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UEFA European Championship qualifying

This page is a summary of the UEFA European Championship qualifying, the process that UEFA-affiliated national association football teams go through in order to qualify for the UEFA European Championship.

UEFA European Championship qualifying
UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying.png
Founded1958
RegionEurope (UEFA)
Number of teams55 (currently)
56 (overall)
Related competitionsUEFA European Championship
WebsiteOfficial website
UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying

Since 1960, European Championship final tournaments have been contested in June or July of every fourth year. The qualifying procedure for each final tournament has usually included qualifying matches held during the two years preceding that year (for example, the Euro 2016 qualifying spanned from September 2014 to November 2015). In this article, the years correspond to the final tournaments of the European Championship, and not to the actual dates when the qualification matches were played.

Contents

Format evolutionEdit

Number of teams entering qualification
 
1960
 
1964
 
1968
 
1972
 
1976
 
1980
 
1984
 
1988
 
1992
 
1996
 
 
2000
 
2004
 
 
2008
 
 
2012
 
2016
 
2020
 
2024
total entrants[a] 17 29 31 32 32 31 32 32 34 47 49 50 50 51 53 55 54
(expected)
played at least one match[a] 28 33
qualified through qualification 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 7 15 14 15 14 14 23 24
qualified automatically 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 1
total finalists 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 16 16 16 16 16 24 24
  1. ^ a b Data is about qualifications only (automatic qualifiers are not counted).

The 1960 and 1964 qualifications consisted of a knock-out tournament only. The four quarter-final-winning teams would qualify for the final stages, and one of them would be chosen to be the host of the tournament.

The 1968, 1972, and 1976 qualifying tournaments included a group stage of eight groups. The eight group winners would advance to a quarter-final stage, which was still part of the qualifying. The four quarter-final winners would progress to the finals. Again, the host nation would be chosen among the four finalists.

From 1980 onwards, the hosting rights would be assigned in advance to one or two countries, and the host teams would be guaranteed an automatic spot in the finals and would not have to go through qualification. Also, the format was expanded to feature 8 teams. The 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1992 qualifications included seven qualifying groups, and the seven group winners would progress to the finals joining the host team.[Note 1992]

From 1996, the 16-team format was employed. The 1996 qualifying consisted of eight groups; the eight group winners and the six best runners-up would qualify directly, while the two worst runners-up would meet in a play-off to determine the last team to earn a spot in the finals, joining the host country.

In 2000, the winners of the nine qualifying groups would qualify for the finals, and so would the best runner-up. The remaining eight runners-up would enter a play-off round, where they would be paired off against each other; the winners of each pairing would qualify too. For the first time, there were two host countries; they both received automatic berths in the finals.

In 2004, along with the host team, the ten qualifying group winners would qualify, as would the winners of each of the five play-off ties which would be contested by the ten runners-up.

In 2008, the top two teams from each of the seven qualifying groups would join the two host teams to bring the number of finalists to 16.

The 2012 qualification used a format similar to that of 2000: spots would be given to nine group winners and the best runner-up, and the remaining eight runners-up would enter play-offs to determine the remaining four finalists, with automatic berths being guaranteed to the two host countries.

From 2016, the finals format was expanded again, now featuring 24 teams. The 2016 qualifying included nine groups; the winners, the runners-up, and the best third-placed team would qualify, while the remaining eight third-placed teams would form four play-off pairings to determine the last four finalists. The host nation would still qualify automatically.

For the 2020 finals, hosted by multiple cities across Europe, there would be no automatic qualifying berths. 20 of the 24 qualifying places would go to the winners and runners-up of the ten groups of the 2020 qualifying, while the remaining four would be determined via play-offs. Participation in those play-offs would be determined based on the teams' performances in the newly formed UEFA Nations League and not in the qualifying itself. From each of the four divisions of the 2018–19 Nations League, the four best-placed teams not yet qualified for Euro 2020 (the group winners, unless already qualified) would advance to a four-team play-off for that division using a knock-out system of semi-finals and a final. The four final winners would qualify for the Euro main tournament.

