The Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP; Ukrainian: Украї́нська Правосла́вна Це́рква – Ки́ївський Патріарха́т (УПЦ-КП), romanized: Ukrainska Pravoslavna Tserkva — Kyivskyi Patriarkhat (UPTs-KP)) is an Orthodox church in Ukraine, and self-identifies as the successor to the original Kyivan Ruthenian Patriarchate. It came into existence in 1992, and had the largest number of Orthodox Christian followers in all of Ukraine for most of its primary existence.
|Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate|
|Classification||Independent Eastern Orthodox (1992–October 2018)|
previously canonical Eastern Orthodox (October–December 2018)
|Language||Ukrainian, Church Slavonic|
|Founder||Metropolitan Filaret (Denysenko)|
|Separated from||Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) (1992)|
|Merged into||Orthodox Church of Ukraine (2019)|
|Defunct||15 December 2018 (Reneged and re-established since 2019)|
|Members||Reported as 25 percent of religious Ukrainian population by Razumkov Centre (2016); less than 100,000 (2019)|
|Official website||Ukrainian Orthodox Church|
After its unilateral declaration of autocephaly in 1992, the patriarchate was not recognised by the other Eastern Orthodox churches, and was considered a "schismatic group" by the Moscow Patriarchate. The Ecumenical Patriarchate decided on 11 October to reintegrate the faithful Christians of Ukraine into the Orthodox Church including the faithful and hierarchs of the UOC-KP and accord to the newly formed church autocephaly. The newly formed church was not recognised as a patriarchy.
St Volodymyr's Cathedral in Kyiv is the UOC-KP's patriarchal cathedral. The church's primate was Patriarch Filaret (Denysenko), who was enthroned in 1995. Filaret was excommunicated by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1997, an action not recognized by the UOC-KP synod.
After the 9–11 October 2018 synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Filaret's appeal against the excommunication by the Moscow patriarchate was re-examined, he was reinstated as a bishop, and the Ecumenical Patriarchate decided it would grant autocephaly to a unified church in Ukraine. The Kyiv Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church accepted the proposal of the ecumenical patriarchate to dissolve and participate to a unification synod in Kyiv. Thus they merged with other Moscow Patriarchate bishops into an independent (autocephalous) Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox Church of Ukraine. The newly founded autocephalous church has been until now recognized by the ecumenical patriarchate of Constantinople, the autocephalous Church of Greece and the patriarchate of Alexandria, and not yet by other autocephalous churches; the Serbian and Polish have refused to recognise Constantinople's reunification Synod and the creation of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine. The patriarchate of Moscow had forbidden its clergy from celebrating with clergy of the ecumenical patriarchate.
On 15 December 2018, bishops and delegates from three major branches of Orthodoxy in Ukraine (the UOC-KP, the UAOC and some members of the UOC-MP) unified at a council. During the council, Metropolitan Epiphanius I (a former bishop of the Kyiv Patriarchate) was elected Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine and became the primate of the new Orthodox Church of Ukraine.
On 20 June 2019, a few Pro-Filaret UOC (former UOC-KP) members—including Filaret—left the OCU after a local UOC-KP council. The church is not currently recognized by, or in communion with any of the mainstream Orthodox churches.
The Kyiv Patriarchate considers itself an independent church, a successor of the Metropolis of Kyiv and all Rus which existed under the Ecumenical Patriarchate until 1686 (when it was incorporated into the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church). In January 1992, after Ukraine became an independent state during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Metropolitan of Kyiv Filaret convened an assembly at the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra which submitted a request for Ukrainian autocephaly to the Moscow Patriarch. The Moscow Patriarch did not comply.
The church was organised in June 1992. Its nominal primate was the émigré Mstyslav (Skrypnyk), primate of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Mstyslav never approved the union of the UAOC and UOC-KP. Although Metropolitan Filaret had been the driving force of the Kyiv Patriarchate, it was not until the sudden death of Patriarch Volodymyr (Romaniuk) in July 1995 that he was elected the Patriarch of Kyiv and All Rus-Ukraine in October of that year. Filaret had been defrocked by the Moscow Patriarchate (in which he had been ordained and served as bishop from February 1962 to spring 1992), and was excommunicated in February 1997.
