United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (Arabic: قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان, Hebrew: כוח האו"ם הזמני בלבנון), or UNIFIL (Arabic: يونيفيل, Hebrew: יוניפי״ל), is a UN peacekeeping mission established on 19 March 1978 by United Nations Security Council Resolutions 425 and 426, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, in order to ensure that the government of Lebanon would restore its effective authority in the area.[1] The 1978 South Lebanon conflict came in the context of Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon and the Lebanese Civil War.

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
Formation19 March 1978; 45 years ago (1978-03-19)
TypePeacekeeping mission
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersNaqoura, Lebanon
Head of Mission
Maj. Gen. Aroldo Lázaro Sáenz
Parent organization
United Nations Security Council
Italian Army Mechanized Brigade "Granatieri di Sardegna" squad patrolling the Blue Line during the COVID-19 pandemic

The mandate had to be adjusted twice, due to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and after the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. Following the 2006 Lebanon War, the United Nations Security Council enhanced UNIFIL and decided that in addition to the original mandate, it would, among other things, monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons.

UNIFIL's mandate is renewed annually by the United Nations Security Council; it was most recently extended on 1 September 2023 with the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2695. It is composed of 10,000 peacekeepers from 46 nations, tasked with helping the Lebanese Army keep the south of the country protected.[2] Its funding is approved on an annual basis by the General Assembly. It had a budget of $474 million for the period July 2018 to June 2019.[3]

Mandate edit

Dutch UNIFIL base, 1981
A Finnish XA-180 in the UNIFIL operation in Lebanon
Fijian soldiers visiting UNIFIL OP during a patrol

According to its Mandate, established by United Nations Security Council Resolutions 425 and 426 in 1978, UNIFIL is tasked with the following objectives:[4]

  • confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon
  • restore international peace and security
  • assist the Government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area.

In addition, several further Security Council resolutions have reaffirmed the mission's mandate, including:

History edit

The first UNIFIL troops deployed in the area on 23 March 1978 were reassigned from other UN peacekeeping operations in the area (United Nations Emergency Force, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, and the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force Zone).[1] They were deployed after Israel launched Operation Litani earlier in the month, in response to a cross border raid by Palestinians based in Lebanon. UNIFIL made its headquarters in Naqoura close to the Lebanese-Israeli border.[8] The majority of the force's initial personnel were provided by Canada, Iran and Sweden with support from France, Nepal and Norway. The initial force was established at 4,000 troops, but this was increased to 6,000 in May 1978. Israeli forces withdrew from the area on 13 June 1978, after which South Lebanon Army (SLA) forces under Saad Haddad remained in the area. UNIFIL began patrolling operations and established a series of positions including checkpoints, roadblocks and observation posts. Nevertheless, UNIFIL operations during this time were hindered by restrictions that were imposed on its freedom of movement and a lack of co-operation by all parties to the conflict. There were also several attacks on its personnel, including ambushes, kidnappings, shelling and sniping. As a result, only limited progress was made in fulfilment of its mandate between 1978 and 1982.[9] During the occupation, UNIFIL's function was mainly to provide humanitarian aid amidst the Lebanese Civil War.[10]

Lebanese Civil War (until 1990) edit

Prior to the 1982 Lebanon War, on 2 January 1982 two Ghanaian soldiers guarding a UNIFIL position were attacked by unidentified persons and one of the soldiers was shot and subsequently died.[11] In February 1982, the force was increased by a further 1,000 troops.[12] During the 1982 Lebanon War, commencing on 6 June 1982, Israeli forces advanced into south Lebanon. Despite being ordered to block the advance, the UN positions were either bypassed or overrun,[13] primarily by the SLA forces under Saad Haddad.[citation needed] This was the main Lebanese paramilitary force supported by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in Southern Lebanon.[10] The UN force was overwhelmed within a day. At least one Norwegian peacekeeper was killed in the initial attack.[14] Following this, UNIFIL focused primarily on the distribution of aid and medical support, while a new force, the Multinational Force in Lebanon assumed primacy, being deployed in Beirut until being withdrawn in March 1984.[15]

South Lebanon conflict (until 2000) edit

Beginning in 1985, Israel scaled back its permanent positions in Lebanon, although the IDF maintained some forces in Southern Lebanon, along with the SLA, to establish a security zone to prevent attacks on Israel from Lebanon. These forces were engaged by several groups, including Hezbollah.[16][17]

UNIFIL's role during this time was limited to mainly manning checkpoints and undertaking patrols, as its operations were constrained by the Israeli security zone in the south. Its personnel were attacked by elements on both sides of the conflict during this time, and financial issues also hampered UNIFIL operations as some UN member states withheld funding for the operation. In 1986, the force was reorganised when France decreased its contribution to UNIFIL. There was a proposal to convert the force into a observation group around this time, although this was ultimately rejected.[17]

The period saw an Israel invasion in the 1982 Operation Peace in Galilee and another on a smaller scale in the 1993 Operation Accountability. In 1996 south Lebanon was bombarded by the Israeli army, airforce and navy for seventeen days. According to Amnesty International during the 1996 bombardment UNIFIL compounds and vehicles came under Israeli aircraft or artillery fire 270 times.[18] This included the shelling of the Fijian UNIFIL compound near Qana where 102 villagers sheltering were killed. In April 2000, Israel notified the UN Secretary General that it was withdrawing from south Lebanon. This process was completed by June 2000. After this, UNIFIL was able to resume its military tasks along the "Blue Line" (the UN identified line of withdrawal for the IDF) and the adjacent areas, where UNIFIL sought to maintain the ceasefire through patrols, observation from fixed positions, and close contact between Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF), as well as providing humanitarian assistance to the local population.[17]

Conflict in 2006 edit

According to UNIFIL press releases, there have been dozens of such incidents of UN posts coming under fire during the 2006 Lebanon War.[19] In his 21 July 2006 report about the UNIFIL activities 21 January – 18 July 2006, the Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan stated that "Some Hezbollah positions remained in close proximity to United Nations positions, especially in the Hula area, posing a significant security risk to United Nations personnel and equipment."[20]

Combat-related incidents edit

Italian UN soldiers arriving in Lebanon, 2006
    UNIFIL soldiers and staff from the MV Serenade evacuate refugees from Tyre, 20 July 2006
    On 17 July, a UNIFIL international staff member and his wife were killed when Israeli aircraft bombed the Hosh District of Tyre, Lebanon.
  • On 23 July, Hezbollah fire wounded an Italian observer.
  • On 25 July, Hezbollah opened small arms fire at a UNIFIL convoy, forcing it to retreat.
  • On 25 July, four soldiers from the Ghanaian battalion were lightly injured after an Israeli tank shell hit a UNIFIL position during fighting in Southern Lebanon on 24 July 2006.[21]
  • Shrapnel from tank shells fired by the IDF seriously wounded an Indian soldier on 16 July 2006.[22]
  • On 25 July, four UNTSO observers from Austria, Canada, China and Finland were killed by Israeli strikes on an OGL (Observer Group Lebanon) patrol base near Khiam in southern Lebanon. According to the UN, the Israelis stated they were responding to "Hezbollah fire from that vicinity" and the four had taken shelter in a bunker under the post. The area around the site was hit by a precision guided bomb from an Israeli jet and shelled a total of 14 times by Israeli artillery[23] throughout the day despite warning calls made by UN personnel to the IDF.[24] However, General Alain Pellegrini, then commander of UNIFIL, claims that he attempted to call Israeli officials "five or six times", but never got past their secretaries. Later, Israeli artillery shelling resumed as a rescue team tried to clear the rubble.[25]
  • On 29 July, two Indian soldiers were wounded when their post was damaged during an Israeli airstrike in Southern Lebanon.
  • On 6 August, a Hezbollah rocket hit the headquarters of the Chinese UNIFIL contingent, wounding three Chinese soldiers.
  • On 12 August, a Ghanaian soldier was wounded when Israeli artillery shelled the area near the village of Haris.