Participating teamsEdit

All national teams that are members of UEFA are eligible to enter the qualification for the European Championship. A total of 56 distinct entities have made attempts to qualify for the European Championship. Of those, 55 are still active in the competition. Due to political changes, a few of the entities have appeared under multiple incarnations (see the footnotes to the below table), and the East Germany team is now defunct.

Saarland, a former UEFA member, merged into West Germany in 1957 and therefore did not enter the qualifiers of any European Championships.

Year Debuting teams Successor teams Renamed teams
Teams No. CT
1960   Austria,   Bulgaria,   Czechoslovakia,[S 1]   Denmark,   East Germany,[P 1]   France,   Greece,   Hungary,   Norway,   Poland,   Portugal,   Republic of Ireland,   Romania,   Soviet Union,[S 2]   Spain,   Turkey,   Yugoslavia[S 3] 17 17
1964   Albania,   Belgium,   England,   Iceland,   Italy,   Luxembourg,   Malta,   Netherlands,   Northern Ireland,   Sweden,    Switzerland,   Wales 12 29
1968   Cyprus,   Finland,   Scotland,   West Germany[S 4] 4 33
1972 0 33
1976 0 33
1980 0 33
1984 0 33
1988 0 33
1992   Faroe Islands,   San Marino 2 35   Germany[S 4]
1996   Armenia,[P 2]   Azerbaijan,[P 2]   Belarus,[P 2]   Croatia,[P 3]   Estonia,[P 2]   Georgia,[P 2]   Israel,   Latvia,[P 2]   Liechtenstein,   Lithuania,[P 2]   Macedonia,[R 1][P 3]   Moldova,[P 2]   Slovakia,[P 4]   Slovenia,[P 3]   Ukraine[P 2] 15 50   Czech Republic,[S 1]   Russia[S 2]
2000   Andorra,   Bosnia and Herzegovina[P 3] 2 52   FR Yugoslavia[S 3][R 2]
2004 0 52   Serbia and Montenegro[R 2][S 3]
2008   Kazakhstan[P 2] 1 53   Serbia[S 3]
2012   Montenegro[P 3] 1 54
2016   Gibraltar 1 55
2020   Kosovo[P 3] 1 56   North Macedonia[R 1][P 3]
Successor teams inheriting the records of former teams (as considered by UEFA and FIFA)
  1. ^ a b Czechoslovakia dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia and was succeeded by the Czech Republic from the 1996 qualification onwards.
  2. ^ a b After completing the 1992 qualification, the Soviet Union dissolved into multiple countries and was succeeded and replaced by the provisional Commonwealth of Independent States team for the 1992 finals, which in turn was succeeded by Russia from the 1996 qualification onwards.
  3. ^ a b c d SFR Yugoslavia broke up into multiple countries and was succeeded from the 2000 qualification by FR Yugoslavia, later renamed as Serbia and Montenegro. It entered the 2008 qualification, but, before playing any matches, split into the independent countries of Serbia and Montenegro and was succeeded and replaced by Serbia.
  4. ^ a b West Germany entered the 1992 qualification, but, before playing any matches, reunified with East Germany and was succeeded and replaced by the reunited nation of Germany.
Teams competing as parts of other teams
  1. ^ East Germany entered the 1992 qualification, but withdrew before playing any matches, joined West Germany, and since then competes as part of the reunited nation of Germany.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Ukraine previously competed as parts of the Soviet Union (1960–1992). All of them except Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania also competed in the Euro 1992 finals as parts of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (later renamed as North Macedonia), Montenegro, and Slovenia previously competed as parts of SFR Yugoslavia (1960–1992). Kosovo and Montenegro then competed as parts of FR Yugoslavia, later renamed as Serbia and Montenegro (2000–2004). Kosovo then competed as part of Serbia (2008), before unilaterally breaking off from it and eventually being admitted to UEFA.
  4. ^ Slovakia previously competed as part of Czechoslovakia (1960–1992).
Renamed teams
  1. ^ a b Macedonia was renamed as North Macedonia from the 2020 qualification onwards.
  2. ^ a b FR Yugoslavia was renamed as Serbia and Montenegro during the 2004 qualification.

