Udai Singh of Marwar

Udai Singh Rathore (13 January 1538 – 10 July 1595), also known by the sobriquet Mota Raja (the fat king), was the Rathore ruler (r 1583 – 95) of Marwar, which was later known as Jodhpur (in the present-day Rajasthan state of India). He was also the maternal grandfather of Shah Jahan, the fifth Mughal Emperor, and an ancestor of all subsequent emperors.

Udai Singh Rathore
Raja of Marwar
Udai Singh of Marwar.jpg
Ruler of Marwar
TenureAugust 1583 - 10 July 1595
Coronation4 August 1583
PredecessorChandrasen Rathore
SuccessorSur Singh
Born13 January 1538
Jodhpur, India
Died10 July 1595(1595-07-10) (aged 57)
Lahore, Mughal Empire
ConsortKachwahi Rani Manrang Deviji
Wives
  • Among Others
  • Rani Nachrang Deviji
  • Rani Santokh Deviji
  • Rani Ajayab Deviji
  • Rani Jasvant Deviji
  • Rani Cigar Deviji
Issue
among others
Names
Raja Udai Singh Rathore Ji Bahadur Sahab
DynastyRathore
FatherMaldeo Rathore
MotherSwarup Devi of Khairawa[1]
ReligionHinduism

Early lifeEdit

Born on 13 January 1538, Udai Singh was the son of Maldeo Rathore, Raja of Marwar and Rani Swarup Deviji, daughter of Jhalo Jaito Sajivat.[2] He was also elder and only full-brother of Chandrasen, successor of Maldeo.

When Rao Maldeo nominated his younger brother, Chandrasen to the throne, Udai Singh raised some turmoil. In order to pacify him, his mother had Maldeo to give him Phalodi.[3][4]

War Of SuccessionEdit

On the death of Rao Maldeo, his younger brother Chandrasen ascended the throne of Marwar.[5]

Although Marwar did not follow the law of Primogeniture, rarely had the right of the elder son been set aside. Thus the fratricidel war of succession when ensured.[6]

On the instigation of the Chiefs and Nobles of Chandrasen, Udai Singh revolted at Gagani.[4] At the same time Ramchandra and Raimal also revolted at Sajot and Dunda respectively. However both fled away rather than facing Chandrasen's army.[6] But Udai Singh fought Chandrasen's army and was defeated in Lohawat in December 1562. In this battle, both sides suffered great loses in men and material. Udai Singh had given a blow with an axe to Chandrasen and he also received a blow from Rawal Megh Raj. His life was saved by Hade Khichi who had him remove from the battlefield on his horse.[4]

These war unfortunately weakened the Rathore principality when Akbar was forming friendly alliance with other Rajput Chieftains.[6] Thus Marwar soon fell under Mughal Forces. Chandrasen had no allies and all of his brothers and fellow rajput chieftains (apart from Mewar) stood against him. Chandrasen was left completely isolated in the war with the Mughal empire. Akbar's army occupied Merta in the same year and the capital in 1564.[7]


Under Imperial ServiceEdit

In November 1570, Udai Singh had come from Phalodi to attend the Mughal Court in Nagore. This court was also attended by Chandrasen. It seems as though both Udai Singh and Chandrasen came with the intention of getting Jodhpur back. But Chandrasen left the court soon after his arrival.[8] In this court, Udai Singh was granted a mansab of 800 along with Samavalli and joined the services of the Mughal.[9][10] Thereafter, he got an opportunity to prove his worth as a warrior and commander in expeditions against Gujars of Samavalli and Raja Madhukar Bundela.[10]

In 1574, Udai Singh lost Phalodi when Akbar granted it to Bhakharsi, son of Rawal Harraj.[4]

After Chandrasens's death in 1581, the Marwar kingdom was broken and given to several Rajput chieftains who had helped Mughals against Chandrasen.[7] The Raja of Bikaner was made the governor of Marwar, while the sons of Maldev were cast aside.[7]

ReignEdit

In August 1583, Akbar granted the sinhasan of Jodhpur to Udai Singh.[7]

Soon he was sent in expedition against Muzaffer Khan of Gujarat and Gujarat was annexed to Mughal Empire. Thereafter forces led by Udai Singh and others proceeded to subdue the rebellious vassal Daulat Khan Lodi.[10] He was sent in various expedition against rulers of Rajasthan and rebel Mughal chieftains.[11] Udai Singh, with the help of Mughal Emperor, had finally succeeded to achieve his two decade old ambition of recovering the land of his ancestors.[11]