From August 2006 edit

Visit by Secretary-General edit

In order to stress the importance of implementing Security Council resolution 1701, UN Secretary-General Annan himself paid a visit to UNIFIL on the ground in August 2006.[16]

Reinforcements edit

A soldier from the Italian Army stands guard during the UNIFIL mission in Lebanon

By July 2006, UNIFIL's strength had dropped to its lowest, with only 1,980 personnel deployed.[26] However, following the cease-fire, UNIFIL received a large number of reinforcements, up to 15,000 men, and heavy equipment. France committed to increase its complement from 400 to 2,000 men and send Leclerc heavy tanks and AMX 30 AuF1 self-propelled artillery,[27] in addition to the forces deployed in Opération Baliste. Italy committed to deploy 3,000 troops,[28] while Qatar offered to send between 200 and 300 troops.[29] As the French were preparing to deploy, French commander of UNIFIL Alain Pellegrini and the country's foreign minister, Philippe Douste-Blazy, stated that France would not intervene to disarm Hezbollah.[30][31]

A naval component of UNIFIL was set up to assist the Lebanese Navy as an interim measure to prevent arms proliferation to Hezbollah while the Lebanese Navy builds its capacity.[32] For a period the force was German-led under the command of a German admiral before handing over to the Italians.[33]

The Indonesian contingent received 12 VAB (Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé) on 17 February 2007, as the part of the second wave of shipments from the agreement between the French and Indonesian governments. Among the equipment sent with the second wave of VABs were 10 tool boxes (pioneering equipment), 10 armored vehicle radio communications units, HMG (Heavy Machine Gun) shooter shields, and 40 water jerrycans.[34]

On 16 March 2009, KRI Diponegoro, an Indonesian Sigma-class corvette joined the UNIFIL Naval Task Force.[35] In August 2010, two Indonesian soldiers were criticized after they escaped from clashes between Israel and Lebanon by fleeing in a taxi.[36]

The Israeli Ambassador to the UN, Ambassador Dan Gillerman, met with UNIFIL commander, Maj.-Gen. Claudio Graziano, on 15 August 2008, after Israel was accused of unilaterally violating United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 by the almost daily overflights of Lebanese airspace, the continued occupation of the village of Ghajar, and Israel's refusal to submit maps of areas on which it dropped cluster munitions during the 2006 Lebanese war.[37]

Following the war, British military historian John Keegan predicted that Israel would in the future invade Lebanon and continue attacking until Hezbollah's system of tunnels and bunkers was completely destroyed, as Israel would not tolerate a "zone of invulnerability" occupied by a sworn enemy, or a double threat posed by Hezbollah and Hamas rockets, and that Israel might first attack the Gaza Strip. Keegan noted that any IDF entry into Southern Lebanon would risk provoking a clash with UNIFIL, but that it is unlikely to deter Israel, as it tends to behave with "extreme ruthlessness" when national survival is at stake.[38]

Indonesian National Armed Forces UNIFIL peacekeepers, 2007

In 2010, a series of standoffs and clashes erupted between UNIFIL troops and Lebanese villagers in the border region. Villagers accused French peacekeepers of provocative and intrusive patrols, and of taking pictures of people inside their homes. People of Aitaroun town, Marjayoun, accused the French regiments of driving their heavy vehicles through their two-month-old tobacco fields, which support many families. UNIFIL was also accused of having stepped up its patrols and of failing to coordinate with the Lebanese Army. In July 2010, the most serious incident occurred when the French regiments decided to carry out exercises unilaterally, without Lebanese units or other regiments. When they went into narrow alleys of Lebanese villages some residents first tried to redirect them out of their private areas. The French fired against the civilians, arrested a youth driving a motorcycle, and destroyed the vehicle. When other civilians saw that, they surrounded and attacked the UNIFIL French troops without any weapons. The vehicles' windows were smashed by stones from dozens of civilians of all ages, and the French commander was wounded. The French troops were forcibly disarmed by the villagers, and weapons were then handed over to the Lebanese Army. The French unit could not explain why they behaved unilaterally. Their ambassador to the UN said the civilian attack "was not spontaneous". Many troops, including the Finnish, Irish, Qataris and Indonesians pulled out of UNIFIL in 2007–2008. Some of these nations had been there for over 30 years (the Irish and Finnish), and one of the reasons for the withdrawal was reportedly concerns about the changing rules of engagement following the arrival of NATO forces in August 2006 and because of high-level German and French statements expressing unlimited support to the Israeli side.[citation needed]

At the request of the United Nations, 7,000 additional Lebanese soldiers were deployed to South Lebanon as approved by the Lebanese Cabinet.[when?][citation needed]

UNIFIL force in 2010 Israel–Lebanon border clash edit

Irish Army peacekeepers during an inspection while serving with UNIFIL on 19 September 2013.

The 2010 Israel–Lebanon border clash occurred on 3 August 2010. It was the deadliest incident along the border since the devastating 2006 Lebanon War. The UN force stationed in southern Lebanon urged "maximum restraint" following the clashes along the so-called Blue Line, a UN-drawn border separating Lebanon from Israel. UNIFIL peacekeepers were in the area where the clashes took place.[39] United Nations peacekeepers tried to hold off the routine Israeli tree-pruning that led to a deadly border clash with Lebanese soldiers. An Indonesian UN battalion was on the scene, and they did their best to try to prevent it, but they were unable to.[40]

Indonesian peacekeepers tried to no avail to calm the situation before the clashes erupted. However, the fighting increasingly intensified, so the small contingent of UNIFIL forces was ordered to retreat or find cover then report back to the base. The Indonesian contingent, under intense small arms fire and shelling between the two opposing forces, retreated and returned to their base, but two soldiers fell behind and briefly became isolated before the stunned and exhausted soldiers were helped by some locals.[36]

UN peacekeepers did not escape the confrontation unscathed. Local TV reported that in some cases, villagers attempted to block UNIFIL vehicles from fleeing the combat zone, demanding that they return and fight. However, current and former UNIFIL officials said that at that point in the conflict, it was out of peacekeepers' hands. One former UNIFIL official explained that he has been in these situations before, and when the opposing sides are determined to shoot each other, there is nothing UNIFIL force can do. Regarding concerns about UNIFIL's neutrality, a former UNIFIL commander highlighted the importance of perception, stating that if UNIFIL forces intervened to protect IDF, UNIFIL would be accused by Hezbollah or the Lebanese people of protecting the Israelis. On the other hand, if UNIFIL forces were seen to favour the Lebanese, Israel would accuse UNIFIL of collaborating with Hezbollah.[41]

Post-2006 deployment edit


Post 2006, UNIFIL was deployed throughout Southern Lebanon (south of the Litani River) and primarily along the United Nations-drawn Blue Line, the border between Israel and Lebanon. Since then, the force's activities have centered around monitoring military activity between Hezbollah and the Israeli Defense Forces with the aim of reducing tensions and allaying tension along the border. UNIFIL has also played an important role in clearing landmines, assisting displaced persons and providing humanitarian assistance to civilians in the underdeveloped region of Southern Lebanon. Under UN Security Council Resolution 1701, which passed as a result of the 2006 Lebanon War, its mandate and rules of engagement changed. The mandate changed to allow up to 15,000 personnel in order to assist the Lebanese Armed Forces in deploying in Southern Lebanon to implement the Lebanese government's sovereignty. The rules of engagement changed to allow the troops to open fire in certain cases: mostly in cases of self-defense but also in order to protect civilians, UN personnel and facilities.[42] The new resolution states that UNIFIL can "take all the necessary action in areas of deployment of its forces, and as it deems with its capabilities, to ensure that its area of operations is not utilized for hostile activities of any kind."[43] On 27 August 2006, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan said that UNIFIL would not intercept arms shipments from Syria, unless requested to do so by Lebanon.[44]

Maritime Task Force edit

Indonesian Navy corvettes KRI Bung Tomo and KRI Usman Harun steam along the Mediterranean Sea. KRI Usman Harun arrived to relieve KRI Bung Tomo in UNIFIL's Maritime Task Force mission

The Maritime Task Force (MTF) is the naval component of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). As of February 2012, the MTF is under the command of Rear Admiral Wagner Lopes de Moraes Zamith of Brazil.[45] The Brazilian frigate Constituição is the flagship of the fleet comprising vessels from Brazil, Bangladesh, Germany, Greece, Indonesia and Turkey.[45] After the 2006 Lebanon War, the UNIFIL Maritime Task Force (MTF) was established to assist the Lebanese Naval Forces in preventing the smuggling of illegal shipments in general and armament shipments in particular. With its establishment in October 2006, the force was led by the German Navy which was also the major contributor to the force.[46] The Germans lead the MTF up until 29 February 2008 when they passed control over to EUROMARFOR – a force made up of ships from Portugal, Spain, Italy and France (of which the latter three countries sent vessels to the force in Lebanon).[47][48]

Personnel edit

C.I.S.S. humanitarian staff with Italian UNIFIL soldiers in Lebanon
UNIFIL Sisu Pasi in the snow, close to the Israeli border in South-Lebanon, 1998

As of 19 June 2018, UNIFIL employed 10,480 military personnel, including 500 women, from 41 countries. It is supported by 239 international civilian staff, including 78 women, and 583 national civilian staff, including 153 women.[49]: 13  It is led by Spanish Major General Aroldo Lázaro Sáenz.[50]

The UNIFIL military component also includes a contingent from Kazakhstan. The Kazakh peacekeeping forces joined the mission for the first time ever in late 2018. A total of 120 soldiers from Kazakhstan were deployed as part of the Indian battalion in Lebanon on 31 October 2018.[51]

In 2019, UNSC resolution 2485 extended the mission's mandate until August 2020 and reduced the troop ceiling from 15,000 to 13,000.[52]

Protecting cultural heritage edit

In April 2019, the United Nations Interim Force deployed a cultural asset in Lebanon with Blue Shield International. It was shown that cultural property protection (carried out by military and civil specialists) forms the basis for the future peaceful and economic development of a city, region or country in many conflict zones. The need for training and coordination of the military and civilian participants, including the increased involvement of the local population, became apparent especially at World Heritage Sites. The connection between cultural user disruption and causes of flight was explained by the President of Blue Shield International, Karl von Habsburg, who stated: "Cultural assets are part of the identity of the people who live in a certain place. If you destroy their culture, you also destroy their identity. Many people are uprooted, often have no prospects anymore and subsequently flee from their homeland."[53][54][55]

Contributing countries edit

As of 2 November 2023, the total number of personnel in the mission is 10,430:[56]

Country Troops Support Roles Note(s)
  Argentina 3
  Armenia 33
  Austria 155
  Bangladesh 118 The Bangladesh Navy deployed the Type 056 class corvette BNS Sangram, led by Captain Faisal Mohammad Arifur Rahman Bhuiyan, from September 2020.

Previously, the frigate BNS Osman and large patrol craft (LPC) BNS Madhumati were deployed to the mission from 17 May 2010 to 14 June 2014. The frigate BNS Ali Haider and LPC BNS Nirmul were deployed from 14 June 2014 to 2018. The corvette BNS Bijoy was deployed from 1 January 2018 to August 2020. More than two thousand personnel of the Bangladesh Navy have completed the mission in Lebanon.

  Brazil 11 Maritime Task Force (MTF) commander, Brazilian Navy frigate Independência [45]
  Brunei Darussalam 31 [60][61]
  Cambodia 185
  China 418 200 engineers currently in Lebanon clearing mines and unexploded ordnance, medical team, peacekeeping troops [62][63]
  Colombia 1
  Croatia 1
  Cyprus 2
  El Salvador 52
  Estonia 1 [64]
  Finland 206 Part of the French Force Commander Reserve, FCR [65][66]
  France 742 The French Army contributed 13 Leclerc main battle tanks in Lebanon[67] to UNIFIL ground forces until February 2007. France also continuously deploys part of their peace keeping operations rotations of French Paratroopers.[68][69]
In addition, French Navy ships with 1,700 sailors are deployed off Lebanon in Opération Baliste, and assisting in UNIFIL operations.
  Germany 209 Naval ships to secure the Lebanese coast and prevent arms smuggling [71]
  Ghana 877
  Greece 133 Elli-class frigate, HS Kanaris, to patrol against arms smugglers [72]
  Guatemala 2
  Hungary 16 Topographers
  India 890 One Standard Infantry Battalion of the Indian Army (Regulars), along with support components from the Corps of Engineers (Sappers), Corps of Signals and other logistic Arms and Services [73]
  Indonesia 1229 850 men in a mechanized infantry battalion, 75 men in a military police unit, 200 men in a force protection company, 11 men assigned to UNIFIL's headquarters staff, and 111 men aboard KRI Diponegoro (Sigma-class corvette of the Indonesian Navy) [74][75][76]
  Ireland 319 The Irish Army has suffered the most casualties (48 fatalities) in UNIFIL followed by Fiji and France since 1978; contributing over 30,000 peacekeepers over a period of 23 years. [66][77][78]
  Italy 1062 Assumed charge of UNIFIL ground forces in February 2007 [79]
  Kazakhstan 9
  Kenya 3
  Malaysia 1046 Administrative (200) and patrol/quick reaction team (160; including commandos and special forces). Excluding the Brunei unit.
  Malta 9
  Mongolia 4
    Nepal 872 Infantry battalion [80]
  Netherlands 1 [81]
  Nigeria 2
  North Macedonia 1
  Peru 1
  Poland 216
  Qatar 1
  Republic of Korea 280 Tasked with policing, providing medical assistance and performing cultural exchange
  Serbia 182 8 staff officers, 5 national support element and 164 infantry [82]
  Sierra Leone 3
  Slovenia 37
  Spain 658 De-mining and beach cleaning, mechanized infantry battalion (1 infantry platoon from El Salvador), cavalry squadron, combat engineers, helicopter unit [83][84][85]
  Sri Lanka 126 Mechanized infantry company with combat support personal and vehicles [86]
  United Republic of Tanzania 125
  Turkey 188 [87][88]
  United Kingdom 1
  Uruguay 1
  Zambia 2

Former contributors edit

Forces Support Roles Ref
  Belarus 5 The Belarus Contingent consist of one surgical team and staff officer in UNIFIL [89]
  Belgium 105 De-miners, medical and reconstruction teams, 1 Karel Doorman-class frigate [90][81]
  Bulgaria 160 1 Wielingen-class frigate [91]
  Chile 338
  Czech Republic 138
  Denmark 204 2 patrol boats as force protection for German contingent and 144 logistic soldiers, and 10 firefighters from the Danish Emergency Management Agency [92][93]
  Dominican Republic 25
  Fiji 1
  Iran 600 One reinforced company of the Iranian battalion from the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force which was released later and replaced by 600 troop battalion [94]
  Japan 205
  Mexico 2
  Netherlands 839 / 155 / 718 Infantry battalion Dutchbatt: 839, of which 7 UNIFIL staff (1979–1983); Infantry battalion Dutchcoy: 155 (1983–1985); Maritime task force: 1 frigate + 718 military personnel (2006–2008) [95][96][81]
  Norway 900 Infantry battalion NORBATT, engineering unit NORMAINTCOY, rotary wing force NORAIR, medical unit NORMEDCOY, and naval ships to secure the Lebanese coast and prevent arms smuggling [97][98][99]
  Philippines 340 [100]
  Portugal 140 Engineering unit [101]
  Qatar 2 The only Arab nation to contribute to UNIFIL, deployed 205 soldiers to Lebanon in 2007. They mostly provided humanitarian assistance, and three logistics officers worked at UNIFIL headquarters [102]
  Russian Federation 400 Engineers [103]
  Slovakia 6 Medical team
  Sweden 600 One company from UNEF II 1978 to establish UNIFIL, one field hospital 1980–1992, one logistics battalion 1986–1994. The Swedish Armed Forces have contributed with 8,148 soldiers and sailors to UNIFIL since 1980

1 Göteborg-class corvette

   Switzerland 198
  Ukraine 127
  Vietnam 32

Assessment and controversy edit

A former Israeli diplomat, Itamar Rabinovich, criticised the efficacy of UNIFIL, describing it as "a joke" and stating "They've been there for 26 years and since then, there have been so many skirmishes [along the border]."[106] Former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert also said "We didn't like very much UNIFIL which was very useless and very helpless. Look what happened. Did you hear of any particular efforts of the United Nations UNIFIL force in the south of Lebanon to prevent the attacks against Israel in the first place. So they were not useful and that is why we were unhappy with them."[107]

Both Israel and Hezbollah have accused UNIFIL of bias. Israel claims the force has allowed, if not aided, Hezbollah's replenishment of military power. Hezbollah, in turn, alleges that "certain contingents" of UNIFIL are spying for, if not assisting, Israel.[108] Journalist Alain Pellegrini alleged that UN reports on Lebanon were reaching Israeli intelligence.[109] During deadly skirmishes between Lebanese and Israeli forces in 2010, UNIFIL was heavily criticized for failing to intervene, with two Indonesian soldiers filmed fleeing the battleground in a taxi.[110]

UNIFIL has addressed the accusations of bias levied by both sides. On 26 July 2006, a former spokesman stated that upon the mission's deployment in 1978, UNIFIL was "accused of being sympathetic to Palestinians", as Hezbollah had not yet been established. "A peacekeeping force does not come here with pre-set enemies. There is no enemy [inaudible] in a peacekeeping force. UNIFIL is a peacekeeping force. It's not an Israeli combat force or an anti-terror force, as they would like it to be. As long as we don't serve their direct interests, they are going to denigrate it as much as they can."[111]

Israeli concerns edit

Among Israel's criticisms of UNIFIL are that it maintains dialogue with Hezbollah, which it views as a terrorist organization, and treats Israeli and Hezbollah violations of UNSC Resolution 1701 equally, while Israel views its violations of Lebanese airspace as less severe than Hezbollah's violations including crossings of the blue line and rocket launches, namely because Israel and its primary allies in the west consider Hezbollah to be a terrorist organization and not a legitimate political party, and, as a result of this, declare all armed Hezbollah actions to be terroristic. UNIFIL was accused of complicity in the fatal abduction of IDF soldiers in October 2000, and Israel further blamed it for obstructing its investigation by initially denying the existence of the attack and, upon the leaking of the incident's occurrence, refusing to supply videos for several months.[112][113]

Prior to the July 2006 Lebanon War, Israel had been lobbying for UNIFIL to either take a more active role vis-a-vis Hezbollah—for example, preventing Hezbollah from stationing near UNIFIL posts to fire at the IDF and into northern Israel—or to step out of the region, which would thereby void the Lebanese government's excuse for not deploying Lebanese Armed Forces along the border.[114]

UNIFIL also came under criticism during the 2006 Lebanon War for broadcasting detailed reports of Israeli troop movements, numbers, and positions on their website which "could have exposed Israeli soldiers to grave danger", while making no such reports about Hezbollah. UNIFIL's actions could have been motivated by the fact that Israel was, as a response to Hezbollah rocket fire (which Hezbollah alleges to have been a reaction to Israeli "border violations") and to the kidnapping of Israeli soldiers, conducting a ground invasion of Lebanon at that time. Israel was concerned when it was reported that Indonesia was being considered to replace Italy as commander of UNIFIL's naval force. As Indonesia does not recognize Israel, and the two countries have no diplomatic or military relations, Israel expressed concern that cooperation with the IDF, especially the Israeli Navy, could deteriorate.[115]

A 2010 book published by Norwegian journalist Odd Karsten Tveit revealed that the Norwegian Army was complicit in the escape of two Lebanese men who were arrested by the Israeli Army and being held in Khiam prison. According to the book, in 1992, two detained Lebanese men escaped from Khiam prison. Fearing that they would face torture or execution if caught by the Israel Defense Forces or South Lebanon Army, the soldiers dressed the detainees in UN uniforms, and placed them in a UNIFIL convoy which left Southern Lebanon through Israeli roadblocks. Shortly afterward, Israeli Army commander Moshe Tamir visited the Norwegian battalion's camp, and accused Norwegian commander Hagrup Haukland of "sheltering terrorists". Immediately after the confrontation, the Lebanese men were smuggled onto a bus used by Norwegian peacekeepers on leave, which took them to Beirut.[116]

Hezbollah concerns edit

Hezbollah supporters have accused UNIFIL of siding with Israel, especially since the passage of Resolution 1701 which they view as one-sided. On 16 October 2006, Lebanon's top Shiite cleric Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah declared that the UN force had "come to protect Israel, not Lebanon",[117] echoing the sentiment of the leader of Hezbollah – Sayed Hassan Nasrallah, who previously said "They are ashamed of us, brothers and sisters. They are ashamed of saying they came to defend us, but they talk about defending Israel."[118]

Southern Lebanese reception edit

A 2004 Easter mass in South Lebanon by the French UNIFIL contingent

In the summer of 2010, relations soured between the French contingent and residents in several villages that led to injuries on both sides, after a French regiment began an exercise to identify Hezbollah members that included searching homes, taking photographs, using sniffer dogs, and questioning residents. Residents accused them of violating private property, treating them with contempt, and of not coordinating with the Lebanese army. The residents made clear that their conflict was only with the French contingent, and that relations with other contingents were good. Following discussions between UNIFIL commanders, ambassadors of countries with soldiers in UNIFIL, and the commander of the Lebanese army, an agreement was reached under which sniffer dogs would no longer be used, UNIFIL soldiers would refrain from entering Lebanese homes and yards, and only Lebanese army soldiers would carry out searches of homes.[108][119]

Generally, however, relations between UNIFIL and local residents have been good. UNIFIL forces have offered various services to the locals, and have introduced elements of their own culture. India's UNIFIL contingent has carried out small-scale development projects, operates medical and dental clinics, veterinary care for local animals, and also runs entertainment camps for children and yoga classes.[120][121] The Indonesian UNIFIL contingent (INDOBATT) also gained a good reputation among the South Lebanese people through the Civil Military Coordination (CIMIC) program implemented by the contingent. This program has included many community-based activities, including computer courses for local residents, medical assistance and also technical assistance in rebuilding social facilities.[122][123][124] The French contingent has taught poetry courses to local Francophone residents as well as French vocabulary and grammar to primary school students in 15 schools, the Italian contingent has given cooking lessons, the South Korean contingent has taught Taekwondo, and the Chinese contingent has taught Tai chi.[125][126]

Korps Marinir BTR-80A of Indonesian Contingent of UNIFIL during Medal Parade Ceremony at Indobatt Compound in Adchit al-Qusayr, Southern Lebanon, 2020

An official source within the Lebanese government informed Al Jazeera that, despite UNIFIL's shortcomings, the force had been responsible for regularly hosting and mediating negotiations between Lebanese and Israeli forces, helping to defuse tensions.[127] The source also claimed that prior to the mission's deployment in 1978, southern Lebanon was far more chaotic and unstable, and that UNIFIL's departure would lead to an outbreak of more conflict.[127]

UNIFIL confrontations edit

UNIFIL-Israel edit

On 22 September 2006, French Air Force jets were seen over the skies of Beirut during Hassan Nasrallah's victory speech, possibly trying to protect him from an Israeli assassination attempt.[citation needed] Nasrallah told the crowd that he had no fear in addressing the masses directly, rather than through armored glass. On 28 September, two Israeli Merkava tanks, an armored bulldozer, and a number of military vehicles entered Lebanon and established a road block 500 meters away from the road leading to Marwahin village, the IDF force asked to advance deeper into Lebanese territory but they were confronted by four United Nations Leclerc tanks operated by French troops, which blocked their advance. The confrontation lasted for half an hour in which Israeli soldiers confiscated the identity cards of photographers at the scene, claiming they may give pictures of the Israeli military to Hezbollah members. According to American and German correspondents, the French retreated, while the French commander claimed that the Israelis had turned back.[128][129]

Following the war, Hezbollah was widely reported to be rearming with the help of Iran and Syria, which were reportedly smuggling weaponry and munitions into Lebanon to replenish Hezbollah's depleted stocks.[130] Israel accused UNIFIL of failing to prevent Hezbollah's rearmament and thus failing to implement Resolution 1701. The Israeli Air Force began flying reconnaissance sorties over Lebanon to monitor Hezbollah's rearmament, with Israel announcing they would continue until Resolution 1701 was fully implemented. This led to repeated confrontations with UNIFIL.[131]

On 3 October 2006, an Israeli fighter jet penetrated the 2-nautical-mile (3.7 km) defense perimeter of the French Navy frigate Courbet without answering radio calls, triggering a diplomatic incident. Israel apologized after official protests from the French government.[132][133]

On 24 October, six Israeli Air Force F-16 jets flew over the German Navy intelligence ship Alster, patrolling off Israel's coast just south of the Lebanese border. The German Defense Ministry said that the planes had given off infrared decoys and one of the aircraft had fired two shots into the air, which had not been specifically aimed. The Israeli military said that a German helicopter took off from the vessel without having coordinated this with Israel, and denied vehemently having fired any shots at the vessel and said "as of now" it also had no knowledge of the jets launching flares over it. Israeli Defense Minister Amir Peretz telephoned his German counterpart Franz Josef Jung to clarify that "Israel has no intention to carry out any aggressive actions" against the German peacekeeping forces in Lebanon, who are there as part of UNIFIL to enforce an arms embargo against Hezbollah. Germany confirmed the consultations, and that both sides were interested in maintaining good cooperation.[134][135][136] The Alster's crew had recorded several overflights by Israeli jets in the previous weeks, but claimed that the Israeli aircraft had always stayed at high altitude. The week before the incident, Israeli jets had confronted a German naval helicopter, but turned back after the Germans identified themselves.[137]

Shortly after the war, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, reporting to the Security Council, stated that there were no serious incidents or confrontations, but that peacekeepers reported Israeli flyovers "almost on a daily basis".[138] UNIFIL commander Alain Pellegrini claimed that Israeli flyovers violated the cease-fire and Lebanese sovereignty, and warned that if the diplomatic efforts to stop the overflights failed, force might be used to stop them. Israeli military sources reported that Israel would bomb UNIFIL positions if Israeli aircraft were attacked.[139][140] On 23 October, sources in the Israeli defense establishment said that intelligence gathered by the sorties had revealed that Hezbollah was rebuilding its military infrastructure. Israeli Defense Minister Amir Peretz told the cabinet that surveillance flights over Lebanon would continue in light of the fact that arms smuggling between Syria and Lebanon continued.[141]

On 31 October 2006, eight Israeli F-15s flew over many areas of Lebanon, including Beirut.[142][143] The jets also flew over a French position in Lebanon. According to the French Defense Minister Michele Alliot-Marie, the planes came in at what was interpreted as an attack formation, and the peacekeepers were "two seconds away" from firing at the jets with an anti-aircraft missile.[144][145]

On 6 September, during a European Union meeting in Brussels, the French Defense Minister announced that the Israeli Air Force had stopped mock air attacks over UNIFIL positions. On 17 November, two Israeli F-15s overflew UN positions at low altitude and high speed while two reconnaissance planes circled the headquarters of the French battalion. French peacekeepers responded by readying their anti-aircraft batteries, and warned that Israeli warplanes conducting mock attacks could be fired on.[146]

The IAF continued its reconnaissance flights over Lebanon, and despite strong protests, UNIFIL peacekeeping forces did not follow through on their threats to fire at Israeli aircraft. The Lebanese government reported hundreds of overflights by Israeli aircraft, and also claimed that Israeli troops had illegally crossed the border dozens of times, including into the disputed Shebaa farms area.[147]

UNIFIL-Jihadists edit

On 24 June 2007, six UNIFIL soldiers (three Colombians and three Spanish) were killed after their vehicle was hit by an explosive device; two others (both Spanish) were injured in the incident.[148][149] No group has yet admitted responsibility, although the Israeli military believed the attack was perpetrated by members of al-Qaeda.[150]

UNIFIL casualties edit

Fatalities edit

The entrance to the UN base where four UN peacekeepers were killed during the 2006 conflict
Lebanon cedar planted in Newbridge, County Kildare, Ireland to commemorate Irish soldiers who died on UN service.

As of 14 January 2022, UNIFIL has had 324 fatalities since 1978.[151] They include the following nationalities:

Country Death Total
  Bangladesh 1
  Belgium 4
  Canada 1
  China 1
  Denmark 1
  El Salvador 1
  Fiji 35
  Finland 11
  France 37
  Ghana 31
  India 5
  Indonesia 2
  Iran 1
  Ireland 48
  Italy 7
  Lebanon 7
  Malaysia 3
    Nepal 28
  Netherlands 9
  Nigeria 10
  Norway 21
  Philippines 1
  Poland 7
  Senegal 16
  Spain 12
  Sri Lanka 1
  Sweden 7
  Turkey 1
  United Kingdom 4
Unfinished memorial for UNIFIL casualties in Tyre, 2019
Date Incident
29 March 1978: A Swedish soldier, Karl-Oscar Johansson was killed and another, Marc Lindoberg, was injured when their vehicle hit a landmine in the vicinity of the Khardala Bridge.[152] Johansson was UNIFIL's first fatality.
1979: Three Fijian soldiers shot in ambush by PFLP.[153]
16 March 1981: Three Nigerian soldiers killed in bombardment by SLA artillery.[154]
25 June 1981: Two Fijian soldiers were killed and one wounded by PLO gunmen. They had been among the nine Fijian soldiers captured by the PFLP in an ambush. Three of them where tortured and ‘executed’ one by one by being shot in the head. One survived.[155][156]
27 October 1982: An Irish soldier, Private Michael McAleavey, opened fire and killed three other Irish soldiers. He originally claimed they had been killed by Lebanese gunmen, but later admitted the killings, saying he had "snapped" due to dehydration and heat exhaustion. He received a life sentence at court martial, being paroled in 2009.[157]
22 August 1986: An Irish soldier was killed and two others wounded by a roadside bomb. Two heavily armed men with bomb-making equipment were subsequently caught by a UNIFIL patrol and handed over to Lebanese police.[158]
28 September 1986: Three French soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb while jogging. UN officials attributed the attack to Shiite fundamentalists, particularly Hezbollah.[159]
20 November 1986: Three Fijian soldiers and three Lebanese were killed in a suicide car bombing, and three UNIFIL soldiers, two Lebanese civilians, and an SLA soldier were injured. The car, with two occupants inside, had run through a UNIFIL roadblock, apparently aiming for the Israeli border, but after being fired at as it approached an SLA roadblock, it returned to the UNIFIL roadblock, and exploded as Fijian and SLA soldiers approached.[160]
11 January 1987: An Irish soldier, Corporal Dermot McLoughlin, was killed when an Israeli tank shelled an Irish UNIFIL position. The Israelis had opened fire after spotting a large squad of guerrillas near the position. Two senior Israeli officers were later disciplined over the incident.[161][162]
24 February 1989: An Irish soldier was shot dead by SLA in Haddatha.[163][164]
21 March 1989: Three Irish soldiers were killed by a landmine on the road to their outpost near Baraachit. Officers on the ground are reported as believing that the SLA were responsible and that UNIFIL were being deliberately targeted.[165]
19 February 1990: Two Nepali soldiers were killed and six injured by SLA mortar fire that hit their compound. The SLA and IDF claimed that the fire had come in response to Hezbollah RPG and mortar fire.[166]
3 September 1991: A Swedish soldier, Kenneth Fransson was killed when he was caught in the middle of a shootout between Palestinians and SLA soldiers in Naqoura.[167]
15 September 1991: A Swedish soldier was killed and five Swedish and French soldiers were wounded when Palestinian gunmen intending to carry out an attack on the Israeli city of Nahariya en route to their target by boat mistakenly landed in Naqoura and confronted UNIFIL troops. One of the gunmen was also killed and another injured. In a separate incident, two gunmen ambushed a Nepali UNIFIL patrol near Yater, just north of the security zone, killing one soldier and wounding another. One of the gunmen was killed by return fire while the other escaped.[168]
23 February 1993: A Nepali soldier was killed and another seriously wounded after being caught in an exchange of fire between Hezbollah and the SLA in the vicinity of their post. The UN claimed that they had been killed by SLA shelling, while a senior IDF officer said it was uncertain who was at fault.[169]
27 December 1993: A Norwegian soldier, Bjoern Hagen Skaar, was killed and another, Oevind Berg, was wounded when an Israeli tank patrol engaged in a nighttime search for guerrillas mistook a Norwegian UNIFIL unit for enemy fighters and fired three tank shells at them. The Israeli unit subsequently assisted the Norwegian unit and called in a helicopter to airlift the injured soldier to an Israeli hospital.[170][171]
20 March 1995: A Nepali soldier was killed and three others wounded by Israeli shelling near Yater.
18 April 1996: 4 Fijian soldiers were wounded when the headquarters compound of the Fijian battalion of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon in the village of Qana came under fire by Israeli artillery, at the time where more than 800 Lebanese had sought refuge inside the compound in which an estimated 100 persons were killed and a larger number wounded. this incident is known as Qana massacre.[172]
31 May 1999: An Irish soldier, Pte. William Kedian was killed in an exchange of fire between Hezbollah and the SLA.[173]
9 January 2005: A French officer was killed and a Swedish officer and a Lebanese civilian were wounded by Israeli shelling that was in retaliation to a Hezbollah attack that killed an Israeli soldier. A Hezbollah fighter was also killed.[174]
25 July 2006: Four UN observers, one each from Canada, Finland, Austria, and China, were killed in an Israeli airstrike that hit their position in Khiam during the 2006 Lebanon War.[175]
25 September 2006: A French engineer officer was killed in a road accident near the town of Sofar.
9 March 2007: Three Belgian soldiers were killed in an armoured vehicle accident.
24 June 2007: Three Colombian and three Spanish soldiers were killed in a bomb blast between Marjayoun and Khiam.
25 July 2007: A French soldier was killed near the village of Chamaa while clearing unexploded munitions.
11 October 2007: A British man, Craig Appleby (36) was killed while clearing munitions near Bint Jbeil.
12 November 2007: Two French soldiers were wounded as a result of the accidental discharge of a weapon. One of the wounded men subsequently died while being evacuated to Hospital.
15 June 2008: A Spanish soldier was killed and two injured in a road accident.
3 September 2008: A Belgian soldier was killed near the village of Aitaroun while clearing munitions left over from the 2006 conflict.
27 May 2011: Six Italian soldiers were wounded when their VM-90 military truck was destroyed by a roadside bomb near Sidon.[176]
4 August 2020: Bangladesh Navy corvette BNS Bijoy was anchored in the Port of Beirut during the 2020 Beirut explosion. The ship received moderate damage and 21 crew members were injured in the blast.[177]
14 December 2022: An Irish soldier, Pte. Seán Rooney (23) was killed, and three wounded when their convoy of two armoured vehicles was surrounded by a mob and fired on while en route to Beirut.[178]
15 October 2023: UNIFIL mentioned that its headquarters in Naqoura, was hit by a rocket during the 2023 Israel–Lebanon border clashes with no injuries reported.[179]
28 October 2023: UNIFIL reported that a shell landed in its headquarters, the second such incident since the border clashes began.[180] Later that day, a UNIFIL peacekeeper was injured after two mortar shells hit their base near Houla.[181]

Injuries edit

Compensation for tortious injury edit

A verdict of Trondheim District Court in 2006 resulted in the Norwegian government being ordered to pay 1.216 million kroner as compensation for tortious injury that Knut Braa acquired as a UNIFIL soldier.[182]

Leadership edit

Commanders of the force edit

Start Date End Date Name Country
March 1978 February 1981 Emmanuel A. Erskine   Ghana
February 1981 May 1986 William O'Callaghan   Ireland
June 1986 June 1988 Gustav Hägglund   Finland
July 1988 February 1993 Lars-Eric Wahlgren   Sweden
February 1993 February 1995 Trond Furuhovde   Norway
April 1995 1 October 1997 Stanisław Woźniak   Poland
February 1997 September 1999 Jioje Konousi Koronte   Fiji
30 September 1999 1 December 1999 James Sreenan   Ireland
16 November 1999 15 May 2001 Seth Kofi Obeng   Ghana
15 May 2001 17 August 2001 Ganesan Athmanathan   India
17 August 2001 17 February 2004 Lalit Mohan Tewari   India
17 February 2004 2 February 2007 Alain Pellegrini   France
2 February 2007 28 January 2010 Claudio Graziano[183]   Italy
28 January 2010 28 January 2012 Alberto Asarta Cuevas   Spain
28 January 2012 24 July 2014 Paolo Serra[184]   Italy
24 July 2014 24 July 2016 Luciano Portolano[184]   Italy
24 July 2016 7 August 2018 Michael Beary[185]   Ireland
7 August 2018 28 February 2022 Stefano Del Col[186]   Italy
28 February 2022 Present Aroldo Lázaro Sáenz[187]   Spain

Deputy Commanders of the Force edit

Start Date End Date Name Country
19 March 2022 31 January 2023 General Asyraf Arshad   Malaysia

Commanders of the Maritime Task Force edit

Start Date End Date Name Country
September 2006 16 October 2006 Giuseppe De Giorgi   Italy
16 October 2006 March 2007 Andreas Krause   Germany
March 2007 September 2007 Karl-Wilhelm Bollow   Germany
September 2007 February 2008 Christian Luther   Germany
February 2008 August 2008[188] Ruggiero di Biase   Italy
September 2008 February 2009 Jean-Louis Kerignard[189]   France
March 2009 May 2009 Jean-Thierry Pynoo[190]   Belgium
August 2009 August 2009 Ruggiero Di Biase[191]   Italy
September 2009 November 2009 Jürgen Mannhardt[192]   Germany
December 2009 February 2011 Paolo Sandalli[192]   Italy
February 2011 February 2012 Luiz Henrique Caroli   Brazil
February 2012 February 2013 Wagner Lopes de Moraes Zamith   Brazil
February 2013 February 2014 Joese de Andrade Bandeira Leandro   Brazil
February 2014 February 2015 Walter Eduardo Bombarda   Brazil
February 2015 February 2016 Flavio Macedo Brasil   Brazil
February 2016 February 2017 Claudio Henrique Mello de Almeida   Brazil
February 2017 February 2018 Sergio Fernando de Amaral Chaves Junior   Brazil
February 2018 February 2019 Eduardo Machado Vazquez   Brazil
February 2019 February 2020 Eduardo Augusto Wieland   Brazil
February 2020 December 2020 Sergio Renato Berna Salgueirinho   Brazil
December 2020 Present Axel Schulz[193]   Germany

Personal representatives of the Secretary-General for Southern Lebanon edit

Start Date End Date Name Country
March 1978 ? Jean Cuq   France
2000 15 January 2001 Rolf Göran Knutsson   Sweden
15 January 2001 April 2005 Staffan de Mistura   Italy
April 2005 2007 Geir Pedersen   Norway

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b "Extracts relating to Article 98 of the Charter of the United Nations: Supplement No 5 (1970–1978)" (PDF). Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs. United Nations. pp. §275–279. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2006.
  2. ^ "UNIFIL mandate renewed, peacekeepers to help Lebanese Army". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. 30 August 2021.
  3. ^ "Approved resources for peacekeeping operations for the period from 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2019". United Nations General Assembly. United Nations. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  4. ^ "UNIFIL Mandate". United Nations. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  5. ^ United Nations, Security Council extends UN force in Lebanon until 31 July, unanimously adopting Resolution 1655 (2006). Retrieved 12 August 2006
  6. ^ United Nations, Security Council extends United Nations force in Lebanon, unanimously adopting Resolution 1697 (2006). Retrieved 12 August 2006
  7. ^ United Nations, Security Council calls for end to hostilities between Hizbollah, Israel, unanimously adopting Resolution 1701 (2006). Retrieved 12 August 2006
  8. ^ Tveit, Odd Karsten (2010) Goodbye Lebanon. Israel's First Defeat. Rimal Publication. Translated by Peter Scott-Hansen. ISBN 978-9963-715-03-9 p.93
  9. ^ Novosseloff, Alexandra (2017). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I)". In Koops, Joachim A.; MacQueen, Norrie; Tardy, Thierry; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford University Press. pp. 248, 250–251. ISBN 978-0-19-880924-1.
  10. ^ a b "Extracts relating to Article 98 of the Charter of the United Nations: Supplement No 6 (1979–1984)" (PDF). Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs. United Nations. pp. §185–§199. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2006.
  11. ^ UN Doc S/15194 of 10 June 1982 Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon Archived 2 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Novosseloff, Alexandra (2017). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I)". In Koops, Joachim A.; MacQueen, Norrie; Tardy, Thierry; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-880924-1.
  13. ^ Novosseloff, Alexandra (2017). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I)". In Koops, Joachim A.; MacQueen, Norrie; Tardy, Thierry; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-880924-1.
  14. ^ Findlay, Trevor (2002). The Use of Force in UN Peacekeeping Operations (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0-19-829282-1.
  15. ^ Novosseloff, Alexandra (2017). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I)". In Koops, Joachim A.; MacQueen, Norrie; Tardy, Thierry; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford University Press. pp. 252–253. ISBN 978-0-19-880924-1.
  16. ^ a b "UNIFIL Background". United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  17. ^ a b c Novosseloff, Alexandra (2017). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I)". In Koops, Joachim A.; MacQueen, Norrie; Tardy, Thierry; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford University Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-19-880924-1.
  18. ^ Amnesty International, Unlawful Killings During Operation "Grapes of Wrath", July 1996.
  19. ^ United Nations UNIFIL press releases Archived 25 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ See paragraph 28 in Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (S/2006/560). Retrieved 31 July 2006.
  21. ^ "UNIFIL Press Release, Naqoura, 25 July 2006" (PDF). United Nations. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  22. ^ "UNIFIL Press Release, Naqoura, 17 July 2006" (PDF). United Nations. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  23. ^ UNIFIL Untitled Press Release 26 July 2006 Archived 3 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Tim Butcher (27 July 2006). "UN 'urged Israelis to hold fire 10 times before post was hit'". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  25. ^ "Israeli bomb kills UN observers". BBC News. 26 July 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  26. ^ Novosseloff, Alexandra (2017). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL I)". In Koops, Joachim A.; MacQueen, Norrie; Tardy, Thierry; Williams, Paul D. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. Oxford University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-19-880924-1.
  27. ^ "Finul : 900 soldats français et des armes lourdes envoyés d'ici mi-septembre". Le Monde. 28 August 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  28. ^ "Humanitarian | Thomson Reuters Foundation News". news.trust.org. Archived from the original on 28 September 2006.
  29. ^ "Qatar to send troops to Lebanon". CNN. 4 September 2006.
  30. ^ "UNIFIL peacekeepers will not disarm Hizbullah". The Jerusalem Post. 15 August 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  31. ^ "France 'the key' to UN Force in Lebanon". The Sydney Morning Herald. 16 August 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  32. ^ Sarkis, Joseph (16 November 2020). "Lebanese maritime security: Navigating rough seas with good policy". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  33. ^ "UNIFIL Maritime Task Force". United Nations. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  34. ^ "tniad.mil.id". Archived from the original on 5 October 2007.
  35. ^ Hutabarat, Leonard F. (July–December 2014). "Indonesian Participation in the UN Peacekeeping as an Instrument of Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities" (PDF). Global & Strategis. 8 (2): 187.
  36. ^ a b "Criticism as Two Indonesian Soldiers Flee Lebanese, Israeli Battle in Taxi". Agence France-Presse. 8 August 2010. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  37. ^ Shlomo Shamire (16 August 2008). "Israeli envoy meets UNIFIL chief over praise for Hezbollah, censure for Israel". Ha'aretz.
  38. ^ Keegan, John (3 November 2006). "Why Israel will go to war again – soon". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  39. ^ hurriyetdailynews (3 August 2010). "Clashes at tense Israel-Lebanon border leave at least 4 dead". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  40. ^ online.wsj (5 August 2010). "U.N. Tried to Avert Fatal Israel-Lebanon Clash". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  41. ^ Joshua Hersh (5 August 2010). "Peacekeepers 'lost contact with Israeli general'". Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  42. ^ "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)" (PDF). United Nations. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  43. ^ James Bone and Richard Beeston (21 August 2006). "After 31 days of fighting, UN votes for plan to bring peace to Lebanon". The Times. UK. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  44. ^ Harry De Quetteville & Michael Hirst (27 August 2006). "UN will not stop Syria sending weapons to Lebanon". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  45. ^ a b c Brazilian Flagship for UNIFIL Maritime Task Force, 25 November 2011 Archived 30 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  46. ^ "UNIFIL Maritime Task Force is operational" (PDF). UNIFIL. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
  47. ^ "Germany passes command of UNIFIL maritime components to European Maritime Force". German Foreign Office. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
  48. ^ "UNIFIL Maritime Task Force Changes Command" (PDF). UNIFIL. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2008.
  49. ^ António Guterres (13 July 2018). "Implementation of Security Council resolution 1701 (2006)". United Nations. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  50. ^ "As he prepares to leave, UNIFIL head credits existing peace to the parties". UNIFIL. August 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  51. ^ "Kazakh service members to join Indian battalion on UN peacekeeping mission in Lebanon". astanatimes.com. 31 October 2018.
  52. ^ "UNSCR Resolution 2485". United Nations Security Council. 29 August 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  53. ^ "Karl von Habsburg auf Mission im Libanon" (in German). 28 April 2019.
  54. ^ "Action plan to preserve heritage sites during conflict". United Nations Peacekeeping.
  55. ^ "A historic resolution to protect cultural heritage". UNESCO. 17 October 2017.
  56. ^ "UNIFIL Troop-Contributing Countries". UNIFIL. 14 March 2016.
  57. ^ Habib, Noor Islam (29 May 2019). "Role of Bangladesh navy in UN peacekeeping mission". The Independent. Retrieved 6 August 2020. The writer is Assistant Director of Bangladesh ISPR
  58. ^ Ahmed, Inam (15 June 2014). "Bangladesh Navy contributes two more battleships". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  59. ^ "'BNS Sangram' sails for Lebanon to join UNIFIL". The Daily Observer. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  60. ^ Brudirect.com News Brunei Troops To Join Malaysia In Lebanon Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  61. ^ Daily Express Accord on Trans-Borneo Highway Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  62. ^ MonstersandCritics.com Lebanon latest hotspot as China deploys peacekeepers Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  63. ^ Haaretz China to send as many as 1,000 peacekeeping troops to Lebanon. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  64. ^ Ministry Of Information. Lebanese Republic. Estonia joins UNIFIL peacekeepers in South Lebanon. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  65. ^ Helsingin Sanomat President approves Lebanon force. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  66. ^ a b Herald Tribune Ireland to deploy 150 troops to United Nations force in Lebanon. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  67. ^ Associated Press French Tanks Give Teeth to U.N. Force[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  68. ^ "LIBAN : le 1er RHP célèbre la St Michel". Armée de Terre 1er Régiment de Hussards Parachutistes. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  69. ^ Forbes France in Lebanon: the strength of hesitation Archived 7 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  70. ^ EiTB24 Italian troops land in Lebanon strengthening renewed UNIFIL. Retrieved 14 September 2006.[dead link]
  71. ^ MonstersandCritics.com Germany sends troops to Lebanon[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  72. ^ "Greece begins its peacekeeping drive in Lebanon: Frigate has orders to fire if need be". Kathimerini. 9 September 2006.
  73. ^ IndianMuslims.info India to keep existing troops in UNIFIL for 'time being' Archived 17 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  74. ^ Helsingin Sanomat Indonesian leader praises Finns for contribution to Aceh peace process. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  75. ^ Indonesian Tiga Kontingen Garuda Diberangkatkan ke Lebanon Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine 18 November 2008, Suara Karya Online
  76. ^ Antara News KRI Diponegoro Siap Diberangkatkan ke Lebanon Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  77. ^ Military.ie 1000 Irish troops to be redeployed to Lebanon .
  78. ^ "Current Missions". Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  79. ^ "Beirut blast live updates: Half of Lebanon's capital affected by damage". Deutsche Welle. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  80. ^ PeaceJournalism.com Annan Ends his Visit to Beirut after Touring War-Ravaged South Lebanon. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  81. ^ a b c Netherlands Ministry of Defence Hr.Ms. De Ruyter terug van UNIFIL-missie Archived 7 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 23 January 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  82. ^ "Министарство одбране Републике Србије – Актуелне мултинационалне операције". Archived from the original on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  83. ^ People's Daily Online Spanish troops hope to help speed up Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  84. ^ Daily Star Western envoys discuss deployments to UNIFIL. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  85. ^ "Ministerio de Defensia. Nodo de Internet". Mde.es. Archived from the original on 20 December 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  86. ^ The Island Lankan troops for Lebanon UN peace keeping mission.
  87. ^ Turkish Weekly The Turkish UNIFIL Troops Set off for Lebanon. Retrieved 9 November 2006.
  88. ^ "T.C. Beyrut Büyükelçiliği / Turkish Embassy in Beirut". Turkishembassy.org.lb. Archived from the original on 3 October 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  89. ^ UNIFIL unifil.unmissions.org Archived 6 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  90. ^ Expatica Communications Two Belgian generals to serve on Lebanon missionexpatica.com Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  91. ^ Naharnet Bulgaria Approves Sending 160-Crew Frigate to Lebanon. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
  92. ^ a b Asian Tribune U.N. Force Looks More European, Less Multinational. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  93. ^ Danish Navy 2 missilfartøjer men ingen korvet til Libanon. Retrieved 2 October 2006.[dead link]
  94. ^ "Establishment of UNIFIL – SecGen report". Question of Palestine. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  95. ^ Netherlands Ministry of Defence [1] Archived 17 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  96. ^ Netherlands Ministry of Defence [2] Archived 17 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  97. ^ Herald Tribune Norway to send four ships, crew to U.N. peacekeeping force for Lebanon. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  98. ^ Sending MTBs Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
  99. ^ "Bidraget". Forsvaret.no. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  100. ^ "Philippines pull out UN peacekeepers from Golan Heights | DW | 19.09.2014". Deutsche Welle.
  101. ^ Naharnet Portuguese UNIFIL Troops to Head to Lebanon Next Week. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
  102. ^ "Qatar quits UNIFIL". Naharnet.com. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  103. ^ Syrian Arab News Agency Russia Sends 1200 Soldiers to Lebanon. Retrieved 14 September 2006. Archived 25 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  104. ^ Swedish armed forces HMS Gävle på väg søderut. Retrieved 2 October 2006. Archived 1 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ "UNIFIL – Libanon". Forsvarsmakten. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  106. ^ "Mass Exodus Continues as Lebanon Seeks Aid". NPR.
  107. ^ "The Times interview with Ehud Olmert: full transcript". Times Online (UK). Retrieved 3 August 2006.
  108. ^ a b Lamis Andoni (8 March 2010). "Unifil 'on shaky ground' in Lebanon – Focus". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  109. ^ "Almanar.com.lb". Archived from the original on 13 November 2010.
  110. ^ "Criticism as Two Indonesian Soldiers Flee Lebanese, Israeli Battle in Taxi". Jakarta Globe. 5 August 2010. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  111. ^ Democracy Now!, Kofi Annan Says Israel's Fatal Attack on UN Force in Lebanon was "Apparently Deliberate"; Longtime UN Official Says Israel Knew Site Was UN Base Archived 30 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  112. ^ "U.N. report: Kidnapped Israeli soldiers may be dead". CNN. 3 August 2001. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2005.
  113. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (for the period from 21 July 2004 to 20 January 2005". United Nations. Document S/2005/36.
  114. ^ "Israel accuses UN of collaborating with Hezbollah". Haaretz. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
  115. ^ Yaakov Katz (28 April 2010). "Israel concerned about UNIFIL takeover". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  116. ^ Uni, Assaf (20 June 1995). "Report: UNIFIL helped prisoners flee IDF". Ynetnews. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  117. ^ "Lebanon's top Shi'ite cleric: UN force only protects Israel Grand Ayatollah Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah urges the Lebanese to treat UNIFIL with caution". Haaretz. Reuters. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  118. ^ SLACKMAN, MICHAEL (25 September 2006). "U.N. Force Is Treading Lightly on Lebanese Soil". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  119. ^ Bar'el, Zvi (14 July 2010). "Southern Lebanon Unstable as Villagers Turn on UN Troops". Haaretz.
  120. ^ Andrew Lee Butters (8 March 2007). "Keepers of the (Inner) Peace". Time. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
  121. ^ "Indian-UN peacekeepers in Lebanon keep crisis at bay". Deccan Herald. 25 May 2010.
  122. ^ Sanra Michiko Moningkey (16 July 2010). "(In Indonesian) Computer Course Indobatt Menangkan Hati Warga Lebanon Selatan". Time. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  123. ^ "Militer – Tim Kesehatan Indobatt di Lebanon Obati Warga Tulin". Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  124. ^ "Militer – Pasukan Indobbat Akan Buat 3 Desa Binaan di Lebanon Wadansatgas". Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  125. ^ Daragahi, Borzou (26 August 2008). "Enforcing the peace with yoga and pizza". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  126. ^ UNIFIL (10 December 2015). "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)". unifil.unmissions.org. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  127. ^ a b Azhari, Timour. "UN council runs the clock on Lebanon peacekeeping renewal". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  128. ^ "Lebanon: UNIFIL tanks block IDF force". 28 September 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  129. ^ "Face à face entre chars Leclerc et Merkava israéliens". 29 September 2006. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  130. ^ "Iran and Syria Helping Hizballah Rearm". Time. 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  131. ^ "Peretz: French UNIFIL commanders say will shoot at IAF overflights". Haaretz.com. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  132. ^ "Israël présente ses excuses à l'Allemagne". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2010.[permanent dead link]
  133. ^ No aggression intended Israel says after German ship incident Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  134. ^ "Germany, Israel confirm naval vessel-planes incident". Telugu Portal. 28 October 2006.[dead link]
  135. ^ "Germany, Israel confirm naval vessel-planes incident". Middle East News. 28 October 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  136. ^ "Israel denies firing shots at German ship". Ynetnews. 28 October 2006. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008.
  137. ^ Schult, Christoph; Szandar, Alexander (30 October 2006). "Israel versus Germany: Confrontation off Lebanon Leads to Questions –". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  138. ^ "Search – Global Edition – The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  139. ^ Al Jazeera EnglishIsrael insists on Lebanon overflights – 22 October 2006
  140. ^ Amir Mizroch and AP (20 October 2006). "UNIFIL warns it may act against IAF overflights of Lebanon". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  141. ^ Levi, Hana (23 October 2006). "IAF Reconnaissance Flights in Lebanon to Continue – Defense/Middle East – News". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  142. ^ "BBC NEWS – Middle East – Israeli jets fly low over Beirut". 31 October 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  143. ^ Israeli warplanes fly low over Beirut, suburbs[permanent dead link], Reuters
  144. ^ IDF checking French claim its UN troops almost fired at IAF jets, Associated Press in Haaretz
  145. ^ "France: We nearly fired at IAF aircraft". Ynetnews. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  146. ^ Lebanon-today.com
  147. ^ "Lebanon to UN: Israel breached truce deal hundreds of times". Haaretz.com. 1 November 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  148. ^ "Terrorists Kill UNIFIL Soldiers". Archived from the original on 16 December 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  149. ^ Lebanon blast kills UN soldiers BBC, 24 June 2007
  150. ^ Katz, Yaakov (25 June 2007). "Al-Qaida suspected in attack that killed 5 UNIFIL troops". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  151. ^ "FAQs". United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  152. ^ Edvardsson, A.; Grahn, O.; Görsjö, A.; Larsson, R.; Sjöstrand, C.; Smedberg, M.; Öberg, K. (2006). "Avlidna i utlandsstyrkans tjänst". In Sjöstrand, Carl (ed.). Utlandsstyrkan i fredens tjänst : försvarsmaktens internationella insatser (in Swedish). Arena AB. p. 45. ISBN 91-7843-225-1.
  153. ^ Hirst, David (2010) Beware of Small States. Lebanon, battleground of the Middle East. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8 p.127
  154. ^ Middle East International No 147, 10 April 1981, Publishers Lord Mayhew, Dennis Walters MP: Editorial p.1; No 146, 27 March 1981: David Lennon p.3
  155. ^ Hirst, David (2010) Beware of Small States. Lebanon, battleground of the Middle East. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8 p.127
  156. ^ "Two Fijian Men in Unifil Killed by PLO Terrorists". 26 June 1981. Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  157. ^ "Michael McAleavy released after 27 years". RTÉ.ie. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  158. ^ Hijazi, Ihsan A.; Times, Special To the New York (22 August 1986). "Irish Soldier Is Killed in Lebannon". The New York Times.
  159. ^ Hijazi, Ihsan A.; Times, Special To the New York (5 September 1986). "3 French Soldiers Killed in Lebanon". The New York Times.
  160. ^ "3 Unifil Soldiers and 3 Lebanese Killed by a Booby-trapped Car". 21 November 1986.
  161. ^ "2 Senior IDF Officers Disciplined in Connection with the Death of a Unifil Soldier". 23 January 1987.
  162. ^ "Irish Soldier With U.N. Killed by Israeli Tank Fire in South Lebanon". Los Angeles Times. 12 January 1987.
  163. ^ Middle East International No 347, 31 March 1989; John Keane p.12
  164. ^ Middle East International No 345, 3 March 1989; Fourteen days in brief p.17. “in cold blood”.
  165. ^ Middle East International No 347, 31 March 1989; John Keane pp.15,16
  166. ^ "Israel and Unifil in Conflict over Soldiers Killed by Sla". 21 February 1990.
  167. ^ "Björn Eggeblad fick benet avskjutet i gisslandramat i Libanon" [Björn Eggeblad got his leg shot off in the hostage situation in Lebanon]. Aftonbladet (in Swedish). 8 March 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2017. "Avlidna utlandsstyrkan" (PDF) (in Swedish). Swedish Armed Forces. p. 2. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  168. ^ "Two Unifil Soldiers Killed in Two Encounters in Lebanon". 16 September 1991.
  169. ^ "Unifil Soldier Killed in Lebanon During Sla Clash with Hezbollah". 24 February 1993.
  170. ^ "Norway, Unifil Protest Killing of Norwegian Officer by Israelis". 28 December 1993.
  171. ^ "Israeli troops accidentally kill U.N. soldier in Lebanon". United Press International.
  172. ^ "S/1996/337 of 7 May 1996". 20 May 2007. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  173. ^ "Israeli Ambassador expresses sorrow at death of Irish soldier – RTÉ News". RTÉ.ie. 25 October 2012. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  174. ^ "French officer killed in Lebanon – Taipei Times". taipeitimes.com. 11 January 2005.
  175. ^ "United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)". United Nations. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  176. ^ "Italian soldiers in U.N. force, civilians hurt in Lebanon blast". Anhourago.us. 27 May 2011. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  177. ^ Bhuiyan, Humayun Kabir (5 August 2020). "Beirut blast: Two Bangladeshis die, 21 Bangladesh Navy crew injured". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  178. ^ "Irish soldier Pte Seán Rooney killed in Lebanon attack". BBC. 15 December 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  179. ^ "Peacekeeping force UNIFIL says headquarters in south Lebanon hit by a rocket". Reuters. 15 October 2023.
  180. ^ "UN peacekeeping mission HQ in south Lebanon hit by shell; 2nd such incident since Israel-Hamas war". WION. 28 October 2023.
  181. ^ "UNIFIL says peacekeeper injured on Lebanese-Israeli border". Reuters. 28 October 2023.
  182. ^ Catalina Musinoi, Anniken Hjertholm Og Ingrid Brissach (18 October 2006). "FN-veteran får million-erstatning" (in Norwegian). adressa.no. Archived from the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  183. ^ "Mission Leadership". Unifil.unmissions.org. Archived from the original on 6 March 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  184. ^ a b "Al generale Serra il comando dell'Unifil". Tg1.rai.it. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  185. ^ "Secretary-General Appoints Major General Michael Beary of Ireland Head of Mission, Force Commander, United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon". United Nations. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  186. ^ "Maj. General Stefano Del Col of Italy – Head of Mission and Force Commander of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)". United Nations. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  188. ^ "Maritime Task Force". Unifil.unmissions.org. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  189. ^ "Press Releases". Unifil.unmissions.org. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  190. ^ "Press Releases". Unifil.unmissions.org. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  191. ^ "Press Releases". Unifil.unmissions.org. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  192. ^ a b "Press Releases". Unifil.unmissions.org. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  193. ^ MoD Germany (German), retrieved 23-August-2021

Further reading edit

External links edit

33°10′N 35°23′E / 33.167°N 35.383°E / 33.167; 35.383