OverviewEdit

Team 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024
  Albania DNE r16 3/3 4/4 DNE DNE 5/5 4/4 5/5 6/6 5/6 4/5 5/7 5/6 2/5
  Andorra 6/6 5/5 7/7 6/6 6/6
  Armenia 6/6 5/6 4/5 7/8 3/6 5/5
  Austria QF r16 3/4 2/4 3/4 2/5 3/5 3/4 4/5 4/6 3/5 3/5 Qhost 4/6 1/6
  Azerbaijan 6/6 5/6 5/5 8/8 5/6 5/6
  Belarus 4/6 5/5 5/5 4/7 4/6 4/6
  Belgium DNE pr 2/4 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 1/5 1/4 3/5 3/4 3/6 Qhost 3/5 5/8 3/6 1/6
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3/6 4/5 4/7 2/6+p 3/6+p
  Bulgaria r16 r16 1/4+QF 2/4 3/4 4/5 3/4 2/5 4/5 2/6 4/5 1/5 3/7 5/5 4/6
  Croatia 1/6 3/5 2/5+p 1/7 2/6+p 2/6
  Cyprus DNE 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/5 5/5 5/6 4/5 4/5 6/7 5/5 5/6
  Czech Republic (1996—)
  Czechoslovakia (1960–1992)
QW pr 2/4 2/4 1/4+QW 1/4 3/5 2/4 2/5 1/6 1/6 1/5 1/7 2/5+p 1/6
  Denmark r16 QW 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 1/5 1/4 2/5
(inv)
2/6 2/5+p 1/5 4/7 1/5 3/5+p
  East Germany r16 r16 2/4 3/4 2/4 3/5 3/4 2/5 wdr
  England DNE pr 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 2/4 1/5 2/5 1/4 1/4 Qhost 2/5+p 1/5 3/7 1/5 1/6
  Estonia 6/6 5/6 4/5 6/7 2/6+p 4/6
  Faroe Islands 5/5 5/6 6/6 5/5 7/7 6/6 5/6
  Finland DNE DNE 4/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 4/4 4/5 4/6 3/5 4/5 4/8 4/6 4/6
  France QW QF 1/4+QF 3/4 3/4 2/4 Qhost 3/5 1/5 2/6 1/6 1/5 2/7 1/6 Qhost
  Georgia 3/6 6/6 5/5 6/7 5/6 5/6
  Germany (1992—)
  West Germany (1968–1988)
DNE DNE 2/3 1/4+QW 1/4+QW 1/4 1/5 Qhost 1/4 1/6 1/5 1/5 2/7 1/6 1/6 Qhost
  Gibraltar 6/6
  Greece r16 wdr 2/4 3/4 2/4 1/4 3/5 2/5 3/5 3/6 3/6 1/5 1/7 1/6 6/6
  Hungary r16 QW 1/4+QF 1/4+QW 2/4 2/4 4/5 3/5 4/5 4/5 4/6 4/5 6/7 3/6 3/6+p
  Iceland DNE pr DNE DNE 4/4 5/5 4/5 4/5 4/5 5/5 4/6 3/5 6/7 4/5 2/6
  Israel 5/6 2/5+p 3/5 4/7 3/6 4/6
  Italy DNE r16 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 3/4 Qhost 4/5 1/5 2/5 2/6 1/5 1/5 1/7 1/6 1/6
  Kazakhstan 6/8 6/6 5/6
  Kosovo
  Latvia 5/6 4/6 2/5+p 5/7 4/6 6/6
  Liechtenstein DNE DNE DNE DNE DNE 6/6 6/6 5/5 7/7 5/5 5/6
  Lithuania 3/6 4/6 4/5 5/7 4/5 5/6
  Luxembourg DNE QF 4/4 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/5 4/4 5/6 5/5 5/5 7/7 6/6 5/6
  Malta pr DNE 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 5/5 5/5 6/6 5/5 5/5 7/7 6/6 6/6
  Moldova 4/6 5/5 4/5 5/7 5/6 6/6
  Montenegro 2/5+p 4/6
  Netherlands DNE r16 3/4 2/4 1/4+QW 1/5 2/5 1/5 1/5 2/6+p Qhost 2/5+p 2/7 1/6 4/6
  North Macedonia (2020—)
  Macedonia (1996–2016)
4/6 4/5 4/5 5/7 5/6 6/6
  Northern Ireland DNE r16 4/4 3/4 2/4 2/5 2/5 3/4 3/5 3/6 4/5 5/5 3/7 5/6 1/6
  Norway r16 pr 4/4 4/4 4/4 5/5 4/4 5/5 3/5 3/6 1/6 2/5+p 3/7 3/5 3/6+p
  Poland r16 pr 3/4 2/4 2/4 2/5 3/4 4/5 3/4 4/6 3/5 3/5 1/8 Qhost 2/6
  Portugal QF pr 2/4 2/4 3/4 3/5 1/4 3/5 2/5 1/6 2/6 Qhost 2/8 2/5+p 1/5
  Republic of Ireland pr QF 3/4 4/4 2/4 3/5 3/5 1/5 2/4 2/6+p 2/5+p 3/5 3/7 2/6+p 3/6+p
  Romania QF pr 2/4 1/4+QF 2/4 3/4 1/5 2/4 3/5 1/6 1/6 3/5 1/7 3/6 2/6
  Russia (1996—)
  Soviet Union (1960–1992)
QW QW 1/4+QW 1/4+QW 1/4+QF 4/4 2/4 1/5 1/5 1/6 3/6 2/5+p 2/7 1/6 2/6
  San Marino 5/5 6/6 5/5 5/5 7/7 6/6 6/6
  Scotland DNE DNE 2/4 3/4 3/4 4/5 4/4 4/5 1/5 2/6 2/6+p 2/5+p 3/7 3/5 4/6
  Serbia (2008—)
  Serbia and Montenegro (2004)
  FR Yugoslavia (2000–2004)
  Yugoslavia (1960–1992)
QW r16 1/3+QW 1/4+QF 1/4+QW 2/4 1/4 2/4 1/5
(dsq)
susp 1/5 3/5 3/8 3/6 4/5
  Slovakia 3/6 3/6 3/5 4/7 4/6 2/6
  Slovenia 5/6 2/6+p 2/5+p 6/7 4/6 3/6+p
  Spain QF QW 1/4+QF 2/4 1/4+QF 1/4 1/5 1/4 3/5 1/6 1/5 2/5+p 1/7 1/5 1/6
  Sweden DNE QF 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 2/5 2/5 Qhost 3/5 1/5 1/5 2/7 2/6 3/6+p
   Switzerland DNE pr 3/4 2/4 4/4 4/5 2/4 4/5 2/5 1/5 3/5 1/5 Qhost 3/5 2/6
  Turkey r16 pr 4/4 3/4 3/4 2/4 4/5 4/4 4/4 2/5 2/5+p 2/5+p 2/7 2/6+p 3/6
  Ukraine 4/6 2/6+p 3/5 4/7 Qhost 3/6+p
  Wales DNE pr 3/4 3/4 1/4+QF 3/4 2/4 3/4 2/4 5/6 4/5 2/5+p 5/7 4/5 2/6
Team 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020 2024

