Udmurt Autonomous Oblast
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The Udmurt Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Удмуртская автономная область Udmurtskaja avtonomnaja oblast′; Udmurt: Удмурт автономи улос Udmurt avtonomi ulos) was formed on 4 November 1920 as the Votyak Autonomous Oblast (Russian: Вотская автономная область Votskaja avtonomnaja oblast′; Udmurt: Вотяк автономи улос Votjak avtonomi ulos), "Votyak" being an obsolete name for the Udmurt people. It was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast on 1 January 1932 and was reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on 28 December 1934. This became the Udmurt Republic on 20 September 1990.
- "KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI". Eki.ee. Retrieved 2013-01-01.