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Union-Castle Line

The Union-Castle Line was a British shipping line that operated a fleet of passenger liners and cargo ships between Europe and Africa from 1900 to 1977. It was formed from the merger of the Union Line and Castle Shipping Line.

Union-Castle Mail SS Co. Ltd
Union-Castle Line
  • Union Line
  • Castle Mail Packet Co.
SuccessorBritish and Commonwealth Shipping
Founded8 March 1900 (1900-03-08) in United Kingdom
Defunct1990 (1990)
United Kingdom
Area served
London and Southampton to Cape Town
Key people
  • Donald Currie
  • Sir Francis Vernon Thompson
ServicesPassenger, cargo and mail transport
Union-Castle House, Southampton

It merged with Bullard King and Clan Line in 1956 to form British & Commonwealth Shipping, and then with South African Marine Corporation (commonly referred to as SAF-Marine) in 1973 to create International Liner Services, but maintained its separate identity throughout. Its shipping operations ceased in 1977.

Predecessor linesEdit

Gascon was built in 1897
Galeka was built in 1899 and sunk by a mine in 1916
Glenart Castle as a First World War hospital ship. She was built in 1900 as Galician

The Union Line was founded in 1853 as the Southampton Steam Shipping Company to transport coal from South Wales to Southampton. It was renamed the Union Steam Collier Company and then the Union Steamship Company. In 1857, renamed the Union Line, it won a contract to carry mail to South Africa, mainly the Cape Colony. The inaugural sailing of the Dane left Southampton on 15 September.[1]

Meanwhile, Donald Currie had built up the Castle Packet Co. which traded to Calcutta round the Cape of Good Hope. This trade was substantially curtailed by the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, and the Castle Line started to run to South Africa instead, later becoming the Castle Mail Packet Company.

In 1872 the Cape Colony gained "Responsible Government" and its first Prime Minister, John Molteno, ordered a re-negotiation of the country's mail services. In 1876, keen to avoid either of the two main companies gaining a monopoly on the country's shipping, he awarded the South African mail contract jointly to both the Castle Mail Packet Company and the Union Line. The contract included a condition that the two companies would not amalgamate, as well as other clauses to promote competition, such as alternating services and speed premiums. This competition led to their shipping services running at unprecedented speed and efficiency. The contract was eventually to expire however, and the period of intense competition was later to give way to co-operation, including transporting troops and military equipment during the Boer War. Finally, on 8 March 1900, the Union Line and Castle Shipping Line merged, creating the Union-Castle Mail Steamship Company, Ltd, with Castle Shipping Line taking over the fleet.[2][3][4]

Union-Castle LineEdit

Dover Castle which was built in 1900, was a hospital ship in the First World War and was sunk by torpedo in 1917
Armadale Castle was built in 1903 and was an armed merchant cruiser in the First World War
RMS Edinburgh Castle was built in 1910, was an armed merchant cruiser in the First World War and an accommodation ship in the Second World War
Gloucester Castle was built in 1911 and was a hospital ship in the First World War. Afterwards she returned to civilian service. She was sunk by torpedo in 1942
Llandovery Castle was built in 1914, was a hospital ship in the First World War and was sunk by torpedo in 1918
RMS Carnarvon Castle was built in 1926, was an armed merchant cruiser in the Second World War and fought the German auxiliary cruiser Thor in 1940
Athlone Castle was built in 1936 and was a troopship in the Second World War

Union-Castle named most of their ships with the suffix "Castle" in their names; the names of several inherited from the Union Line were changed to this scheme (for example, Galacian became Glenart Castle) but others (such as Galeka) retained their original name. They were well known for the lavender-hulled liners with red funnels topped in black, running on a rigid timetable between Southampton and Cape Town. Every Thursday at 4pm a Union-Castle Royal Mail Ship would leave Southampton bound for Cape Town. At the same time, a Union-Castle Royal Mail Ship would leave Cape Town bound for Southampton. In 1922 the line introduced its Round Africa service, a nine-week voyage calling at twenty ports en route. Alternate sailings travelled out via the Suez Canal and out via West Africa.[1]