In hope of getting additional favours of the Mughal Emperor, Udai Singh decided to give his daughter Mani bai, popularly known as Jodh bai, to the heir-apparent of Mughal Empire, Prince Salim. The marriage got solemnised at the bride's residence.[11] After this marriage, Akbar granted the mansab of 1000 and conferred the title 'Raja' upon him.[12] This marriage served very well cause for the house of Marwar. Marwar alliance with Mughal would have broken down due to religious strain estrangement had Jahangir and Shah Jahan not been bound by blood ties. After this marriage Udai Singh and brothers and nephews of Jodh bai succeeded in gaining confidence of their contemporary rules and were recipient of Royal favours.[12]

Kalyandas RathoreEdit

Historian Norman P. Ziegler relates two accounts of the death of Kalyandas Rathore. The version from the Rathore genealogy says Kalyandas took offence at Udai Singh giving his daughter, Jagat Gosain, to Jahangir in marriage, and threatened to kill both men. According to Ziegler, if this is true, the most likely explanation for Kalyandas' opposition is that the marriage implied a subservience that violated the Rajput code of honor. In this version of events, when news of Kalyandas's threats reached Akbar, the emperor ordered Udai Singh to kill Kalyandas. Whatever the cause of the break between Kalyandas and the Mughals, he fled to fort Siwana. Udai Singh pursued him and captured the fort in 1589. Kalyandas died in the fighting.[13]

According to Murārdān,[14] Kalyan Das Rathore took offence at this marriage and was angry at Mota Raja and had remarked –

Why has a daughter been married to the Turks? I shall kill the Prince and Mota Raja!

When the Mota Raja heard to this remark, he informed Akbar who ordered him to kill Kalyan Das. Kalyan Das fled the Imperial Camp to Siwana. Udai Singh sent two of his sons, Bhopat and Jaisingh to Siwana. But the fort and opponent proved too strong for them and they were forced to flee back. On the face of this defeat, Mota Raja received permission from Akbar to leave the imperial camp. After his return to Marwar, he led a force against Siwana himself. Kalyan Das, realizing defeat is imminent, had his wives perform jauhar and himself led his men to die fighting. After this victory, Siwana was handed over to Mota Raja.[15]

CultureEdit

During Udai Singh's reign, respite art and architecture developed in Marwar. The country which had been desolated before the Raja was beginning to grow rapidly.[16]

A part of the fort in Jodhpur was also constructed by the Raja. He also introduced administrative reforms in Marwar on Mughal pattern. He also started the Mughal practice of Peshkash. The system of Dah-Chauki also came in vouge in Marwar during the reign of the Raja.[16]

Later Life And DeathEdit

After his victory over Rao Surtan of Sirohi, Udai Singh was sent to Deccan with Prince Murad on 18 October 1592. By the end of 1592, he was appointed by Akbar to manage the affairs at Lahore. In 1593, he was again sent to subdue Rao Surtan. After his conquest in Siwana, Udai Singh returned to Lahore on 15 December 1594.[17]

He died of heart attack in Lahore, Punjab on 10 July 1595.[18][17]

He succeeded by his son Sur Singh.

FamilyEdit

ConsortEdit

Several:[19]

