Ungava Peninsula

The Ungava Peninsula of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, is bounded by Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait to the north, and Ungava Bay to the east. This peninsula is part of the Labrador Peninsula, and covers about 252,000 square kilometres (97,000 sq mi). Its northernmost point is Cape Wolstenholme, which is also the northernmost point of Quebec. The peninsula is also part of the Canadian Shield, and consists entirely of treeless tundra dissected by large numbers of rivers and glacial lakes, flowing generally east–west in a parallel fashion. The peninsula was not deglaciated until 6,500 years ago (11,500 years after the Last Glacial Maximum) and is believed to have been the prehistoric centre from which the vast Laurentide Ice Sheet spread over most of North America during the last glacial epoch.

Ungava Peninsula
Ungava Peninsula location map.svg
Area252,000 km2 (97,000 mi²)
CountriesCanada

ClimateEdit

The climate is extremely cold (Dfc in the Köppen climate classification) because the Labrador Current keeps the region (and all of northern Québec) colder in the summer than other regions at comparable latitudes:[1]

Climate data for Kuujjuaq
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
7.8
(46.0)
12.1
(53.8)
14.7
(58.5)
31.1
(88.0)
33.1
(91.6)
32.2
(90.0)
30.3
(86.5)
28.3
(82.9)
18.3
(64.9)
10.3
(50.5)
8.3
(46.9)
33.1
(91.6)
Average high °C (°F) −19.7
(−3.5)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
4.3
(39.7)
12.4
(54.3)
17.1
(62.8)
15.6
(60.1)
9.4
(48.9)
2.2
(36.0)
−4.9
(23.2)
−15
(5)
−1.2
(29.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −24.3
(−11.7)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−9.1
(15.6)
0.3
(32.5)
7.2
(45.0)
11.5
(52.7)
10.6
(51.1)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
−8.4
(16.9)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−5.7
(21.7)
Average low °C (°F) −28.8
(−19.8)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−23.6
(−10.5)
−14.1
(6.6)
−3.8
(25.2)
2
(36)
5.8
(42.4)
5.6
(42.1)
1.9
(35.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
−11.9
(10.6)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−10.2
(13.6)
Record low °C (°F) −49.8
(−57.6)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−34.1
(−29.4)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−8.3
(17.1)
−1.6
(29.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
−20
(−4)
−31.1
(−24.0)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−49.8
(−57.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.2
(1.31)
28.4
(1.12)
30.7
(1.21)
27.3
(1.07)
29.6
(1.17)
51.5
(2.03)
59.2
(2.33)
70.4
(2.77)
62.1
(2.44)
51.9
(2.04)
46.6
(1.83)
36
(1.4)
526.8
(20.74)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.1
(0.00)
0.6
(0.02)
0.6
(0.02)
2.5
(0.10)
14.8
(0.58)
44.8
(1.76)
59.1
(2.33)
70.0
(2.76)
54.1
(2.13)
25.7
(1.01)
4.7
(0.19)
0.4
(0.02)
277.4
(10.92)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 33.7
(13.3)
29
(11)
31.4
(12.4)
25.3
(10.0)
14.7
(5.8)
6.3
(2.5)
0.1
(0.0)
0.5
(0.2)
7.6
(3.0)
27.5
(10.8)
43.4
(17.1)
37.5
(14.8)
257
(100.9)
Source: Meteorological Service of Canada[1]

DemographicsEdit

The 10,000 inhabitants of the peninsula (90% Inuit), live in 12 villages spread along the coast. The largest village, Kuujjuaq, is the capital of the Kativik Regional Government, which includes all of the peninsula. The peninsula's offshore islands are part of the Nunavut Territory. The region is accessible by air services, with links to southern Québec, and seasonal shipping when sea-ice breaks up. Thick permafrost prevents the use of conventional building techniques in some areas.[citation needed]

GeologyEdit

The Ungava Peninsula, situated on the northeast portion of the Canadian Shield, is where the Rae Province connects with the Superior Province. The region is composed of Archean rocks (ca. 2.7-2.9 Ga) from the Douglas Harbour Domain (see Superior craton). The Archean rocks are overlain by Paleoproterozoic supracrustal sequences (ca. 1.8-2.1 Ga) and intruded by Paleoproterozoic diabase dykes (ca.2.0-2.2 Ga). The supracrustal rocks comprise nappes that form part of the Ungava and Labrador troughs. In the zone east of the Labrador Trough axis, the Paleoproterozoic deformation reworked the Archean rocks of the Douglas Harbour Domain, as well as the Paleoproterozoic diabase dykes. The metamorphic conditions which parallel the deformation increase from west to east and from middle amphibolite to granulite facies. U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon yield secondary ages around 1790 Ma. These results are interpreted as the age of metamorphism and indicate a reactivation of the northeastern margin of the Superior Province during a Paleoproterozoic tectono-metamorphic event, resulting from probable continental collision. (Madore, 2001).[citation needed] Pingualuit impact crater is located on the peninsula.[2][3]

FaunaEdit

The Ungava brown bear, an extinct population of the grizzly bear, is named after this peninsula.[4][5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Meteorological Service of Canada (5 May 2012). "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000 : Kuujjuaq". Environment Canada. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  2. ^ "Pingualuit (National Park)". Nunavik Parks. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
  3. ^ "Pingualuit crater (Chubb crater)". Wondermondo.
  4. ^ Spiess, Arthur; Cox, Steven (1976). "Discovery of the skull of a grizzly bear in Labrador" (PDF). Arctic. 29 (4): 194–200. doi:10.14430/arctic2804. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  5. ^ Loring, Stephen; Spiess, Arthur (2007). "Further Documentation Supporting the Former Existence of Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Quebec-Labrador" (PDF). Arctic. 60 (1): 7–16. doi:10.14430/arctic260. Retrieved 21 October 2014.

External linksEdit