After the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea, 38 of the church's 46 parishes in Crimea ceased to exist; three churches were seized by Russian authorities. The Kyiv Patriarchate is unrecognised by the Moscow Patriarchate (which considers it schismatic) and other Orthodox churches. In April 2018, the Ecumenical Patriarchate began to consider a request by the Ukrainian Parliament to grant canonical status to the UOC-KP in Ukraine.
11 October 2018 Ecumenical Patriarchate decision edit
In early September 2018, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Bartholomew indicated that the Church of Constantinople did not recognise the Moscow Patriarchate's claim to ecclesiastical jurisdiction over "the region of today's Metropolis of Kyiv". On 11 October 2018, after a synod, the Patriarchate of Constantinople renewed an earlier decision to move towards granting autocephaly to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. The synod also withdrew Constantinople's 332-year qualified acceptance of the Russian Orthodox Church's jurisdiction over the Ukrainian Church, contained in a 1686 letter. It lifted the excommunications of Patriarch Filaret of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP) and Metropolitan Makariy of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC); both bishops were "canonically reinstated to their hierarchical or priestly rank, and their faithful ... restored to communion with the Church."
The following day, the UOC-KP declared that the decision restored the canonical recognition of the episcopate and clergy of the Kyiv Patriarchate. It was later clarified that the Ecumenical Patriarchate considered Filaret "the former metropolitan of Kyiv" and Makariy "the former Archbishop of Lviv" and, on 2 November 2018, the Ecumenical Patriarchate did not recognise the UAOC or the UOC-KP and their leaders. The Ecumenical Patriarchate declared that it recognised sacraments performed by the UOC-KP and the UAOC as valid.
On 20 October 2018, the UOC-KP changed the title of its leader to "His Holiness and Beatitude (name), Archbishop and Metropolitan of Kyiv – Mother of the Rus Cities and of Galicia, Patriarch of All Rus-Ukraine, Holy Archimandrite of the Holy Assumption Kyiv-Pechersk and Pochayiv Lavra". The abridged form is "His Holiness (name), Patriarch of Kyiv and All Rus’-Ukraine", and the form for interchurch relations is "Archbishop, Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Rus'-Ukraine". The full title and the interchurch-relations version's mention of "archbishop" and "metropolitan" and the abridged form's mention of "patriarch" have caused confusion.
Dissolution and merger with the UAOC into the OCU edit
On 15 December 2018, the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and UOC-KP hierarchies decided to dissolve the churches. That day, the UAOC, the UOC–KP and some members of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) were going to merge to form the Orthodox Church of Ukraine after a unification council.
According to Filaret, "the Kyiv Patriarchate has not been liquidated. It is not liquidated. They want to present the situation as if it was liquidated. The Kyiv Patriarchate can be liquidated by the one who created it". The Ukrainian Ministry of Culture, "in response to a widely circulated statement by the media, alleging that the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate still exists or is being restored in Ukraine", published a report that the UOC-KP had "actually and legally ceased its activities". Filaret said, "The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP) remains registered with state bodies. In particular, the Kyiv Patriarchate remains registered. This means the Kyiv Patriarchate continues to legally exist." According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice, the UOC-KP still existed.
Separation from the OCU and reestablishment of the UOC–KP edit
The local council of the UOC-KP (convened by Filaret) decided to cancel the decisions of the unification council of the Orthodox churches of Ukraine on 20 June 2019, during the conflict between Filaret and Epiphanius.
On 31 July 2019, the Ukrainian Ministry of Culture said the UOC-KP had ceased to exist. However, on 4 September 2019, the District Administrative Court of Kyiv suspended the liquidation of the UOC-KP at the request of the UOC-KP. On 11 September, another decision of the same court blocked "the Justice Ministry of Ukraine, the Culture Ministry of Ukraine, its structural sub-units, central-government and local authorities, and notaries public from performing any registration regarding the Kyiv Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate [UOC-KP], and their assets" On 11 November 2019, the Court of Appeal of the District Administrative Court of Kyiv confirmed legality of the process of liquidation of the UOC-KP.