  • Bari Rani Solanki Nachrangdeji (née Kankade) (m. before c. 1562, d. c. 1590) – daughter of Solanki Samvatsi of Desuri — The marriage was arranged to settle a vaīr between the Rathors of Marwar and the Solankis.
  • Rani Sisodia Apurvadeji (death c. 1597) – a daughter of Sisodiya Galhot Ram of Mewar.
  • Rani Kachawahi Ankardeji (née Purbai) (d. in Phalodi c. 1563-64) – daughter of Sekhavat Kachawaha Man Singh of Amarsar.
  • Rani Bhatiyani Jasvantdeji (née Harkhambai) (d. c. 1601, Jodhpur) – daughter of Kelhan Bhatia Rav Dujansal of Vikumpur.
  • Rani Kachawahi Uttamadeji (née Ratnavatibai) – daughter of Sekhavat Kachawaha Man Singh of Amarsar.
  • Rani Rajavat Kachwahi (née Sita Bai)
  • Rani Chauhan Ajayabdeji (née Kankabai) (d. c. 1617-18) – daughter of Chauhan Mahkaran Ranavat, a military servant of Rao Maldeo.
  • Rani Bhatyani Kapurdeji – daughter of Gadala Kelhan Bhatia Kama.
  • Rani Bhatiyani Santokhdeji (née Sajnambai) (d. c. 1621) – a granddaughter of Raval Lunkaran of Jaisalmer.
  • Rani Rajavat Kachawahi Manrangdeji (d. 21 May 1593, Lahore) – daughter of Kachawaha Raja Askaran Of Narwar. She was his tenth and principle wife.[11]
  • Rani Chauhan Suhagdeji (née Purbanibai) (m. c. 1584-85, Idar, d. c. 1599-1600, Jodhpur)
  • Rani Cavri Sigardeji (m. c. 1585, d. c. 1619) – daughter of Cavra Aso of Idar. This marriage was arranged to settle a vaīr between Cavras of Idar and Rathors of Marwar.
  • Rani Chauhanji (m. 29 December 1589, Sathlona, d. July 1595, Lahore) – daughter of Chauhan Vanvir Singhavat, a military servant of Rao Maldeo – She became sati at the time of Udai Singh's death.
  • Rani Bhatiyani Pohpavatiji – daughter of Kelhan Bhati Durjansalot – She died while en route from her paternal home to Jodhpur.
  • Rani Sonagari Jasodaji (d. Mandore) – daughter of Sanagaro Chauhan Bhan Akhirajot – She became Sati at time of Udai Singh's death.
  • Rani Devri Ladiji (née Ranibai) (m. c. 1589-90, d. July 1595, Lahore) – daughter of Devro Chauhan Rao Kalo Meghajalot, a military servant of Udai Singh – She became sati at Udai Singh's death.
  • Rani Chauhan Taramatiji (d. July 1595, Lahore) – daughter of Jivo Gangavat, military servant of Udai Singh – She became sati at the time of Udai Singh's death.
  • Rani Bhatiyani – a granddaughter of Bhati Jaimal Devrajot, a military servant of Rao Maldeo.
  • Rani Bhatiyaniji – daughter of Khimvo Bhati Jagmal Sangavat of Vairsalpur.

IssueEdit

Sons:[19]

  • Nahardas (b. 16 December 1556) – with Nachrangdeji – Eldest child of Udai Singh.
  • Bhagvandas (21 September 1557 - 1 October 1594) – with Apurvadeji.
  • Bhopat Singh (17 October 1558 - 25 November 1596) – with Apurvadeji – He was killed at Masudo Village near Ajmer by Panvar Sadul of Catsu.
  • Akhairaj (d. before 1583) – with Ankardeji – He died fighting at Samavalli.
  • Kirat Singh (b. 15 December 1567) – with Uttamadeji.
  • Sakat Singh (b. 15 December 1567) – with Kapurdeji – He was presented to Akbar who took him into his service. He was poisoned Jeso Bhatiya Goyandas outside Agra Fort and had a rank of 3000 at the time of his death.
  • Dalpat (18 July 1568 - c. 1609) – with Ajayabdeji – Ancestor of rulers of Ratlam State.
  • Jasvant Singh (d. young) – with Manrangdeji.
  • Suraj Mal (24 April 1571 - 7 September 1619) - with Manrangdeji - He succeeded Udai Singh to the throne of Marwar.
  • Mohandas (c. 1572 - c. 1621) – with Uttamdeji – He stabbed himself with a dagger.
  • Madho Singh (b. 16 October 1581) – with Uttamadeji.
  • Jait Singh (d. c. 1631-32) – with Uttamadeji.
  • A son (d. infancy) – with Rajavat Kachwahi.
  • A son (d. infancy) – with Ajayabdeji.
  • Puranmal (d. aged 9 years) – with Manrangdeji.
  • Kishan Chand (28 April 1583 - May 1516) – with Manrangdeji – He was the founder of Kishangarh. He was killed in a battle to avenge the death of Gopal Das, his nephew who was killed by Goyandas.[20]
  • Keshodas (d. young) – with Manrangdeji.
  • Ramsingh (d. young) – with Manrangdeji.
  • Karan Singh.