Key

  • golden background = Team completed a successful qualifying campaign. Excludes automatic qualifiers; includes Yugoslavia in 1992; excludes Denmark in 1992[Note 1992]
  • red font colour = Team participated in the final tournament. Includes automatic qualifiers; includes Denmark in 1992; excludes Yugoslavia in 1992[Note 1992]
  • Qhost = Team qualified automatically as host
  • QW = Team qualified for the final tournament as quarter-finals winner
  • QF = Team was eliminated in the quarter-finals
  • r16 = Team was eliminated in the round of 16
  • pr = Team was eliminated in the preliminary round
  • X/Y = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams
  • X/Y+QW = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams and then qualified for the final tournament as winner of a subsequent quarter-final
  • X/Y+QF = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams and then was eliminated in a subsequent quarter-final
  • X/Y+p = Team came Xth in a qualifying group of Y teams and then entered a play-off round
  • dsq = Team qualified for the finals but was disqualified from participating there (Yugoslavia in 1992)[Note 1992]
  • inv = Team was invited to participate in the finals after having originally failed to qualify (Denmark in 1992)[Note 1992]
  • grey background = Team did not take part in qualifying
    • (no caption) = Association was not a UEFA member
    • DNE = Team did not enter despite association being a UEFA member
    • wdr = Team entered but withdrew before playing any matches
    • susp = Team was suspended from taking part in qualifying (Yugoslavia in 1996)[Note 1992]