On 14 December 2019, after the meeting of the enlarged Bishops' Council, held on 14 December in Kyiv on the occasion of the anniversary of the creation of the OCU, Epiphanius declared that the procedure of liquidation of the UAOC as well as the UOC-KP had been completed the day before. He added: "Such structures no longer exist. In confirmation of that, in the State Register there is marked 'activity DISCONTINUED'". In the same month, the UOC-KP stated it did not recognize the liquidation.
The Kyiv Patriarchate has 44 percent of Orthodox Christians, compared to 12.8 percent for the UOC of the Moscow Patriarchate. Although the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine (UOC-MP) has twice as many parishes, the UOC-KP had three times as many members. The former had 38 percent of all Orthodox and 25 percent of the population in 2016, and the Russian Orthodox had 23 percent of the Orthodox and 15 percent of the population. The UOC-KP had 34 dioceses worldwide, and over 5,100 parishes in Ukraine. Its United States vicariate consisted of 15 parishes, with its main cathedral St. Andrew's in Bloomingdale, Illinois. The church had six parishes in Australia, and over 40 in western Europe. The Russian government's reported negative influence on the Moscow Patriarchate and claims that it is using the patriarchate as a "tool of influence over Ukraine" led to a renewed April 2018 drive to recognise an independent Ukrainian Orthodox church which, according to Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, would help "eliminate internal strife and conflicts within the state."
In November 1991 the all-Ukrainian sobor of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, called by Metropolitan Filaret Denysenko, issued a request to the patriarch of Moscow for the autocephaly of the Ukrainian church. The sobor of the ROC held in April 1992 refused that request and decided to replace Metropolitan Filaret with Volodymyr Sabodan. In response to this, at the all-Ukrainian sobor in June 1992 one part of the Ukrainian Orthodox church, led by Metropolitan Filaret, decided to separate from the ROC and unite with the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) to form the Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Kyiv Patriarchate under Patriarch Mstyslav. Mstyslav never approved of the union of the UAOC and the UOC-KP.
Patriarch Mstyslav (Stepan Ivanovych Skrypnyk) was Patriarch of Kyiv and all Rus’-Ukraine and primate of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) and Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC–KP) from 1991 to 1993. After Mstyslav's death in 1993, the temporary union ended and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church separated. The primates of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church–Kyiv Patriarchate continued to hold the title of patriarch:
- Metropolitan Filaret (Filaret Denysenko) (1990–1992)
- Patriarch Mstyslav (Mstyslav Skrypnyk) (1992–1993)
- Patriarch Volodymyr (Volodomyr Romaniuk) (1993–1995)
- Patriarch Filaret (Filaret Denysenko), (1995–2018)
- Patriarch Filaret (Filaret Denysenko), (2019–present)
On 20 October 2018, the UOC-KP changed the title of its primate to "His Holiness and Beatitude (name), Archbishop and Metropolitan of Kyiv – Mother of the Rus Cities and of Galicia, Patriarch of All Rus-Ukraine, Holy Archimandrite of the Holy Assumption Kyiv-Pechersk and Pochayiv Lavra". The abridged form is "His Holiness (name), Patriarch of Kyiv and All Russia-Ukraine", and the form for inter-church relations is "Archbishop, Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Rus'-Ukraine". Metropolitan Hilarion called the bestowal of title a "farce".