Daughter:[19]

  • Rambhavati Bai – with Nachrangdeji – Eldest daughter of Udai Singh. She was married to Bhati Khetsi of Jaisalmer.
  • Dhan Bai – with Nachrangdeji – She was married to Chirmi Khan of Nagaur.
  • Raykumvar – with Nachrangdeji – She was married to Rajavat Kachwaha Rajsingh of Gwalior.
  • Chandramati (d. young) – with Apurvadeji.
  • Dameti Bai (died c. 1627) – with Jasvantdeji – She was married to Kachawaha Jagmal who died on his expedition to Bengal 1583. Her son and his Kachawaha relations tried to force her to become sati. This news reached Akbar who took it upon himself and immediately rode to stop the Kachawahas and allowed her to live.
  • Jasoda Bai (d. c. 1589) – with Uttamadeji – She was married to Kachwaha Sursingh of Amber and became sati at the time of his death.
  • Kamlavati Bai – with Uttamadeji – She was married to Kheli Chauhan Rao Gopal das of Mau.
  • Pemavati Bai – with Uttamadeji – She was married to Rao Bharo if Bhuj.
  • Kishnavati Bai (d. c. 1627) with Ajayabdeji – She was married to Kachwaha Tiloksi Rupsiyot of Amber and became sati at the time of his death.
  • Rajkumvar Bai – with Santokhdeji – She was married to Sekhavat Gahlot Bhan Sekhavat of Mevar.
  • Satyabhama Bai – with Santokhdeji – She was married to Jhala Chandrasen Raisingh, Maharana of Halvad, at the suggestion of Akbar.[21] She was also the mother of two other Maharana of Halvad, Umar Singhji and Amar Singhji.
  • Manavati Bai (13 May 1573 - 18 April 1619) – with Manrangdeji – She was married to Jahangir, Emperor of Mughal Empire and the mother of his successor Shah Jahan. She is also known as Mani Bai, Jagat Gosain, Jodh Bai, Taj Bibi and Bilqis Makani.
  • Ramkumvar Bai (d. young) – with Manrangdeji.
  • Tiloksi Bai (or Lilavati Bai) (d. young) – with Manrangdeji.
  • Pranmati Bai (d. 10 August 1640, Jodhpur) – with Manrangdeji – She was married to Ahara Karam Singh, Maharawal of Dungarpur.
  • Gangabai – with Suhagdeji – She was married to Naruka Kachwaha Ramchandra at Samavalli and became sati at his death.
  • Rukhmavati Bai (d. c. 1616-17) Balapur – with Cigardeji – She was married to Raja Maha Singh of Amber and became sati at his death.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rajvi Amar Singh, Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan (1992), p.38
  2. ^ The Mertiyo Rathors of Merta, Rajasthan; Volume II. p. 41.
  3. ^ Bhati, N. S. (1979). Studies in Marwar History. India: Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan. p. 17.
  4. ^ a b c d Singh, Rajvi Amar (1992). Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan. p. 1170.
  5. ^ Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 44.
  6. ^ a b c Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 45.
  7. ^ a b c d Sarkar, J.N. (1984, reprint 1994). A History of Jaipur, New Delhi: Orient Longman, ISBN 81-250-0333-9, p.41
  8. ^ Bhagava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). pp. 46–47.
  9. ^ Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 49.
  10. ^ a b c Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 57.
  11. ^ a b c d Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 58.
  12. ^ a b Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 59.
  13. ^ Ziegler, Norman P. (1998). "Some Notes on Rājpūt Loyalties During the Mugẖal Period". In Alam, Muzaffar; Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (eds.). The Mughal State, 1526–1750. Oxford University Press. pp. 180–181, 198. ISBN 978-0-19-565225-3.
  14. ^ Kaviraj Murardanji ki Khyat ka Tarjuma. p. 605.
  15. ^ The Mertiyo Rathors of Merta, Rajasthan Vol II. pp. 278–279.
  16. ^ a b Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). p. 60.
  17. ^ a b Bhargava, Visheshwar Sarup (1966). Marwar And The Mughal Emperors (1526-1748). pp. 61–62.
  18. ^ Beveridge, H. (tr.) (1939, reprint 2000). The Akbarnama of Abu'l Fazl, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81-7236-094-0, pp.1027-28
  19. ^ a b c The Mertiyo Rathors of Merta, Rajasthan Volume II. pp. 41–49.
  20. ^ The Mertiyo Rathors of Merta, Rajasthan Volume II. pp. 324–325.
  21. ^ Jhallesvaras in War and Peace: Interpreting Dynastic History in Western India, c.1090-2016. p. 183.

External linksEdit

Preceded by Ruler of Marwar
1583–1595
Succeeded by