Team recordsEdit

Legend
Team has won the European Championship
Team has qualified for the main tournament
Team hasn't qualified for the main tournament
Team is defunct (and never qualified for the main tournament)

Up to and including the UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying matches played on 11 June 2019.

Notes on the below table:

  • Like the table at RSSSF's website,[1] this table does not take into account the Austria vs Greece Euro 1968 qualifying match. RSSSF reports that this match was abandoned at 1–1 and declared void, and does not include it in the final group standings.[2] On the other hand, however, UEFA's website accounts the match as having finished as a 1–1 draw[3] and includes it as such in the final group standings.[4]
  • The 1992 qualifying attempt is treated as successful for Yugoslavia and unsuccessful for Denmark, even though Yugoslavia did not appear in the 1992 finals while Denmark did.[Note 1992]
  • In the Euro 2016 qualification, Serbia were deducted 3 points and Croatia were deducted 1 point, which is reflected in the table.
No.[n 1] Team Qualifying attempts[n 2] Appearances
in the finals[n 3]
Overall qualification record Points[n 4]
Total Successful Pld W D L GF GA GD Total Avg
1   Spain 16 10 10 119 85 16 18 294 88 +206 271 2.277
2   Russia
  Soviet Union
16 11 11 124 76 29 19 250 89 +161 257 2.073
3   Czech Republic
  Czechoslovakia
16 9 9 119 78 21 20 243 97 +146 255 2.143
4   Germany
  West Germany
13 11 12 101 72 20 9 250 63 +187 236 2.337
5   Italy 14 8 9 112 68 30 14 200 73 +127 234 2.089
6   Netherlands 14 8 9 111 72 15 24 256 88 +168 231 2.081
7   England 14 8 9 102 68 24 10 231 59 +172 228 2.235
8   Romania 16 5 5 119 61 36 22 219 106 +113 219 1.840
9   France 14 7 9 106 62 26 18 218 88 +130 212 2.000
10   Portugal 15 6 7 109 61 26 22 195 102 +93 209 1.917
11   Republic of Ireland 16 3 3 125 53 37 35 188 137 +51 196 1.568
12   Sweden 14 5 6 108 57 24 27 182 109 +73 195 1.806
13   Serbia
  Serbia and Montenegro
  FR Yugoslavia
  Yugoslavia
15 6 5 107 56 26 25 191 116 +75 191 1.785
14   Hungary 16 3 3 125 55 26 44 203 165 +38 191 1.528
15   Denmark 16 7 8 118 54 28 36 194 144 +50 190 1.610
16   Scotland 14 2 2 114 53 26 35 170 126 +44 188 1.649
17   Belgium 14 4 5 108 53 26 29 181 113 +68 185 1.713
18   Greece 15 4 4 113 53 23 37 164 130 +34 182 1.611
19   Bulgaria 16 2 2 117 49 28 40 162 127 +35 175 1.496
20   Poland 15 2 3 104 48 27 29 172 110 +62 171 1.644
21   Turkey 16 4 4 114 47 27 40 143 151 −8 168 1.474
22   Austria 15 1 2 103 47 16 40 190 152 +38 157 1.524
23   Northern Ireland 15 1 1 114 44 25 45 127 140 −13 157 1.377
24   Norway 16 1 1 118 44 22 52 155 165 −10 154 1.305
25   Wales 15 1 1 107 42 21 44 127 136 −9 147 1.374
26    Switzerland 14 3 4 93 40 23 31 158 119 +39 143 1.538
27   Croatia 7 5 5 65 42 14 9 123 43 +80 139 2.138
28   Finland 14 0 0 108 30 24 54 115 164 −49 114 1.056
29   Slovakia 7 1 1 63 30 10 23 101 79 +22 100 1.587
30   Iceland 13 1 1 100 27 17 56 86 151 −65 98 0.980
31   Ukraine 6 1 2 58 26 16 16 81 54 +27 94 1.621
32   Israel 7 0 0 64 27 12 25 104 85 +19 93 1.453
33   Slovenia 7 1 1 69 26 15 28 89 82 +7 93 1.348
34   Bosnia and Herzegovina 6 0 0 58 23 11 24 79 83 −4 80 1.379
35   Albania 13 1 1 95 18 22 55 77 162 −85 76 0.800
36   Latvia 7 1 1 66 20 13 33 68 101 −33 73 1.106
37   East Germany 8 0 0 46 20 12 14 76 57 +19 72 1.565
38   Lithuania 7 0 0 61 20 9 32 53 90 −37 69 1.131
39   Cyprus 14 0 0 108 17 14 77 89 272 −183 65 0.602
40   Georgia 7 0 0 64 17 8 39 66 96 −30 56 0.875
41   Armenia 7 0 0 62 14 12 36 58 91 −33 54 0.871
42   Belarus 7 0 0 62 14 12 36 50 96 −46 54 0.871
43   Estonia 7 0 0 65 15 8 42 48 115 −67 53 0.815
44   North Macedonia
  Macedonia
7 0 0 61 12 14 35 63 96 −33 50 0.820
45   Moldova 7 0 0 62 12 9 41 53 124 −71 45 0.726
46   Luxembourg 15 0 0 113 8 11 94 48 308 −260 35 0.310
47   Azerbaijan 7 0 0 63 6 9 48 39 157 −118 27 0.429
48   Malta 14 0 0 105 4 14 87 51 296 −245 26 0.248
49   Montenegro 3 0 0 24 6 7 11 20 33 −13 25 1.042
50   Kazakhstan 4 0 0 38 6 7 25 31 70 −39 25 0.658
51   Faroe Islands 8 0 0 71 6 6 59 42 190 −148 24 0.338
52   Liechtenstein 7 0 0 61 5 7 49 19 183 −164 22 0.361
53   Kosovo 1 0 0 3 1 2 0 5 4 +1 5 1.667
54   San Marino 8 0 0 69 0 1 68 7 307 −300 1 0.014
55   Gibraltar 2 0 0 13 0 0 13 2 62 −60 0 0.000
56   Andorra 6 0 0 54 0 0 54 11 159 −148 0 0.000