Before the first disestablishment:
- Zakarpattia Oblast
- Deanery of Germany
- Eastern Moldavia
Exarchates and vicariates edit
- Exarchate in Greece
- Ukrainian Orthodox Vicarate of the UOC-KP in the US and Canada
- Vicariate in Australia
- European Exarchate
- Russian Exarchate
See also edit
- "РПЦ: вмешательство Константинополя в ситуацию на Украине может породить новые расколы". ТАСС (Interview with Metropolitan Hilarion (Alfeyev)). 1 September 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Metropolitan Hilarion: Filaret Denisenko was and remains a schismatic". mospat.ru. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
- "Акт об отлучении от Церкви монаха Филарета (Денисенко)". sobor-2008.ru. Archived from the original on 29 August 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "Official History of the Defrocking and Anathematization of Philaret Denisenko. Documents of the June 1992, 1994, and 1997 Bishops' Councils of the Russian Orthodox Church". OrthoChristian.Com. 17 October 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Патріархії, Прес-центр Київської. "X. The So-Called "Anathematization" Of Patriarch Filaret (part 2). - Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP)". archive.cerkva.info. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (11 October 2018). "Announcement (11/10/2018)". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Petrasiuk, Oleg (14 October 2018). "Ukraine thanks Ecumenical Patriarchate for supporting independence of Ukrainian Orthodox Church". KyivPost. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "The Ecumenical Synod lifted the anathema on the leaders of the UOC-KP and the UAOC | The Koz Times". koztimes.com. 11 October 2018. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- "Announcement of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople". Ecumenical Patriarchate. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- "Ecumenical Patriarchate To Recognize Ukrainian Church's Autocephaly Despite Moscow's Disagreement | Greek Reporter Europe". eu.greekreporter.com. 7 September 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- "The Patriarchate of Alexandria recognizes the Autocephalous Church of Ukraine (upd)". Orthodox Times. 8 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "Metropolitan Epiphanius: The Church of Greece recognized de facto our Church (upd)". Orthodox Times. 29 July 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- "Serbian Church refuses to recognize "reinstatement" of Filaret and Makariy". spzh.news. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Став Српске Православне Цркве о црквеној кризи у Украјини после најновијих одлука Цариградске Патријаршије | Српска Православна Црква [Званични сајт]". www.spc.rs (in Serbian). 12 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Serbian Orthodox Church Bishops' Council expresses its position on situation resulting from Patriarchate of Constantinople's actions in Ukraine | The Russian Orthodox Church". mospat.ru. 13 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
Kancelarii Św. Soboru Biskupów
Polskiego Autokefalicznego Kościoła Prawosławnego
15 listopada 2018 roku". www.orthodox.pl (in Polish). 16 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Ukraine". The CIA World Factbook. 8 February 2022. According to the CIA World Factbook, 19% of the Ukrainian population associated themselves with the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (cf. Orthodox (no particular jurisdiction) 16%, Ukrainian Orthodox – Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%).
- Coyle, James J. (24 April 2018). "Ukraine May Be Getting Its Own Church, but Not as Fast as Poroshenko Thinks". Atlantic Council. According to the Razumkov Center, among the 27.8 million Ukrainian members of Orthodox churches, allegiance to the Kyiv Patriarchate has grown from 12% in 2000 to 25% in 2016. Much of the growth has come from believers who previously did not associate with either patriarchate.
- "Procedure of election of new Primate of Ukrainian Church announced". risu.org.ua.
- "Metropolitan Epifaniy (Dumenko) becomes Primate of One Local Orthodox Church of Ukraine". risu.org.ua.
- СТАТУТ ПРО УПРАВЛІННЯ УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ ПРАВОСЛАВНОЇ ЦЕРКВИ КИЇВСЬКОГО ПАТРІАРХАТУ See Chapter I, § 1 and 7.
- After autocephaly, The Ukrainian Week (26 October 2018)
(in Ukrainian) The Ecumenical Patriarchate unveiled documents in support of Ukrainian autocephaly, Gazeta.ua (14 September 2018)
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- Polityuk, Pavel; Dikmen, Yesim (11 October 2018). "Ukraine wins approval for historic split from Russian church". Reuters. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- "Announcement (11/10/2018). - Announcements - The Ecumenical Patriarchate". www.patriarchate.org. Ecumenical Patriarchate. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
The Holy Synod discussed in particular and at length the ecclesiastical matter of Ukraine, in the presence of His Excellency Archbishop Daniel of Pamphilon and His Grace Bishop Hilarion of Edmonton, Patriarchal Exarchs to Ukraine, and following extensive deliberations decreed:
1) To renew the decision already made that the Ecumenical Patriarchate proceed to the granting of Autocephaly to the Church of Ukraine. [...]
4) To revoke the legal binding of the Synodal Letter of the year 1686 [...]
- Tomos ante portas: a short guide to Ukrainian church independence. Euromaidan Press. 14 October 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
the Synod ... of the Ecumenical Patriarchate ... gave further confirmation that Ukraine is on the path to receiving church independence from Moscow. ... Although President Poroshenko triumphantly announced that as a result of the meeting Ukraine had received the long-awaited Tomos, or decree of Church independence – a claim circulated in Ukraine with great enthusiasm, this is not true ... Constantinople's decision will benefit other jurisdictions in Ukraine – the UOC KP and UAOC, which will have to effectively dismantle their own administrative structures and set up a new Church, which will receive the Tomos of autocephaly ... Right now it's unclear which part of the UOC MP will join the new Church. 10 out of 90 UOC MP bishops signed the appeal for autocephaly to the Ecumenical Patriarch – only 11%. But separate priests could join even if their bishops don't, says Zuiev.
- "Announcement (11/10/2018). - Announcements - The Ecumenical Patriarchate". www.patriarchate.org. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
- "Announcement (11/10/2018). - Announcements - The Ecumenical Patriarchate". www.patriarchate.org. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
3) To accept and review the petitions of appeal of Filaret Denisenko, Makariy Maletych and their followers, who found themselves in schism not for dogmatic reasons, in accordance with the canonical prerogatives of the Patriarch of Constantinople to receive such petitions by hierarchs and other clergy from all of the Autocephalous Churches. Thus, the above-mentioned have been canonically reinstated to their hierarchical or priestly rank, and their faithful have been restored to communion with the Church.
- "Constantinople recognizes Kyiv Patriarch Filaret as church bishop". KyivPost. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
The Kyiv Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church are planning to merge with pro-independence bishops of the Moscow Patriarchate into an independent (autocephalous) Ukrainian church, which is expected to get a Tomos — a Synod decree recognizing the independence of the Ukrainian church from the Constantinople church. "This decision gives us the opportunity to unite with bishops of the Moscow Patriarchate who are willing (to join)," Filaret said on Oct. 11.
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- ""Metropolitan" and "patriarch" rolled into one: KP changes its head's title". spzh.news. 20 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
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- Wozniak, Hanna (26 October 2018). "Is the Ecumenical Patriarchate Fine with St. Andrew's Church in Kyiv?". moderndiplomacy.eu. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
On October 20, the UOC KP Synod changed the title of its head [Filaret]. Now the Church's Primate will also be called the Archimandrite of Kyiv-Pechersk and Pochayiv Lavras, which seemingly reflects Filaret's desire to get them at his disposal. At the moment both Lavras belong to the UOC MP [the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate)], so it looks like the "Archimandrite" doesn't want to comply with the fifth point of the Constantinople Synod decree in which the Patriarchate appeals to all sides involved that they avoid appropriation of Churches, Monasteries and other properties.
- Укрінформ (26 October 2018), Українська церква на шляху утвердження автокефалії, archived from the original on 12 December 2021, retrieved 29 October 2018 (Press conference)
- "UOC KP Spokesman: Our Primate is archbishop, metropolitan, and patriarch". spzh.news. 27 October 2018. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
Filaret is an "archbishop", a "metropolitan", and a "patriarch". This was announced on October 26 by Spokesman of the UOC KP Eustratiy Zoria during the press conference of Ukrinform "Ukrainian Church on the road to establishing autocephaly".
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Further reading edit
- Goreev, Dmitry (23 January 2020). "Філарет та його новий Київський патріархат" [Filaret and his new Kyiv Patriarchate]. risu.org.ua. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate". www.cerkva.info (in Ukrainian, Russian, and English).
- "The Canons of the Eastern Orthodox Church".
- Canonical status of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate
- Decision of the UOC-KP to dissolve itself (in Ukrainian)
- Media related to Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate at Wikimedia Commons