistake". The Atlantic. June 8, 2018.
  7. ^ "President Grants Permanent Trade Status to China". December 27, 2001.