The combined line was bought by Royal Mail Line in 1911, but continued to operate as Union-Castle. Many of the line's vessels were requisitioned for service as troop ships or hospital ships in the First World War, and eight were sunk by mines or German U-boats. The Royal Mail Line ran into financial difficulties in the 1930s, culminating in the prosecution of its director Lord Kylsant, and Union-Castle Line became an independent company again with Vernon Thomson as Managing Director. Many vessels were again requisitioned in the Second World War. Three – Dunnottar Castle, Carnarvon Castle, Dunvegan Castle became armed merchant cruisers. Pretoria Castle (1939) was also first requisitioned as an armed merchant cruiser, but later served as an escort carrier.[5]

After the war the line made good use of its three ships converted to troop transports to facilitate carrying the vast number of emigrants seeking new lives in East and South Africa. When they ran out of berths the line set up its own internal travel agency to book passages on other lines and even air services. The mail service to South Africa, curtailed during hostilities, recommenced with the sailing of Roxburgh Castle from Southampton on 2 January 1947.[1]

British & Commonwealth, and International Liner ServicesEdit

RMS Edinburgh Castle, built in 1947
Bloemfontein Castle, built in 1950

The company took over the King Line in 1949, and merged with Bullard King and Clan Line in 1956 to form British & Commonwealth Shipping. It merged with South African Marine Corporation in 1973 to create International Liner Services, but competition with air travel adversely affected its shipping activities, and cargo shipping rapidly became containerised. The final South African mail service arrived in Southampton on 24 October 1977, and International Liner Services withdrew from shipping in 1982. British & Commonwealth continued in other fields, and acquired Atlantic Computers in 1989, but accounting problems soon became apparent and British & Commonwealth was liquidated in 1990.

In the 1950s and 60s the line operated a fleet of fifteen ships, eight on the principal weekly mail run from Southampton to Cape Town. Each ship could carry an average of two hundred First Class passengers and four hundred and fifty in Tourist Class. Six of the remaining ships operated the monthly Round Africa service, sailing both clockwise and anti-clockwise round the continent. The remaining ship operated a service carrying up to 750 Tourist Class passengers to Beira and back via the West Coast route every three months.[1]

In December 1999 the Union-Castle name was revived for a millennium cruise; the P&O ship Victoria was chartered for a 60-day cruise around Africa, and had its funnel repainted for the occasion.

The last few surviving Union-Castle Line ships were scrapped in the early 21st century, the former Kenya Castle in 2001, the former Transvaal Castle in 2003, the former Dunnottar Castle in 2004, and finally Windsor Castle in 2005.


The cargo ship MV Winchester Castle, built in 1964 as Clan Line's Clan Ramsay

The initial Union fleet consisted of the colliers Union, Briton, Saxon, Norman and Dane. In 1860 this was augmented by the much larger Cambrian.[1]

At the time of the merger in 1900, the Union fleet included:

Arab, Briton, Falcon, Gaika, Galeka, Galician, Gascon, Gaul, German (2), Goorkka, Goth, Greek, Guelph, Mexican, Moor, Norman (2), Sabine, Saxon (4), Scot, Spartan, Susquehanna, and Trojan, with Celt on order (renamed Walmer Castle before it came into service)

and the Castle Line fleet included:

Arundel Castle (3) (1894–1905), Avondale Castle (1897–1912), Braemar Castle (1) (1898–1924), Carisbrook Castle (1898–1922), Doune Castle (1890–1904), Dunolly Castle (1897–1905), Dunottar Castle (1890–1913), Dunvegan Castle (1896–1923), Garth Castle (1880–1901), Harlech Castle (1894–1904), Hawarden Castle (1883–1904), Kildonan Castle (1899–1931), Kinfauns Castle (2) (1899–1927), Lismore Castle (1891–1904), Norham Castle (1883–1903), Pembroke Castle (2) (1883–1906), Raglan Castle (1897–1905), Roslin Castle (2) (1883–1904), Tantallon Castle (2) (1894–1901), Tintagel Castle (1) (1896–1912)
Ship Built Tonnage Notes and references
Alnwick Castle 1901 5,893 Passenger steamer

Built by William Beardmore and Company, Glasgow
Torpedoed by U-81 on 21 March 1917

Armadale Castle 1903 12,973 1936 scrapped
Aros Castle 1901 4,460 Steamer

Built by Barclay, Curle & Co., Ltd., Glasgow
Torpedoed by U-90 on 21 Nov 1917

Arundel Castle 1921 19,023 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 11 September 1919, completed 8 April 1921, maiden voyage 22 April 1921, scrapped 1959
Athlone Castle 1936 25,564 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 28 November 1935, completed 13 May 1936, maiden voyage 22 May 1936, scrapped 1965
Balmoral Castle 1910 13,361 1939 scrapped
Balmoral Castle 1965 7,952 ex-Clan Robertson

1976 renamed Balmoral Castle
1979 renamed Balmoral Universal
1982 sold to Greece, renamed Psara Reefer.