Footnotes

  1. ^ Teams are ranked by total points, then by goal difference, then by goals scored. Note that this column does not represent any official rankings.
  2. ^ Only qualifying campaigns are counted where the team played at least one match.
  3. ^ Including automatic qualifiers.
  4. ^ The three points for a win system is used.

NotesEdit

  1. Note 1992: Yugoslavia won their 1992 qualifying group and were due to compete at UEFA Euro 1992, but were banned from participating as the country was under international sanctions by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 because of the Yugoslav Wars.[5] The sanctions also resulted in the team being banned from entering the 1996 qualification. Denmark, who had originally failed to qualify for the 1992 finals finishing second in Yugoslavia's qualifying group, were invited to replace Yugoslavia in the finals. In the tables in this article, the 1992 qualifying campaign is treated as successful for Yugoslavia and unsuccessful for Denmark.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "European Championship 1958-2008 All-Time Rankings. All-Time Table Qualifying Stages". RSSSF. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  2. ^ "European Championship 1968". RSSSF. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  3. ^ "UEFA EURO 1968 - History - Austria-Greece". UEFA. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  4. ^ "UEFA EURO 1968 - History - Standings". UEFA. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  5. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 (Implementing Trade Embargo on Yugoslavia)". University of Minnesota Human Rights Center. Retrieved 27 July 2014.

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit