Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve

Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Landgrave of Laurvig (20 July 1638 – 17 April 1704) was Governor-general of Norway (Stattholdere i Norge) from 1664–1699. He was the leading general in Norway during the Scanian War, whose Norwegian leg is conventionally named the Gyldenløve War after him.[1][2][3] In Norway he was also the Landgrave of Laurvig.

Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve
Governor-general of Norway
Born(1638-07-20)20 July 1638
Bremen, Holstein
Died17 April 1704(1704-04-17) (aged 65)
Hamburg, Germany
Spouse
  • (m. 1659; div. 1660)
  • (m. 1660; div. 1670)
    (m. 1670; died 1701)
Coat of Arms
Herregården Manor House - Larvik Museum
Larvik Church
Charlottenborg Palace

Early life edit

Gyldenløve was born in Bremen, Germany, the illegitimate son of Prince Frederick, later King Frederick III of Denmark, who was at the time Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and coadjutor of the Bishopric of Halberstadt. His mother was Margrethe Pape, (1620–1684) who was made Baronesse of Løvendal by King Christian IV on September 15 that same year. When his father became King of Denmark-Norway in 1648, Ulrik Frederik assumed the surname Gyldenløve which was used by illegitimate sons of Danish kings.[4]

During the first half of the 1650s, he traveled in Europe, visiting France, Italy and Spain. He attended the University of Siena in 1654 and in Rome in 1655. On 21 August 1655 he became a naturalised Danish noble.[5]

Military career edit

In 1661, he was put in charge at Vordingborg and appointed commander Kalø Castle in Århus. In 1657 he became colonel in Norway. Gyldenlove participated in the Dano-Swedish War (1658–1660), where he distinguished himself in the Battle of Nyborg on 14 November 1659.[6][7][8]

Civil career and holdings in Norway edit

In 1664 Gyldenløve was appointed viceroy (Statholder) of Norway, replacing Iver Krabbe (1602- 1666). He studied conditions in Norway very carefully, and became a strong advocate for many important reforms, such as a simplified tax system and the establishment of a Court of appeals in Norway separate from the one in Denmark. He is also remembered for his role in the construction and improvement of nine fortresses along the Swedish border.[8][9]

Gyldenløve took part in the 17th-century Dano-Swedish wars where he was particularly successful at the Battle of Nyborg on 14 November 1659. In 1666, he became commander-in-chief of the Norwegian army which was victorious in the Scanian Wars (1675–1679).[8][10]

Gyldenløve implemented the reforms initiated by the prior Governor-general Hannibal Sehested (1609–1666) effecting taxation, defence and justice and protection for tenant farmers. He was also active in Danish politics from 1670 in association with Peder Griffenfeld (1635–1699) who served as Chancellor of Denmark.[8][11][12]

In 1671, Gyldenløve founded the city of Laurvig (modern-day Larvik), and was named Count of Laurvig. In Larvik, he is remembered for the construction of Larvik Church (Larvik kirke), its main church as well as Laurvig Manor House (Laurvig Herregården), which is still one of the largest wooden structures in Norway. Larvik Church was inaugurated in 1677. Gyldenløve issued a gift to the church where the interest on the capital was to be used for maintenance. Laurvig Manor House was built beginning in 1674 and was completed for his third wedding with Antoinette Augusta von Aldenburg in 1677.[13][14][15]

Gyldenløve Chamber edit

The site of Gyldenløve Chamber in Copenhagen, later to be known as Charlottenborg Palace (Charlottenborg Slot), was donated by King Christian V of Denmark to his half brother Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve on 22 March 1669 in connection with the establishment of Kongens Nytorv. Gyldenløve built his new mansion from 1672 to 1683 as the first building on the new square.[16][17]

Family edit

Count Ulrik Frederik married three times: His first married 1659 Sophie Urne (1629-1714), daughter of Jørgen Urne and Margrete Marsvin, who he had to leave for his second Marriage with Marie Grubbe (1643–1718) 1660, from whom he was divorced after nine years in 1670. His third wife was Countess Antoinette Augusta von Aldenburg (1660-1701), eldest daughter of Anton I, Count von Aldenburg und Knyphausen (by his first wife, Countess Auguste Johanna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein), legitimated son of Anton Gunther, who belonged to the Delmenhorst cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg whose senior line became hereditary kings of Denmark. Ulrik Frederik's two first marriages ended in divorces, but he has descendants from the first and third.[18]

He had many children, both legitimate and illegitimate, four of whom lived to adulthood, married and left descendants:

By Sophie Urne:

  1. Woldemar Gyldenløve (1660–1740), later Baron of Lowendal, father of German officer and statesmen Ulrich Frédéric Woldemar, Comte de Lowendal (1700–1755)[19]
  2. Carl Løvendal (1660-1689), committed suicide on a ship near the island Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies)

By Countess Antoinette Augusta von Aldenburg:

  1. Countess Charlotte Amalie af Danneskiold-Samsøe (1682-1699), wed Christian Gyldenløve (1674-1703), an illegitimate son of Christian V of Denmark[20]
  2. Ulrikke Amalie Antoinette af Danneskiold-Samsøe (1686-1755), wed Count Carl von Ahlefeldt (1670–1722) [21]
  3. Ferdinand Anton Danneskiold-Laurvig, Count af Danneskiold-Samsøe (1688-1754), wed Countess Ulrikke Eleonore af Reventlow (1690-1754)[22]

Through his daughter, Charlotte Amalie, and her daughter, Countess Frederikke Louise af Danneskiold-Samsø , Ulrik Frederik became the ancestor of the Dukes of Augustenborg and thus, among others, of Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and the German Empress Augusta.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Gyldenløve, Ulrik Frederik, 1638-1704". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  2. ^ "Ulrik Fredrik Gyldenløve (1638–1704)". Larvik Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  3. ^ Helge Kongsrud. "Statholderembetet 1572-1771". statholderembetet.html. Archived from the original on 2007-02-12. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  4. ^ "Ulrik Fredrik Gyldenløve (1638–1704)". Larvik Museum. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  5. ^ "Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve" (in Danish). Stamtavler over danske adelsslægter. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
  6. ^ "Kalø Slotsruin - Kongeborgen ved Rønde". fortidsmindeguide.dk. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  7. ^ "Battle of Nyborg – November 14th 1659". boardgamegeek.com. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d "Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Erik Opsahl. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  9. ^ "Krabbe, Iver, 1602-66". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  10. ^ Gustaf Björlin. "Kriget mot Danmark 1675-1679". zenker.se. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  11. ^ "Hannibal Sehested". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  12. ^ "Peter Griffenfeld". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  13. ^ "Larvik kirke". Kirkesøk. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  14. ^ "Laurvig Herregården". vestfoldmuseene.no. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  15. ^ "Herregården Manor House". Lonely Planet. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  16. ^ "Gyldenløve Chamber". Moltkes Palæ. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  17. ^ "Charlottenborg Slot". Kunsthal Charlottenborg. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  18. ^ "Marie Grubbe (ca. 1643 - ca. 1718)". Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  19. ^ "Løvendal, Ulrik Frederik Valdemar Rigsgreve, 1700-55". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  20. ^ "Gyldenløve, Christian, 1674-1703". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  21. ^ "Ahlefeldt, Carl Greve, 1670-1722". Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  22. ^ "Ferdinand Anton Danneskiold-Laurvig (1688–1754)". Larvik Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2020.

Other sources edit

  • A History of Norway by Karen Larson, (Princeton University Press) 1948
  • The History of the Norwegian People by Knut Gjerset, (MacMillan) 1915
  • Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve by Otto von Munthe af Morgenstierne (København, E. Munksgaard) 1944

External links edit

Danish nobility
New creation Count of Laurvig
1671–1704
Succeeded by