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1918 United Kingdom general election

  (Redirected from United Kingdom general election, 1918)

The 1918 United Kingdom general election was called immediately after the Armistice with Germany which ended the First World War, and was held on Saturday, 14 December 1918. The governing coalition, under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, sent letters of endorsement to candidates who supported the coalition government. These were nicknamed ‘Coalition Coupons’, and led to the election being known as the ‘coupon election’. The result was a massive landslide in favour of the coalition, comprising primarily the Conservatives and Coalition Liberals, with massive losses for Liberals who were not endorsed.[1] Nearly all the Liberal MPs without coupons were defeated, although party leader H. H. Asquith managed to return to Parliament in a by-election.[2]

1918 United Kingdom general election

← Dec 1910 14 December 1918 1922 →

All 707 seats in the House of Commons
354 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Andrew Bonar Law 01.jpg LloydGeorge.jpg Éamon de Valera.jpg
Leader Bonar Law David Lloyd George Éamon de Valera
Party Conservative Coalition Liberal Sinn Féin
Leader since 1911 7 December 1916 1917
Leader's seat Glasgow Central Caernarvon Boroughs Mayo East
Last election 271 seats, 46.6 Did not contest Did not contest
Seats won 382 127 73[a]
Seat change Increase111 Increase127 Increase73
Popular vote 4,003,848 1,396,590 476,458
Percentage 38.4% 13.4% 4.6%
Swing Decrease8.2% New party New party

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Cropped photograph of William Adamson.jpg The mirrors of Downing street; some political reflections (1921) (14595514940).jpg Geo. N. Barnes LCCN2014708351.tif
Leader William Adamson H. H. Asquith George Barnes
Party Labour Liberal National Democratic
Leader since 24 October 1917 30 April 1908 1918
Leader's seat West Fife East Fife (defeated) Glasgow Gorbals
Last election 42 seats, 6.4% 272 seats, 44.2% Did not contest
Seats won 57 36 9
Seat change Increase15 Decrease236 Increase9
Popular vote 2,171,230 1,355,398 156,834
Percentage 20.8% 13.0% 1.3%
Swing Increase14.5% Decrease31.2% New party

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  John Dillon LOC 25678086606.jpg Sir Edward Carson, bw photo portrait seated.jpg Lord Croft.jpg
Leader John Dillon Edward Carson Henry Page Croft
Party Irish Parliamentary Labour Unionist National
Leader since 6 March 1918 June 1918 September 1917
Leader's seat Mayo East (defeated) Belfast Duncairn Bournemouth
Last election 74 seats, 2.5% Did not contest Did not contest
Seats won 7 3 2
Seat change Decrease67 Increase3 Increase2
Popular vote 226,498 30,304 94,389
Percentage 2.2% 0.3% 0.9%
Swing Decrease0.3 N/A N/A

1918 UK General Election Results.png
Colours denote the winning party—as shown in § Results

Prime Minister before election

David Lloyd George
Coalition Liberal

Appointed Prime Minister

David Lloyd George
Coalition Liberal

It was the first general election to include on a single day all eligible voters of the United Kingdom, although the vote count was delayed until 28 December so that the ballots cast by soldiers serving overseas could be included in the tallies.[3]

It resulted in a landslide victory for the coalition government of David Lloyd George, who had replaced H. H. Asquith as Prime Minister in December 1916. They were both Liberals and continued to battle for control of the party, which was fast losing popular support and never regained power.[4]

It was the first general election to be held after enactment of the Representation of the People Act 1918. It was thus the first election in which women over the age of 30, and all men over the age of 21, could vote. Previously, all women and many poor men had been excluded from voting. Women showed enormous patriotism, and generally supported the coalition candidates.[5]

It was the first parliamentary election in which women were able to stand as candidates following the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918, believed to be one of the shortest Acts of Parliament ever given Royal Assent. The Act was passed shortly before Parliament was dissolved. It followed a report by Law Officers that the Great Reform Act 1832 had specified parliamentary candidates had to be male and that the Representation of the People Act passed earlier in the year did not change that. One woman, Nina Boyle, had already presented herself for a by election earlier in the year in Keighley but had been turned down by the returning officer on technical grounds.[6]

The election was also noted for the dramatic result in Ireland, which showed clear disapproval of government policy. The Irish Parliamentary Party were almost completely wiped out by the Irish republican party Sinn Féin, who vowed in their manifesto to establish an independent Irish Republic. They refused to take their seats in Westminster, instead forming a breakaway government and declaring Irish independence. The Irish War of Independence began soon after the election. Because of the resulting partition of Ireland, this was the last United Kingdom general election to include the entire island of Ireland.



Lloyd George's coalition government was supported by the majority of the Liberals and Bonar Law's Conservatives. However, the election saw a split in the Liberal Party between those who were aligned with Lloyd George and the government and those who were aligned with Asquith, the party's official leader.

On 14 November it was announced that Parliament, which had been sitting since 1910 and had been extended by emergency wartime action, would dissolve on 25 November, with elections on 14 December.[7]

Following confidential negotiations over the summer of 1918, it was agreed that certain candidates were to be offered the support of the Prime Minister and the leader of the Conservative Party at the next general election. To these candidates a letter, known as the Coalition Coupon, was sent, indicating the government's endorsement of their candidacy. 159 Liberal, 364 Conservative, 20 National Democratic and Labour, and 2 Coalition Labour candidates received the coupon. For this reason the election is often called the Coupon Election.[8]

80 Conservative candidates stood without a coupon. Of these, 35 candidates were Irish Unionists. Of the other non-couponed Conservative candidates, only 23 stood against a Coalition candidate; the remaining 22 candidates stood in areas where there were no coupons, or refused the offer of a coupon.[9]

The Labour Party, led by William Adamson, fought the election independently, as did those Liberals who did not receive a coupon.

The election was not chiefly fought over what peace to make with Germany, although those issues played a role. More important was the voters' evaluation of Lloyd George in terms of what he had accomplished so far and what he promised for the future. His supporters emphasised that he had won the Great War. Against his strong record in social legislation, he called for making "a country fit for heroes to live in".[10]

This election was known as a khaki election, due to the immediate postwar setting and the role of the demobilised soldiers.

Coalition victoryEdit

The coalition won the election easily, with the Conservatives the big winners. They were the largest party in the governing majority. Lloyd George remained Prime Minister, despite the Conservatives outnumbering his pro-coalition Liberals. The Conservatives welcomed his leadership on foreign policy as the Paris Peace talks began a few weeks after the election.[11]

An additional 47 Conservatives, 23 of whom were Irish Unionists, won without the coupon but did not act as a separate block or oppose the government except on the issue of Irish independence.

While most of the pro-coalition Liberals were re-elected, Asquith's faction was reduced to just 36 seats and lost all their leaders from parliament; Asquith himself lost his own seat. Nine of these MPs subsequently joined the Coalition Liberal group. The remainder became bitter enemies of Lloyd George.[12]

The Labour Party greatly increased its vote share and surpassed the total votes of either Liberal party. Labour became the Official Opposition for the first time, but they lacked an official leader and so the Leader of the Opposition for the next fourteen months was the stand-in Liberal leader Donald Maclean (Asquith, having lost his seat at this election, was not returned until a by-election in February 1920). Labour could only slightly increase their number of seats, however, from 42 to 57 and some of their earlier leaders including Ramsay MacDonald and Arthur Henderson lost their seats. Labour won the most seats in Wales (which had previously been dominated by the Liberals) for the first time, a feat it has continued to the present day.[13]

The Conservative MPs included record numbers of corporate directors, bankers and businessmen, while Labour MPs were mostly from the working class. Bonar Law himself symbolised the change in the type of a Conservative MP as Bonar Law was a Presbyterian Canadian-born Scottish businessman who became in the words of his biographer, Robert Blake, the leader of "the Party of Old England, the Party of the Anglican Church and the country squire, the party of broad acres and hereditary titles".[14] Bonar Law's ascent as leader of the Conservatives marked a shift in Conservative leaders from the aristocrats who generally led the party in the 19th century to a more middle class leadership who usually led the party in the 20th century.[14] Many young veterans reacted against the harsh tone of the campaign and became disillusioned with politics.[15]


Constance Markievicz was the first woman elected to the House of Commons, but as an Irish nationalist she did not take her seat at Westminster.

In Ireland, the Irish Parliamentary Party, which favoured Home Rule within the United Kingdom, lost almost all their seats, most of which were won by Sinn Féin under Éamon de Valera, which called for independence. The executions of many of the leaders of the Easter uprising of 1916, the force-feeding of those imprisoned in connection with the uprising who had gone on a hunger strike in 1917, and the Conscription Crisis of 1918 all served to alienate Irish Catholic opinion from the United Kingdom.[16] The Sinn Féin candidates had promised on the campaign trail to win an Irish republic "by any means necessary", which was a code-word for violence, though it is not entirely clear if all Irish voters understood what the phrase meant.[17] The 73 Sinn Féin elected members declined to take their seats in the British House of Commons, sitting instead in the Irish revolutionary assembly, the Dáil Éireann. On 17 May 1918 almost the entire leadership of Sinn Féin, including de Valera and Arthur Griffith, had been arrested. In total 47 of the Sinn Féin MPs were elected from jail. The Dáil first convened on 21 January 1919, which marks the beginning of the Irish War of Independence.

In the six Ulster counties that became Northern Ireland, Unionists consolidated their position by winning 23 out of the 30 seats. Cardinal Logue brokered a pact in eight seats (one, East Donegal, not in the six counties), after nominations closed, where Catholic voters were instructed to vote for one particular nationalist party. Split evenly, the Irish Parliamentary Party won four of those seats and Sinn Féin three. (The pact failed in East Down). Joe Devlin, memorably, also won Belfast (Falls) for the Irish Parliamentary Party in a straight fight with Éamon de Valera of Sinn Féin.

Constance Markievicz became the first woman elected to Parliament. She was a Sinn Féin member elected for Dublin St Patrick's, and like the other Sinn Féin MPs, did not take her seat.

Women candidatesEdit

The seventeen women candidates were:


Seats by partyEdit

382 127 73 57 36 35
Conservative Coal Lib SF Lab Lib O
UK General Election 1918
Candidates Votes
Party Leader Stood Elected Gained Unseated Net % of total % No. Net %
Coalition Government[b]
  Conservative Bonar Law 445 382 +111 54.0 38.4 4,003,848 −8.2
  Coalition Liberal David Lloyd George 145 127 +127 18.0 12.6 1,318,844 N/A
  Coalition National Democratic George Nicoll Barnes 18 9 +9 1.3 1.5 156,834 N/A
  Coalition Labour N/A 5 4 +4 0.1 0.4 40,641 N/A
  Coalition Independent N/A 1 1 +1 0.1 0.1 9,274 N/A
Coalition Government (total) David Lloyd George 614 523 +249 74.0 53.0 5,529,441 +6.4
Non-Coalition parties
  Labour William Adamson 361 57 +15 8.1 20.8 2,171,230 +14.5
  Liberal H. H. Asquith 277 36 −236 5.1 13.0 1,355,398 −31.2
  Sinn Féin Éamon de Valera 102 73 +73 10.3 4.6 476,458 N/A
  Irish Parliamentary John Dillon 57 7 −67 1.0 2.2 226,498 −0.3
  Independent Labour N/A 29 2 +2 0.3 1.1 116,322 +1.0
  Independent N/A 42 2 +2 0.3 1.0 105,261 +1.0
  National Henry Page Croft 26 2 +2 0.3 0.9 94,389 N/A
  Independent NFDSS James Hogge 30 0 0 0.0 0.6 58,164 N/A
  Co-operative Party William Henry Watkins 10 1 +1 0.1 0.6 57,785 N/A
  Ind. Conservative N/A 17 1 0 0.1 0.4 44,637 +0.3
  Labour Unionist Edward Carson 3 3 +3 0.4 0.3 30,304 N/A
  Independent Liberal N/A 8 0 0 0.1 0.2 24,985 +0.2
  Agriculturalist Edward Mials Nunneley 7 0 0 0.0 0.2 19,412 N/A
  National Democratic George Nicoll Barnes 8 0 0 0.0 0.2 17,991 N/A
  NFDSS James Hogge 5 0 0 0.0 0.1 12,329 N/A
  Belfast Labour N/A 4 0 0 0.0 0.1 12,164 N/A
  National Socialist Party H. M. Hyndman 3 1 +1 0.1 0.1 11,013 N/A
  Highland Land League N/A 4 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,710 N/A
  Women's Party Christabel Pankhurst 1 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,614 N/A
  British Socialist Party Albert Inkpin 3 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,394 N/A
  Independent Democratic N/A 4 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,351 N/A
  NADSS James Howell 1 1 +1 0.1 0.1 8,287 N/A
  Independent Nationalist N/A 6 0 0 0.0 0.1 8,183 +0.1
  Socialist Labour Tom Bell 3 0 0 0.0 0.1 7,567 N/A
  Scottish Prohibition Edwin Scrymgeour 1 0 0 0.0 0.0 5,212 N/A
  Independent Progressive N/A 3 0 0 0.0 0.0 5,077 N/A
  Ind. Labour and Agriculturalist N/A 1 0 0 0.0 0.0 1,927 N/A
  Christian Socialist N/A 1 0 0 0.0 0.0 597 N/A

Votes summaryEdit

Popular vote
Coalition Liberal
Coalition National Democratic
Coalition Labour
Coalition Independent
All Coalition parties
Sinn Féin
Irish Parliamentary

Seats summaryEdit

Parliamentary seats
Coalition Liberal
Coalition National Democratic
Coalition Labour
Coalition Independent
All Coalition parties
Sinn Féin
Irish Parliamentary


List of MPs who lost their seat in the 1918 United Kingdom general electionEdit

This is a list of MPs who lost their seat at the 1918 United Kingdom general election

Party Name Constituency Office held whilst in Parliament Year elected Defeated by Party
Liberal Duncan Pirie Aberdeen North 1906 Frank Rose Labour
John Fleming Aberdeen South 1917 Frederick Thomson Unionist
John Henderson West Aberdeenshire (abolished), contesting Aberdeen and Kincardine Central 1906 Alexander Theodore Gordon Conservative
Harold Baker Accrington Financial Secretary to the War Office (1912-1915) January 1910 Ernest Gray Conservative
Ellis Ellis-Griffith Anglesey Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department (1912-1915) 1895 Sir Owen Thomas Independent Labour
Arthur Black Biggleswade (Abolished), contesting Mid Bedfordshire Financial Secretary to the War Office (1912-1915) 1906 Max Townley Conservative
Harold Tennant Berwickshire (Abolished), contesting Berwick and Haddington Secretary for Scotland (1916) 1894 John Hope MP Coalition Liberal
Sir James Hill, 1st Baronet Bradford Central 1916 Henry Butler Ratcliffe Conservative
William Priestley Bradford East 1906 Charles Edgar Loseby National Democratic
Alfred Gelder Brigg January 1910 Charles Wesley Weldon McLean Conservative
Charles Hobhouse Bristol East Postmaster-General (1914-1915) 1900 George Bryant Britton Coalition Liberal
Sir Charles Seely, 2nd Baronet Mansfield, contesting Broxtowe 1916 George Spencer Labour
Sir Harry Verney, 4th Baronet Buckingham Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries (1914-1915) January 1910 George Bowyer Conservative
Walter Essex Stafford, contesting Burslem December 1910 Samuel Finney MP Labour
George Toulmin Bury 1902 James Kenyon Conservative
Ellis Davies Eifion (Abolished), contesting Caernarvonshire 1906 Charles Breese Coalition Liberal
Herbert Samuel Cleveland Home Secretary (1916) 1902 Park Goff Conservative
David Marshall Mason Coventry December 1910 Edward Manville Conservative
Walter Runciman Dewsbury President of the Board of Trade (1914-1916) 1902 Emil Pickering Conservative
Hastings Lees-Smith Northampton, contesting Don Valley January 1910 James Walton National Democratic
John Gulland Dumfries Burghs (Abolished), contesting Dumfriesshire Liberal Chief Whip (1915-1918) 1906 William Murray Unionist
Arthur Acland Allen Dunbartonshire December 1910 William Raeburn Unionist
Richard Durning Holt Hexham, contesting Eccles 1907 Marshall Stevens Conservative
Edward Parrott Edinburgh South, contesting Edinburgh West 1917 John Gordon Jameson Conservative
H. H. Asquith East Fife Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1908-1916) & Leader of the Opposition (1916-1918) 1886 Alexander Sprot Conservative
Evan Cotton East Finsbury (Abolished), contesting Finsbury 1918 Martin Archer-Shee Conservative
Sir Henry Webb, 1st Baronet Forest of Dean Lord of the Treasury (1912-1915) 1911 James Wignall Conservative
James Falconer Forfarshire 1909 William Thomas Shaw Unionist
Sir John Barlow, 1st Baronet Frome 1896 Percy Hurd Conservative
George Jackson Bentham Gainsborough January 1910 John Elsdale Molson Conservative
Harold Elverston Gateshead January 1910 Herbert Conyers Surtees Conservative
Daniel Holmes Glasgow Govan 1911 Neil Maclean Labour
Harry Watt Glasgow College (Abolished), contesting Glasgow Maryhill 1906 William Mitchell-Thomson Conservative
McKinnon Wood Glasgow St Rollox Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1916) 1906 Gideon Oliphant-Murray Conservative
William Pringle Glasgow Tradeston 1911 Vivian Leonard Henderson Conservative
J. D. White Lanarkshire North West (Abolished), contesting Glasgow Springburn January 1910 F. A. Macquisten Conservative
J. Howard Whitehouse Mid Lanarkshire (Abolished), contesting Hamilton January 1910 Duncan Graham Labour
Percy Harris Harborough 1916 Keith Fraser Conservative
Evan Cotton East Finsbury (Abolished), contesting Finsbury 1918 Martin Archer-Shee Conservative
George Peel Spalding (Abolished), contesting Holland with Boston 1917 William Royce Labour
Thomas Wing Houghton-le-Spring 1913 Robert Richardson Labour
Thomas Ferens Hull East 1906 Charles Murchison Conservative
Guy Wilson Hull West (Abolished), contesting Kingston upon Hull North West 1907 Lambert Ward Conservative
George Hay Morgan Truro (Abolished), contesting Ipswich 1906 John Ganzoni Conservative
Godfrey Baring Barnstaple, contesting Isle of Wight 1911 Douglas Hall MP Conservative
Edward Smallwood Islington East 1917 Alfred Baldwin Raper Conservative
Thomas Wiles Islington South 1906 Charles Frederick Higham Conservative
Thomas Lough Islington West Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education (1905-1908) 1892 George Samuel Elliott Conservative
William Somervell Keighley 1918 Robert Clough Conservative
Norval Helme Lancaster 1900 Sir Archibald Hunter Conservative
Charles Roberts Lincoln Comptroller of the Household (1915-1916) 1906 Alfred Davies Conservative
Joseph Bliss Cockermouth (Abolished), contesting Lonsdale 1916 Claude Lowther MP Conservative
Timothy Davies Louth December 1910 Henry Langton Brackenbury Conservative
Christopher Needham Manchester South West (Abolished), contesting Manchester Hulme December 1910 Joseph Nall Conservative
James Duncan Millar North East Lanarkshire (Abolished), contesting Motherwell 1911 Robert Nelson Conservative
Noel Buxton North Norfolk January 1910 Douglas King Conservative
John Brunner Northwich 1906 Harry Dewhurst Conservative
John Brunner Rotherham, contesting Nottingham West 1917 Arthur Hayday Labour
Walter Rea Scarborough, contesting Oldham 1906 Edmund Bartley-Denniss MP Conservative
Reginald McKenna North Monmouthshire (Abolished), contesting Pontypool Chancellor of the Exchequer (1915-1916) 1895 Thomas Griffiths Conservative
John Maden Rossendale 1917 Robert Waddington Conservative
Hubert Carr-Gomm Rotherhithe 1906 John Lort-Williams Conservative
Leif Jones Rushcliffe December 1910 Henry Betterton Conservative
Willoughby Dickinson St Pancras North 1906 John William Lorden Conservative
Henry Chancellor Haggerston (Abolished), contesting Shoreditch January 1910 Christopher Addison MP Coalition Liberal
John Sharp Higham Sowerby 1904 Robert Hewitt Barker Independent
Owen Jacobsen Hyde (Abolished), contesting Hyde 1916 John Wood Conservative
William Chapple Stirlingshire (Abolished), contesting Clackmannan and Eastern Stirlingshire January 1910 Ralph Glyn Conservative
Percy Alden East Northamptonshire (Abolished), contesting Tottenham South 1906 Patrick Malone Conservative
Herbert Craig Tynemouth 1906 Charles Percy Conservative
Arthur Marshall Wakefield 1910|December 1910 Edward Allen Brotherton Conservative
J. M. Robertson Tyneside (Abolished), contesting Wallsend Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade (1911-1915) 1906 Matt Simm National Democratic
John Simon Walthamstow (Abolished), contesting Walthamstow East Home Secretary (1915-1916) 1906 Stanley Johnson Conservative
Henry Guest Pembroke and Haverfordwest (Abolished), contesting Wandsworth Central 1910 John Norton-Griffiths MP Conservative
Handel Booth Pontefract, contesting Wentworth December 1910 George Harry Hirst Labour
Geoffrey Howard Westbury Vice-Chamberlain of the Household (1911-1915) 1911 George Palmer Conservative
Arnold Rowntree York January 1910 John George Butcher Conservative
Labour Arthur Henderson Barnard Castle Paymaster-General (1916) 1903 John Edmund Swan Labour
Charles Duncan Barrow-in-Furness 1906 Robert Chadwick Conservative
Arthur Lynch West Clare, contesting Battersea South 1909 Francis Curzon Conservative
Philip Snowden Blackburn 1906 Percy Dean Conservative
Thomas Richardson Whitehaven, contesting Bosworth December 1910 Henry McLaren MP Liberal
Fred Jowett Bradford West (Abolished), contesting Bradford East 1906 Charles Edgar Loseby National Democratic
Edward John[20] East Denbighshire (Abolished), contesting Denbigh December 1910 David Davies Liberal
Ramsay MacDonald Leicester (Abolished), contesting Leicester West 1906 Joseph Frederick Green National Democratic
John Edward Sutton Manchester East (Abolished), contesting Manchester Clayton January 1910 Edward Hopkinson Conservative
Walter Hudson Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Abolished), contesting Newcastle upon Tyne East 1906 Harry Barnes Liberal
William Anderson Sheffield Attercliffe 1914 Thomas Worrall Casey Liberal
D. D. Sheehan[21] Mid Cork, contesting Limehouse 1901 William Pearce MP Liberal
Frank Goldstone Sunderland December 1910 Ralph Milbanke Hudson Conservative
Leo Chiozza Money[22] East Northamptonshire (Abolished), contesting Tottenham South 1906 Patrick Malone Conservative
Independent Democratic Arthur Ponsonby[23] Stirling Burghs (Abolished), contesting Dunfermline Burghs 1908 John Wallace Liberal
Independent Labour Charles Trevelyan[24] Elland Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education (1908-1914) 1899 George Taylor Ramsden Conservative
Arthur Strauss[25] Paddington North January 1910 William Perring Conservative
Independent Liberal R. L. Outhwaite[26] Hanley 1912 James Seddon National Democratic
Independent Unionist George Bowden[27] North East Derbyshire 1914 Stanley Holmes Liberal
Conservative William Houghton-Gastrell Lambeth North January 1910 Frank Briant Liberal
Warwick Brookes Mile End, contesting Preston 1916 Tom Shaw Labour
Rigby Swift St Helens December 1910 James Sexton Labour
William Legge West Bromwich January 1910 Frederick Roberts Labour
Reginald Neville Wigan December 1910 John Parkinson Labour
Liberal Unionist Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice West Derbyshire 1908 Charles White Liberal
Unionist Archibald Stirling West Perthshire (Abolished), contesting Kinross and West Perthshire 1917 James Gardiner Liberal
Archibald George Currie Leith Burghs (Abolished), contesting Leith 1914 William Wedgwood Benn MP Liberal

Transfers of seatsEdit

  • All comparisons are with the December 1910 election.
    • In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party. Such circumstances are marked with a *.
    • In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, and then retained in 1918. Such circumstances are marked with a †.
From To No. Seats
Labour Labour (HOLD) Burslem (replaced Staffordshire North West), Deptford, Plaistow (replaced West Ham South), Woolwich East (replaced Woolwich)
Coalition Labour Norwich (1 of 2), Stockport (1 of 2)
Coalition National Democratic Hanley
National Liberal
Conservative Bow and Bromley†, Nuneaton
Sinn Féin Nationalist
Nationalist Nationalist
Lib-Lab Coalition Liberal Battersea North (replaced Battersea)
Liberal Labour Forest of Dean, Leek, Wellingborough (replaced Northamptonshire Mid)
National Democratic Walthamstow W (replaced Walthamstow)
Liberal (HOLD) Bermondsey West (replaced Bermondsey), Camborne, Cornwall North (replaced Launceston), Newcastle-under-Lyme, Norwich (1 of 2), Saffron Walden, Whitechapel and St Georges (replaced Whitechapel), Wolverhampton East
National Liberal Banbury, Barnstaple, Bedford, Bethnal Green NE, Bristol East, Bristol North, Bristol South, Cambridgeshire (replaced Chesterton), Crewe, Dartford, Dorset East, Eye, Hackney Central, Isle of Ely (replaced Wisbech), Kennington, Lichfield, Stepney Limehouse (replaced Limehouse), Lowestoft, Luton, Norfolk South, Norfolk South West, Northampton (1 of 2), Peckham, Poplar South (replaced Poplar), Romford, St Ives, Shoreditch (replaced Hoxton), South Molton, Southampton (both seats), Southwark Central (replaced Newington West), Southwark North (replaced Southwark West), Southwark South East (replaced Walworth), Stockport (1 of 2), Stoke-upon-Trent, Stroud, Thornbury, Wellington (Salop)
Coalition Independent Norfolk North
Independent Hackney South
Conservative Bedfordshire Mid (replaced Biggleswade), Bethnal Green South-West†, Buckingham, Camberwell North, Cheltenham†, Coventry, Exeter†, Frome, Gillingham (replaced Rochester), Ipswich (1 of 2)†, Islington East, Islington South, Islington West, Macclesfield, Norfolk East, Northwich, Peterborough, Reading†, Rotherhithe, St Pancras North, Stafford, Swindon (replaced Cricklade), Tottenham South (replaced Tottenham), Upton (replaced West Ham North), Westbury, Yeovil (replaced Somerset Southern)†
abolished Finsbury East, Haggerston, Hyde, Ipswich (1 of 2), Newmarket, Norfolk North West, Northampton (1 of 2), Northamptonshire East, St Austell, St George, Tower Hamlets, St Pancras East, Stepney, Truro, Worcestershire North
Speaker Liberal
Liberal Unionist Conservative Aylesbury*, Birmingham West*, Bodmin*, Burton*, Birmingham Handsworth*, Hythe*, Ludlow*, Portsmouth North (replaced 1 of 2 Portsmouth seats)*, Stepney Mile End (replaced Mile End)*, Birmingham Sparkbrook (replaced Birmingham South)*, Stone (replaced Staffordshire West)*, Torquay*, Totnes*, Westminster St George's (replaced St George, Hanover Square)*
abolished Ashburton, Birmingham Central, Birmingham North, Birmingham Bordesley, Droitwich, Norfolk Mid, Ross, Somerset Eastern, Worcestershire East
Conservative Communist
Labour Kettering (replaced Northamptonshire North), Kingswinford, Wednesbury, West Bromwich
Liberal Lambeth North, Weston-super-Mare (replaced Somerset Northern)
Coalition Liberal Sudbury
Conservative (HOLD) Abingdon, Altrincham, Ashford, Birmingham Aston (replaced Aston Manor), Basingstoke, Bath (1 of 2), Bewdley, Bilston (replaced Wolverhampton South), Birkenhead East (replaced Birkenhead), Brentford and Chiswick (replaced Brentford), Bridgwater, Brighton (both seats), Bristol West, Brixton, Bury St Edmunds, Cambridge, Chatham, Chelmsford, Chelsea, Chertsey, Chester, Chichester, Chippenham, Cirencester and Tewkesbury (replaced Tewkesbury), Clapham, Colchester, Croydon South (replaced Croydon), Daventry (replaced Northamptonshire South), Devizes, Plymouth Devonport (replaced 1 of 2 Devonport seats), Dorset North, Dorset South, Dorset West, Dover, Plymouth Drake (replaced 1 of 2 Plymouth seats), Dudley, Dulwich, Ealing, East Grinstead, Eastbourne, Eddisbury, Birmingham Edgbaston, Enfield, Epping, Epsom, Birmingham Erdington (replaced Birmingham East), Essex South East, Evesham, Fareham, Faversham, Finsbury (replaced Finsbury Central), Fulham East (replaced Fulham), Gloucester, Gravesend, Great Yarmouth, Greenwich, Guildford, Hackney North, Hammersmith South (replaced Hammersmith), Hampstead, Harrow, Harwich, Hastings, Henley, Hereford, Hitchin, Holborn, Honiton, Hornsey, Horsham and Worthing (replaced Horsham), Huntingdonshire (replaced Huntingdon), Isle of Thanet, Isle of Wight, Islington North, Kensington North, Kensington South, Kidderminster, King's Lynn, Kingston upon Thames, Knutsford, Leominster, Lewes, Lewisham West (replaced Lewisham), City of London (both seats), Maidstone, Maldon, New Forest & Christchurch (replaced New Forest), Newbury, Norwood, Oswestry, Oxford, Paddington North, Paddington South, Penryn and Falmouth, Petersfield, Portsmouth South (replaced 1 of 2 Portsmouth seats), Reigate, Rugby, Rye, St Albans, St Marylebone (replaced Marylebone West), St Pancras South East (replaced St Pancras South), St Pancras South West (replaced St Pancras West), Salisbury, Sevenoaks, Shrewsbury, Stalybridge and Hyde (replaced Stalybridge), Plymouth Sutton (replaced 1 of 2 Plymouth seats), Tamworth, Taunton, Tavistock, Tiverton, Tonbridge (replaced Tunbridge), Uxbridge, Wandsworth Central (replaced Wandsworth), Warwick and Leamington, Watford, Wells, Westminster Abbey (replaced Westminster), Wimbledon, Winchester, Windsor, Wirral, Wolverhampton West, Woodbridge, Worcester, Wycombe
National Bournemouth (replaced Christchurch)†, Walsall
Silver Badge Hertford
abolished Andover, Bath (1 of 2), Cirencester, Devonport (1 of 2), Marylebone East, Medway, Newport (Shropshire), Ramsey, St Augustine's, Stowmarket, Strand, Stratford upon Avon, Wellington (Somerset), Wilton, Wokingham, Woodstock
Ind. Conservative Conservative Canterbury
Irish Unionist abolished
Seat created Labour Smethwick
Coalition Labour Cannock
National Socialist Party Silvertown
National Democratic Birmingham Duddeston, East Ham South
Liberal Portsmouth Central, Stourbridge
Coalition Liberal Camberwell North-West, East Ham North, Leyton East
Conservative Acton, Aldershot, Balham and Tooting, Battersea South, Birkenhead West, Bristol Central, Bromley, Chislehurst, Croydon North, Birmingham Deritend, Edmonton, Farnham, Finchley, Fulham West, Hammersmith North, Hemel Hempstead, Hendon, Ilford, Birmingham King's Norton, Birmingham Ladywood, Lewisham East, Leyton West, Mitcham, Birmingham Moseley, Putney, Richmond (Surrey), Southend, Spelthorne, Stoke Newington, Stratford, Streatham, Surrey East, Tottenham North, Twickenham, Wallasey, Walthamstow East, Willesden East, Willesden West, Wood Green, Woolwich West, Birmingham Yardley