Bampton Castle 1920 6,698 1932 sold to Greece, renamed Atlantis
Banbury Castle 1918 6,430 ex-Glenstrae

1920 purchased from Glen Line, renamed Banbury Castle
1931 sold to Greece, renamed Rokos

Berwick Castle 1902 5,883 1919 burnt out at Mombasa, sold to Italy
Bloemfontein Castle 1950 18,400 1959 sold to Greece, renamed Patris
Braemar Castle 1898 6,318 Hospital ship

Built by Barclay, Curle & Co., Ltd., Glasgow
Mined and damaged by U-73 in the Aegean Sea in 1916

Braemar Castle 1943 7,067 ex-Empire Duchess

1949 purchased from MoWT, renamed Braemar Castle
1950 transferred to King Line, renamed King James
1958 sold to Hong Kong, renamed Tyne Breeze

Braemar Castle 1952 17,029 1966 scrapped
Bratton Castle 1920 6,696 1931 sold to Greece, renamed Proteus
Capetown Castle 1938 27,000 1967 scrapped
Carlisle Castle 1913 4,325 Steamer

Built by Northumberland SB. Co., Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne
1915 purchased from F.S. Holland & Co., London, renamed Carlisle Castle
Torpedoed by UB-57 near Royal Sovereign Light Vessel on 14 Feb 1918

Carlow Castle 1917 5,833 1930 sold to Mitchell, Cotts & Co., renamed Cape St. Columba
Carnarvon Castle 1926 20,122 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 14 January 1926, completed 26 June 1926, maiden voyage 16 July 1926, scrapped 1963
Cawdor Castle 1902 6,235 1926 went ashore South West Africa and declared a total loss
Chepstow Castle 1913 7,494 ex-Anglo-Brazilian

1915 purchased from Nitrate Producers Ltd., renamed Chepstow Castle
1933 scrapped

Cluny Castle 1903 5,147 1924 transferred to Bullard King, renamed Umkuzi
Comrie Castle 1903 5,173 Passenger steamer

Built by Barclay, Curle & Co., Ltd., Glasgow
Torpedoed and damaged by UC-71 5 nautical miles (9.3 km) S of St.Catherine's Point on 14 Mar 1918
1924 transferred to Bullard King, renamed Umvoti

Corfe Castle 1901 4,592 1927 sold to W. Schuchmann, Hamburg, renamed Ostee
Crawford Castle 1910 4,264 ex-Hova

1917 purchased from F.S. Holland, London, renamed Crawford Castle
1930 sold to W. Kunstmann, Stettin, renamed Victoria W. Kunstmann

Dover Castle 1904 8,271 Hospital ship

Built by Barclay, Curle & Co., Ltd., Glasgow
Torpedoed and sunk by UC-67 50 nautical miles (93 km) N of Bona, Algeria on 26 May 1917

Dover Castle 1964 7,950 ex-Clan Ranald

1976 renamed Dover Castle
1979 renamed Dover Universal
1981 sold to Greece, renamed Golden Sea

Drakensburg Castle 1945 9,905 ex-Empire Allenby

1946 purchased from MoWT, renamed Drakensburg Castle
1959 scrapped

Dromore Castle 1919 5,242 Cargo ship

Built by Harland & Wolff at Greenock
Launched as War Poplar, completed as Dromore Castle
She hit a mine and sank whilst in a convoy 20 nautical miles (37 km) SE of the River Humber, without any loss of life, on 12 Dec 1941

Dunbar Castle 1883 2,837 Steamship

Laid down as Doune Castle and upon purchase named Dunbar Castle
1895 Sold to Fairfield Ship Building and Engineering Co. and renamed Olympia
10 December 1910 – ran aground on Bligh Reef off Alaska's Prince William Sound and sank without loss of life

Dunbar Castle 1930 10,002 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, completed 20 May 1930, struck a mine off North Foreland, Kent and sank on 9 January 1940
Dundrum Castle 1919 5,259 Cargo ship built by Harland and Wolff, completed 31 December 1919, caught fire and sank in Red Sea 2 April 1943
Dunluce Castle 1904 8,114 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, completed 15 September 1904, sold for scrapping in 1939 but purchased by the Admiralty for use as accommodation ship
Dunottar Castle 1890 5,625 Passenger ship

Built by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co, Goven, Scotland Dec 1899 requisitioned as a troop transport for the Second Boer War
1913 sold to the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company as Caribbean

Dunnottar Castle 1936 15,002 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 25 January 1936, completed 27 June 1936, maiden voyage 10 July 1936, renamed Victoria 1958, The Victoria 1976 and Princesa Victoria 1993, scrapped 2004
Dunvegan Castle 1936 15,007 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 26 March 1936, completed 27 August 1936, requisitioned by Admiralty in 1940 as an armed merchant cruiser and renamed HMS Dunvegan Castle, torpedoed and sunk off Ireland by U-46 on 27 August 1940
Durban Castle 1938 17,382 1962 scrapped. In 1947 it was the crime scene of the Porthole Murder Case[6][7]
Durham Castle 1904 8,217 Passenger/cargo

Built by Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering, Govan
1939 requisitioned by the Admiralty as an accommodation ship
Struck a mine off Cromarty on 20 Jan 1940 and sank

Edinburgh Castle 1910 13,326 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 27 January 1910, completed 28 April 1910, maiden voyage May 1910, sunk as a target by gunfire by Royal Navy off Freetown 1945
Edinburgh Castle 1947 28,700 1976 scrapped
Edinburgh Universal 1979 9,996 ex-Polar Honduras (Hamburg-Sud)
1981 leased from Barclays Mercantile Finance Co renamed Edinburgh Universal

1984 transferred to Hong Kong renamed Caspian Universal

Eider 1900 1,236 1926 purchased from Royal Mail SP Co., for the Southampton – Bremen – Hamburg feeder service

1936 sold to J. Billmeir, renamed Stanhill

Galway Castle 1911 7,988 Passenger ship built by Harland & Wolff, torpedoed and sunk by U-82 160 nautical miles (300 km) SW of Fastnet Rock, Ireland on 12 September 1918
Garth Castle 1910 7,612 Launched 13 January 1910.[8] 1939 scrapped
Glenart Castle 1900 6,807 Formerly Union Line Galician

Hospital ship
Built by Harland & Wolff, Ltd., Belfast
1 Mar 1917 – Mined and damaged by UC-65
26 Feb 1918 – Torpedoed and sunk by UC-56 10 nautical miles (19 km) W of Lundy

Glengorm Castle 1898 6,763 Formerly Union Line German
Gloucester Castle 1911 7,999 Hospital ship

Built by Fairfield SB. & Eng. Co., Ltd., Glasgow
31 Mar 1917 – Damaged by UB-32 near the Isle of Wight 15 Jul 1942 – Sunk by German raider Michel off South West Africa. Captain H.H. Rose and 92 passengers and crew were killed. Two lifeboats containing 61 people were picked up by the raider and taken to Japan as prisoners

Good Hope Castle 1945 9,905 ex-Empire Life

1946 purchased from MoWT, renamed Good Hope Castle
1959 scrapped

Good Hope Castle 1965 10,500 1978 sold to Italy, renamed Franca C
Gordon Castle 1901 4,408 1924 scrapped
Grantully Castle 1909 7,612 Launched 14 October 1909.[8] 1939 scrapped
Guildford Castle 1911 7,995 1 June 1933 beached after collision in Elbe with Blue Funnel Line's Stentor. Total loss
Hansa 1904 880 1907 transferred from Liverpool-Hamburg Line

1937 sold to J. Billmeir, renamed Stanray

Helius 1888 4,579 ex-Dresden, (North German Lloyd)

1903 purchased by Houston Line, renamed Helius
1904 purchased by Union-Castle
1906 sold to Turkey, renamed Tirimujghian

Incomati 1920 340 1924 purchased from Portuguese Government, East Africa feeder service

1928 sold to Portugal

Iolaire 1902 999 Sir Donald Currie's yacht, used as officer cadet training ship

1914–1918 HMS Iolaire anti-submarine patrol ship
1939 became HMS Persephone
1948 scrapped

Kenilworth Castle 1904 12,975 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 15 December 1903, completed 19 May 1904, scrapped 1936
Kenilworth Castle 1944 9,916 ex-Empire Wilson

1946 purchased from MoWT, renamed Kenilworth Castle
1968 scrapped

Kenya Castle 1951 17,040 1967 sold to Greece, renamed Amerikanis
Kinnaird Castle 1956 7,718 ex-Clan Ross

ex-South African Scientist, renamed Kinnaird Castle
1962 reverted to Clan Line
1969 transferred to King Line
1975 sold to Panama, renamed Nazeer

Kinpurnie Castle 1954 8,121 ex-Clan Stewart, ex-South African Sculptor

1961 transferred from Safmarine renamed Kinpurnie Castle
1967 sold to Panama, renamed Hellenic Med

Kinpurnie Castle 1966 7,950 ex-Clan Ross

1976 transferred from Houston Line, renamed Kinpurnie Castle
1979 renamed Kinpurnie Universal
1982 sold to Greece, renamed Syros Reefer

Leasowe Castle 1917 8,106 Passenger steamer

Built by Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., Birkenhead
20 Apr 1917 – Torpedoed and damaged by U-35 90 nautical miles (170 km) WxN of Gibraltar
27 May 1918 – Torpedoed and sunk by UB-51 104 nautical miles (193 km) W of Alexandria

Llandaff Castle 1926 10,786 Passenger liner/troop transport

Built by Workman, Clark & Co Ltd, Belfast
She took part in Operation Ironclad
Torpedoed and sunk by U-177 on 30 Nov 1942 off South Africa

Llandovery Castle 1914 11,423 Hospital ship

Built by Barclay, Curle & Co., Ltd., Glasgow
27 Jun 1918 – Torpedoed and sunk by SM U-86 116 nautical miles (215 km) W of Fastnet Rock, Ireland

Llandovery Castle 1925 10,640 1953 scrapped
Llangibby Castle 1929 11,951 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff (Govan), launched 4 July 1929, completed 21 November 1929, maiden voyage 5 December 1929, damaged during an air raid while docked in Liverpool on the night of on 21–22 December 1940, torpedoed and damaged by the U-402 16 January 1942, scrapped 1954
Llanstephan Castle 1914 11,348 1952 scrapped
Lochgair 1888 111 1901 acquired as tender at Port Elizabeth

1905 sold to J.G. Stewart, Glasgow, renamed Loch Gair

Newark Castle 1902 6,224 Passenger/cargo steamer

12 Mar 1908 ran ashore 4 nautical miles (7.4 km) from the coast, in Richard´s Bay near the Umhlatuzi River, South Africa

Pendennis Castle 1958 28,582 1976 sold to Philippines (Panama flag), renamed Ocean Queen

April 1980 scrapped

Polglass Castle 1903 4,631 ex-Reichenfels, (Hansa Line)

1914 captured by Britain
1916 managed by Union-Castle renamed Polglass Castle
1921 sold to Hansa Line, renamed Reichenfels

Pretoria Castle
Warwick Castle
1939 17,383 1942 sold to Admiralty and rebuilt as an aircraft carrier

1946 re-purchased by Union-Castle, renamed Warwick Castle
1962 scrapped

Pretoria Castle 1948 28,705 1966 transferred to South African Marine Corp., renamed S.A.Oranje

1975 scrapped.

Reina Del Mar 1956 20,263 Purchased from ex-Pacific Steam Nav. Co,

1964–1973 chartered by Union-Castle for cruising
1973 purchased by Union-Castle
1975 scrapped

Rhodesia Castle 1951 17,041 1967 scrapped
Richmond Castle 1938 7,798 Cargo ship

Built by Harland & Wolff Ltd, Belfast
Torpedoed and sunk by U-176 in mid-Atlantic

Richmond Castle 1944 7,971 1971 scrapped
Riebeeck Castle 1946 8,322 1971 scrapped
Ripley Castle 1917 7,521 ex-War Soldier

1919 purchased from shipping controller, renamed Ripley Castle
1931 scrapped

Rochester Castle 1937 7,795 1970 sold to Cyprus, renamed Glenda and scrapped
Roslin Castle 1935 7,016 Refrigerated cargo ship built by Harland and Wolff, completed 4 May 1935, scrapped 1967
Rosyth Castle 1918 4,328 ex-War Earl

1919 purchased from shipping controller, renamed Rosyth Castle
1920 transferred to Bullard King & Co., renamed Umlazi

Rotherwick Castle 1959 9,650 1975 sold to Liberia, renamed Sea Fortune
Rothesay Castle 1935 7,016 Refrigerated cargo ship built by Harland and Wolff, completed 11 May 1935, went ashore on Scottish Island of Islay, total loss 5 January 1940
Rothesay Castle 1960 9,650 1975 sold to Uruguay, renamed Laura
Rowallan Castle 1939 7,798 1942 bombed by German aircraft and sunk in Mediterranean
Rowallan Castle 1943 7,950 1971 scrapped
Roxburgh Castle 1937 7,801 Cargo ship

Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast
Torpedoed and sunk by U-107 in mid-Atlantic on 22 Feb 1943

Roxburgh Castle 1944 8,003 1971 scrapped
Rustenberg Castle 1946 8,322 1971 scrapped
Sandgate Castle 1922 7,607 1937 caught fire and sank NE of Bermuda
Sandown Castle 1921 7,607 1950 scrapped
Southampton Castle 1965 10,538 1978 sold to Italy, renamed Paola C
Stirling Castle 1936 25,554 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 15 August 1935, completed 29 January 1936, maiden voyage 7 February 1936, scrapped 1966
Stirling Universal 1979 9,065 ex-Hilco Speedster (Larsen. Oslo)

1981 leased from Lombard Facilities Ltd, London renamed Stirling Universal
1984 transferred to Hong Kong renamed Speedster Universal

Tantallon Castle 1953 7,448 1971 sold to Cyprus, renamed Aris II
Tintagel Castle 1954 7,447 1971 sold to Cyprus, renamed Armar
Transvaal Castle 1961 32,697 Ocean liner

Built by John Brown & Company, Clydebank, Scotland Sold to Safmarine in 1966 and renamed SA Vaal
Scrapped in 2003

Walmer Castle 1902 12,546 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 6 July 1901, completed 20 February 1902, scrapped 1932
Walmer Castle 1936 906 1941 Southampton – Bremen – Hamburg feeder service

21 Sep 1941 bombed and sunk in the Atlantic while convoy rescue ship

Warwick Castle 1930 20,445 Passenger ship/troop transport built by Harland & Wolff, launched 29 April 1930, completed 16 January 1931, maiden voyage 30 January 1931, torpedoed and sunk by U-413 in mid-Atlantic on 14 November 1942
Winchester Castle 1930 20,109 Passenger ship built by Harland and Wolff, launched 19 November 1929, completed 11 October 1930, maiden voyage 24 October 1930, scrapped 1960
Winchester Castle 1964 7,950 ex-Clan Ramsey

1977 renamed Winchester Castle
1979 renamed Winchester Universal
1980 sold to Greece, renamed Lady Madonna

Windsor Castle 1915 18,967 Ocean liner

Built by John Brown & Company, Clydebank, Scotland
Torpedoed by enemy aircraft and sunk on 23 Mar 1943 off Algiers

Windsor Castle 1960 37,640 1977 sold to Yiannis Latsis, Piraeus, renamed Margarita L (Panama flag).

Scrapped at Alang, India, from August 2005

York Castle 1901 5,517 1924 sold to Italy, renamed San Terenzo


  1. ^ a b c d e Damant 1977[page needed]
  2. ^ Murray 1953, p. 74.
  3. ^ "Sir Donald Currie". Ancestry24.
  4. ^ Molteno 1900, p. 120.
  5. ^ Gardiner 1980[page needed]
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b "Launches and Trial Trips". International Marine Engineering & Naval Architect. Marine Engineering, Inc., New York—London. 32 (February): 284. 1910. Retrieved 2 February 2018.

Sources and further readingEdit

External linksEdit