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The Sinn Féin MPs did not take their seats in the House of Commons, and instead formed the Dáil Éireann.
  2. ^ The Conservative total includes 47 Conservative candidates elected without the Coalition Coupon, of whom 23 were Irish Unionists.
  3. ^ All parties shown.


  1. ^ J. M. McEwen, "The coupon election of 1918 and Unionist Members of Parliament." Journal of Modern History 34.3 (1962): 294-306.
  2. ^ Stuart R. Ball, "Asquith's Decline and the General Election of 1918." Scottish Historical Review 61.171 (1982): 44-61.
  3. ^ Barry McGill, "Lloyd George's Timing of the 1918 Election." Journal of British Studies 14.1 (1974): 109-124.
  4. ^ Paul Adelman, The decline of the Liberal Party 1910-1931 (2014).
  5. ^ Mary Hilson, "Women voters and the rhetoric of patriotism in the British general election of 1918" Women's History Review 10.2 (2001): 325-347.
  6. ^ Hallam, David J.A., Taking on the Men, the first women parliamentary candidates 1918, Studley, 2018, p 11-12
  7. ^ Mowat 1955, p. 3.
  8. ^ Trevor Wilson, "The Coupon and the British General Election of 1918." Journal of Modern History 36.1 (1964): 28-42.
  9. ^ McEwen 1962, p. 295.
  10. ^ Taylor 1976, pp. 127–128.
  11. ^ Inbal Rose, Conservatism and foreign policy during the Lloyd George coalition 1918-1922 (2014).
  12. ^ Edward David, "The Liberal Party Divided 1916–1918." Historical Journal 13.3 (1970): 509-532.
  13. ^ Chris Wrigley, Lloyd George and the challenge of Labour: The post-war coalition, 1918-1922 (Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990).
  14. ^ a b Blake, Robert The Unknown Prime Minister: The Life and Times of Andrew Bonar Law, 1858-1923, London: Faber and Faber, 2011 p.86.
  15. ^ Mowat 1955, p. 9.
  16. ^ Cottrell, Peter The Anglo-Irish War: The Troubles of 1913–1922, London: Osprey, 2006 page 39.
  17. ^ Cottrell, Peter The Anglo-Irish War: The Troubles of 1913–1922, London: Osprey, 2006 page 29.
  18. ^ Hallam, David J.A., ibid, pp 73-90
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Elected as a Liberal MP
  21. ^ Elected as an Irish Parliamentary Party MP
  22. ^ Elected as a Liberal MP
  23. ^ Elected as a Liberal MP
  24. ^ Elected as a Liberal MP
  25. ^ Elected as a Conservative MP
  26. ^ Elected as a Liberal MP
  27. ^ Elected as a Conservative MP

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit