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U.S. national anthem protests (2016–present)

Since August 2016, some American athletes have protested against police brutality and racism[2][5][6][7][8] by kneeling during the U.S. national anthem.[4] Since 2017, many players also began protesting against President Donald Trump's[4] criticisms of those involved in the protest as well as against Trump's policies since taking office.[4] Some observers have described the protests as politically motivated or patriotic, while others have criticized the attention to social issues during sporting events, and others have called the protests unpatriotic or disrespectful.[9][10]

U.S. national anthem protests
Colin Kaepernick in 2013.jpg
DateAugust 14, 2016–ongoing (3 years, 1 week and 3 days)
Location
Goals
MethodsPeaceful protest

The protests began in the National Football League (NFL) after San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick sat and later knelt during the anthem, before his team's preseason games of 2016.[11] Throughout the following seasons, members of various NFL and other sports teams have engaged in similar silent protests. On September 24, 2017, the NFL protests became more widespread when over 200 players sat or knelt in response to President Trump's calling for owners to "fire" the protesting players.[12]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

It is a tradition in the United States to play "The Star-Spangled Banner", the national anthem, before sporting events.[13] According to the United States Code, those present should stand at attention with right hand over heart.[14][15][16] It's noteworthy, this tradition only acquired widespread practice after the year 2001, while National Football League (NFL) players were not mandated to be on the field for the playing of the national anthem until 2009.[17] In 2016 the NFL stated that "players are encouraged but not required to stand during the playing of the National Anthem"; its game operations manual reads that players "should stand" for the anthem.[18]

The people of the United States are divided on the intended meaning of the anthem. Some believe it salutes military and police officers who have died on duty; for others, it honors the United States generally.[13][19] Between 2012 and 2015, the Department of Defense gave $6.8 million to teams across all major sports in exchange for holding various military and patriotic events at their games, including the performance of the national anthem.[17][20]

Kaepernick and his 49ers teammate Eric Reid say they choose to kneel during the anthem to call attention to the issues of racial inequality and police brutality. "After hours of careful consideration, and even a visit from Nate Boyer, a retired Green Beret and former NFL player, we came to the conclusion that we should kneel, rather than sit, ... during the anthem as a peaceful protest," said Reid. "We chose to kneel because it's a respectful gesture. I remember thinking our posture was like a flag flown at half-mast to mark a tragedy."[21] Some regard kneeling as disrespectful to those who have died or been wounded in service of the United States, such as police officers or military veterans.[22] Torrey Smith, a wide receiver for the Carolina Panthers, said in an interview: "I understand why people are offended by people protesting the National Anthem. My father served 25 years. When he dies, he's going to be wrapped in an American flag. But my dad is also out of the Army, and he drives trucks all over the country, and he's a black man everywhere he goes, and sometimes he has racial incidents still today. That doesn't protect him, just because he served our country. And I think that's important."[23]

Kaepernick's has mentioned before that the sole purpose of kneeling during the national anthem is not to disrespect the military personnel at all, instead Kaepernick's goal is to use his social platform to bring topics regarding police brutality and oppression of people of color to light. "I am not going to get up to show pride in a country that oppresses black people and people of color."[24] Kaepernick even went ahead an express his concerns about how his action have been labeled as "anthem protest" since he considers this to be a shameful strategy from his critics to deviate the discussion from what really matter. "To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder.”[25]

By labelling the action of kneeling as anthem protest, critics have been successful at switching the topic of discussion to anything except about police brutality. Right after Kaepernick started his campaign to create awareness about excess police brutality towards minorities, especially African-Americans, yet commentators have mainly focus of the patriotic aspect of kneeling rather than the meaning behind it; thus weakening Kaepernick's primary goal.[26] One political person that players believe completely misinterpreted the act of kneeling was President Trump since he believes that players are protesting the flag and the national anthem; however, players are for the most part protesting the lack of accountability in the judicial system, and the way police officer can easily get away with police brutality towards African-Americans.[27]

Kaepernick was not able to sign a contract with any NFL team even after he opted out of his contract with the 49ers and became a free agent in 2017, presumably because of his actions of taking a knee.[28] Nevertheless, even though Kaepernick was no longer in the sideline, his movement did not stop but rather gather more participants.[28]

CausesEdit

 
Protestors demanding police accountability.

Criminal justice reform is one of the top issues that NFL players have been supporting in their protests.[29] Kaepernick was initially moved to protest by the deaths of African-Americans at the hands of police or while in police custody. These deaths gained prominence through the media and the Black Lives Matter movement in the years immediately preceding the protest.[30] During a post-game interview on August 26, 2016, he stated, "I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color. To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder", adding that he would continue to protest during the anthem until he feels like "[the United States flag] represents what it's supposed to represent."[31][32]

After that interview, Kaepernick pledged to donate the first $1 million of his $11.9 million salary from the 2016–2017 season to different organizations that help communities in need.[33] He pledged to donate $100,000 per month for 10 months to various organizations.[34] Days later, the San Francisco 49ers matched Kaepernick by pledging $1 million to two organizations addressing racial and social inequality.[35] Kaepernick has been following through on his commitment and has donated $900,000 as of September 2017 to groups including Meals on Wheels, United We Dream, Black Veterans for Social Justice and many others.[36][37] Kaepernick has also held "Know Your Rights" camps for young people of color.[38] The camps include legal education from attorneys that give advice on how to interact with police when being detained and lectures from prominent academics on the history of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.[39][40] The National Football League Players Association (NFLPA) named Kaepernick the Week One MVP in September 2017 for his charity work related to the protest.[41] Kaepernick also joined the 10 for 10 challenge, which basically consist of donating ten thousand dollars for ten consecutive days. Some major celebrities that matched Kaepernick's donations include basketball players Steph Curry and Kevin Durant, tennis player Serena Williams, and rappers Snoop Dogg, Meek Mill, and Usher.[42]

Trump calls for firing protesting playersEdit

 
President Trump meeting with the players and staff of New England Patriots at the White House on April 19, 2017 following their Super Bowl LI win over the Atlanta Falcons.

In September 2017 at a rally in Huntsville, Alabama, President Trump said NFL owners should fire players who kneel during the national anthem and encouraged fans to walk out. Trump advised NFL owners, "get that son of a bitch off the field right now, out, he's fired. He's fired!"[43] He called the players' protest "a total disrespect of our heritage".[44] Trump added on that the new NFL safety rules created to protect players from concussions were ruining the game for the public.[45] His statement came after a new research indicated that NFL players are at high risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) due to the likelihood of multiple head injuries.[46]

Trump said his criticism of the protesters was not related to race. "This has to do with respect for our country and respect for our flag," he said.[47] In the games immediately following Trump's statements, the protest gained broader participation when over 200 players sat or knelt during the anthem, others linked arms with their teammates or raised fists, and three teams chose to stay in the locker room for the anthem.[48][11][12][49] However, the response quickly turned into one towards Trump, rather than Kaepernick's original protests of racial injustice.[49][50][51] Reasons cited by players, owners, and coaches included supporting freedom of speech and opposing what they considered intimidation by Trump.[49] Others said they took offense to Trump demeaning the integrity of their primarily African American colleagues, when a month earlier he had hesitated to condemn the white nationalists who protested in Charlottesville, Virginia and murdered a counter protester.[52][53] The reaction to Trump's remarks were amidst other ongoing issues his administration was facing, including failed attempts at healthcare reform, the primary election loss of Trump-backed candidate Luther Strange for the Alabama seat in the U.S. Senate, recovery efforts for Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico, Hurricane Irma in Florida, and Hurricane Harvey in Houston, and relations with North Korea over their nuclear and missile testing.[54]

Many players beyond the 2017 season have knelt or raised fists in protest against Trump's policies.[49][50] Other Republicans such as Florida senator Marco Rubio also expressed their discomforts against these policies as well. While Rubio's objections was not aimed directly to President Trump directly, he did supported the rights of players of kneeling during the national anthem, especially Miami Dolphins player Kenny Stills. Rubio tweeted, "No @NFL player does more community service than @KStills of the @MiamiDolphins. You don’t have to agree with how or why he has chosen to exercise the 1st Amendment before every game to acknowledge the hours he gives voluntarily, on his day off, to serve his fellow Americans."[55] Senator Marco Rubio has also expressed his feeling about Kaepernick, and while he publicly stated that he does not agree with what Kaepernick does (taking a knee during the national anthem), he does support his rights that allows him to do so and he believes that the NFL should not prohibit him from playing in the league again.[55]

In a May 2018 interview, Trump stated "You have to stand proudly for the national anthem, or you shouldn't be playing, you shouldn't be there. Maybe you shouldn't be in the country". He applauded the new policy that NFL players must either stand for the anthem or stay back in the locker room, but felt that this policy was not strict enough.[56]

NFL protestsEdit

2016 preseasonEdit

Kaepernick began sitting during the national anthem at the start of the 2016 NFL preseason. His actions went unnoticed for two weeks before he was questioned by the media.[57] In the 49ers' final 2016 preseason game on September 1, 2016, after talking to Boyer, Kaepernick opted to kneel during the U.S. national anthem rather than sit as he did in their previous games. He explained his decision to switch was an attempt to show more respect to former and current U.S. military members while still protesting during the anthem. Eric Reid joined Kaepernick in kneeling during the national anthem during the final preseason game.[58] Seattle Seahawks player Jeremy Lane also did not stand for the anthem during his final preseason game the same day, stating, "It's something I plan to keep on doing until justice is being served."[59]

2016 seasonEdit

In Week 1, eleven NFL players joined Kaepernick's protests.[60] Denver Broncos player Brandon Marshall knelt during the national anthem prior to the start of the Kickoff game, which was broadcast on NBC.[61] The act of kneeling as protest has been referred to as "taking a knee".[62][63][64] Kaepernick and Marshall were teammates at the University of Nevada.[61] On September 11, Kansas City Chiefs cornerback Marcus Peters raised his fist while the rest of the team interlocked their arms showing solidarity.[65] Two members of the New England Patriots, Devin McCourty and Martellus Bennett, raised their fists on Sunday Night Football. The entire Seattle Seahawks team stood and interlocked arms.[66] Jelani Jenkins, Arian Foster, Kenny Stills, and Michael Thomas of the Miami Dolphins all knelt during the National Anthem.[67] At the same time, a group of Jacksonville Jaguars players, led by cornerback Prince Amukamara, initially planned to join the protest but chose not to do so after photographs of Kaepernick wearing socks with a crude anti-police message during training camp were made public.[68]

On November 13, 2016, five days after Donald Trump was elected President, Tampa Bay Buccaneers wide-receiver Mike Evans decided to sit during the national anthem. According to Sports Illustrated, Evans said, "If this happens, then America's not right right now. I said this a long time ago. When he ran, I thought it was a joke, and the joke continues. I'm not a political person that much, but I got common sense. And I know when something's not right."[69] However, his protest began the day following Veterans Day, so he received criticism. He quickly changed his method of protesting and joined his teammates during the following game against the Kansas City Chiefs. He apologized to veterans and other members of the military for his actions – citing that the timing of his protest was poor. "On the field, I'm going to continue to do what I do – play hard. I'm playing hard because I've got this right – freedom, because of the vets. I'm going to reach out to organizations, organizations that I feel are doing the best job to help the minority ... women, LGBT, African Americans, Latinos, people that are in fear of Donald Trump and his presidency."[70]

2017 seasonEdit

 
Oakland Raiders players kneeling in week 3

Cleveland Browns tight end Seth DeValve became the first white football player to kneel or sit during the anthem on the team's August 21, 2017 preseason game against the New York Giants.[71]

 
Washington Redskins players kneeling before the game with the Oakland Raiders
 
Members of the San Francisco 49ers kneeling during the National Anthem before a game against the Washington Redskins in week 6

In Week 3 of the season the majority of games were played two days after Trump made his statements.[72] The protest gained broader participation when over 200 players sat or knelt during the anthem.[12][11][48] Many players, coaches and NFL teams protested and/or issued statements expressing dismay with Trump's comments:[73]

  • Twenty-seven members of the Baltimore Ravens and Jacksonville Jaguars knelt during the American National Anthem at their game at Wembley Stadium in London.[74] Retired Ravens star and honorary Team Captain Ray Lewis knelt with members of his team.[75] All of the players stood for the British national anthem "God Save the Queen", with many remaining in locked arms.[76]
  • Several members of the Philadelphia Eagles raised their fists during the anthem before their game against the New York Giants. Before the same game, various Giants players stood with arms locked while others knelt.[77]
  • The Seattle Seahawks and the Tennessee Titans did not take the field during the playing of the anthem, staying in their locker rooms until it concluded. The players of the Seahawks released a statement saying, "We will not stand for the injustice that has plagued people of color in this country. Out of love for our country and in honor of the sacrifices made on our behalf, we unite to oppose those that would deny our most basic freedoms."[73] Meghan Linsey, the Nashville singer who performed the anthem, knelt when she completed the song.[78]
  • Before the opening of their game against the Houston Texans, various New England Patriots players and staff also expressed their concerns, including quarterback Tom Brady locking arms with Phillip Dorsett, and head coach Bill Belichick crossing his arms in front of him. Sixteen members of the Patriots knelt during the anthem.[79] Patriots owner Robert Kraft said he was disappointed at the tone in which Trump's comments were made.[77][80]
  • Several members of the Miami Dolphins wore "#IMWITHKAP" T-shirts on the field during the pregame warmup, in support of Kaepernick's actions.[79] The team locked arms during the anthem, with five members kneeling. The opposing team, the New York Jets, also linked arms during the anthem.[81]
  • All Pittsburgh Steelers players except Alejandro Villanueva, who served as an Army Ranger, refused to leave the locker room during the anthem. On the sideline, the Chicago Bears players locked their arms while the anthem was performed.[82] Villanueva has since expressed regret for his actions.[83]
  • The majority of the Oakland Raiders either sat or knelt during the anthem, with several members of the opposing Washington Redskins either kneeling or joining arms as well.[84]
  • Thirty-two members of the Denver Broncos knelt during the anthem.[85] At least ten members of the Buffalo Bills also knelt during the anthem, while other team members locked arms.[86] Running back LeSean McCoy said "My message to him (Trump) is, be a president, be respectful, man. You know, us Americans, we are together. Stop trying to divide us."[87] McCoy performed stretches during the national anthem.
  • The Dallas Cowboys and Arizona Cardinals players locked arms during the anthem, while everyone on the Cowboys, including owner and general manager Jerry Jones, knelt before the anthem was played.[88]
  • The New Orleans Saints established a plan with their team prior to their game against the Miami Dolphins on how they will handle the national anthem before the game. Drew Brees stood and stated the thoughts of his team as a whole by tweeting "As a way to show respect to all, our #Saints team will kneel in solidarity prior to the national anthem & stand together during the anthem."[89]
  • More than ten Indianapolis Colts and about 20 Cleveland Browns players knelt on one knee while the remaining players locked arms during the playing of "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Indianapolis, Indiana. The actions were met by boos from the crowd at Lucas Oil Stadium.[90][91] Indiana is the home state of Vice President Mike Pence, who weeks later intentionally walked out of a Colts game against the 49ers.[92]

On October 16, 2017 Colin Kaepernick filed a grievance for collusion against NFL owners. Instead of using the NFLPA, Kaepernick hired Mark Geragos to be his attorney.[93] As of August 31, 2018, an arbitrator ruled that there is sufficient evidence that the case can continue.[94]

In Week 8 at Seattle, the majority of the Texans players knelt during the anthem after Houston owner Bob McNair had commented about having the "inmates running the prison" during a league owner meeting regarding the ongoing protest. McNair had apologized, stating that he was not referring to the players, but rather to the "relationship between the league office and team owners".[95][96] It was the first time a Texans player had knelt during the anthem.[97]

2018 preseasonEdit

On May 23, 2018, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell and all NFL team owners except for two owners that abstained from voting in a show of hand voting process, approved a new policy requiring all players to stand during the national anthem or be given the option to stay in the locker room during the national anthem. The vote took place without consulting the NFLPA.[98] Any players from all NFL teams who protest the anthem while on the field will become subject to discipline from the league. In addition, the teams as a whole will be subject to punishment and other forms of discipline from the NFL as a result.[99][100]

In disagreement with the policy, several players on the Super Bowl champion Philadelphia Eagles indicated they would decline an invitation from Trump to visit the White House on June 5, leading the President to rescind the offer the day before the event.[101] The Eagles were the second sports franchise that Trump had uninvited, joining the 2017 National Basketball Association (NBA) champion Golden State Warriors, whose visit was cancelled after several players publicly declined to attend.[102]

On July 19, the NFL and the players association issued a joint statement that "no rules relating to the anthem will be issued for the next several weeks." This came after the Associated Press had reported earlier in the day that Miami team rules stated that improper anthem conduct could result in a player suspension of up to four games, more than some players receive for violating the league's domestic violence policy.[103] The following day, Trump tweeted that players should be suspended for one game the first time kneeling, and for the entire season without pay after a second offense.[104]

Other athletes joinEdit

SoccerEdit

Seattle Reign FC and U.S. women's national soccer team player Megan Rapinoe knelt during the national anthem in a game on September 5, 2016, explaining that her decision was a "nod to Kaepernick and everything that he's standing for right now".[105] In a subsequent match at the Washington Spirit, Spirit owner Bill Lynch – anticipating Rapinoe's protest – moved the national anthem's performance without warning or notice to occur before the players' appearances on the pitch. Jeff Plush, the league's commissioner, was present at the game and told reporters that he was unaware of Lynch's plans and disagreed with the act of moving the anthem's performance.[106] The Spirit's players issued a joint statement also disagreeing with Lynch's decision to move the anthem without first consulting the team's players or coaches.[107]

As a member of the U.S. women's national soccer team, Rapinoe also knelt before an international friendly match against Thailand on September 16, despite public statements of disagreement with her protest methods issued before the match by the U.S. Soccer Federation and her coach Jill Ellis.[108] U.S. Soccer proceeded to pass a policy that now requires all of its players to stand "respectfully" during the national anthem, making it the first American sports league or governing body to do so.[109]

Major League Soccer (MLS) have released a statement in September 2017 regarding any potential protests "The march of players, officials and children into our stadiums and singing of the anthem has been a pre-match tradition since our first game in 1996. The National Anthem provides our clubs and fans an important and time-honored opportunity to salute our country and stand up for its principles -- whether in the United States or in Canada."[110] MLS to date, has yet to encounter national anthem protests.

The protest had supporters outside the U.S. as well; in an October 2017 match against Schalke 04, players and staff of German soccer club Hertha Berlin took the knee in solidarity.[111] Hertha Berlin has several American players on their roster.

CollegeEdit

On September 7, 2016, three volleyball players from West Virginia Tech knelt during the national anthem.[112][113]

On October 1, at East Carolina University, about 19 members of the band knelt, while about another two held the American flag during the national anthem at the beginning of the football game against the University of Central Florida.[114] There have been almost no such incidents involving college football players, for the simple reason that college players and coaches are typically in the locker room when the anthem is played. There has been at least one exception to the rule, however. During a September 2016 away game at Northwestern, where players are traditionally on the field during the anthem, three Nebraska players knelt on the sideline.[115][116] The NCAA football rulebook does not address the issue of pregame ceremonies (patriotic or otherwise) at all, except to say that team captains must be present for a coin toss three minutes before the first-half kickoff.

College of the Ozarks president Jerry Davis announced in September 2017 that his college's teams would refuse to play any team whose players knelt during the anthem.[117] In response, the NAIA chose to move its Division II men's basketball champion game away from College of the Ozarks' Keeter Gymnasium (where the championship game had been held since 2000) to Sanford Pentagon in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.[118]

On February 23, 2019, eight players of the Ole Miss men's basketball team took a knee during the national anthem at their home-game against Georgia. The players took a knee to protest the pro-confederate rally that was happening on campus at the time.[119] The players previously stood during the national anthem, with this being the first time they took the knee. The athletes were upset by a video posted online by the rally organizers a few days prior.[120] The protest reached national attention and received negative backlash. However, the athletes received public support from University officials.[121]

High schoolEdit

On September 2, 2016, a football player at Brunswick High School in Ohio knelt during the national anthem after he heard his teammates saying "nigger".[113] After his protest, the player received racial threats.[122] On September 9, high school players across the country knelt during the national anthem. On September 23, four players from Withrow High School, three black and one white, in Cincinnati knelt during the national anthem before their football game.[113]

In September 2017, Principal Waylon Bates of Parkway High School in Louisiana referred to the national anthem protests as a "disruption" and threatened to kick any player out of the football team if he knelt during the national anthem.[123] Two black students on the Victory & Praise Christian Academy football team protested during the anthem. Immediately after the anthem concluded, their coach removed them from the team, having them take off their uniforms on the sidelines.[124]

On October 2018, the 32 players of the Christian Capital Academy football team as well as the coaching staff decided to take a knee during the national anthem. When asked about their reasons, the team collectively responded that they took a knee as a way to protest for the excessive use of police brutality against minorities, especially against African Americans.[125] The two players did not receive any punishment for their protest.[126]

On December 2017, Ninth Circuit Court for the Southern District of California ruled in favor of high school players, and stated that no high school football player can be forced to stand during the national anthem or cannot be forced out of the team by refusing to do so.[127] The basis for such ruling is that “loss of First Amendment freedoms unquestionably constitutes irreparable harm and that the mandate issued by the district superintendent is a violation of the athlete’s First Amendment rights.”[127]

BaseballEdit

On September 23, 2017, Bruce Maxwell of the Oakland Athletics knelt during the national anthem, becoming the first MLB player to join the protest. His team backed him up by saying, "The Oakland A's pride ourselves on being inclusive. We respect and support all of our players' constitutional rights and freedom of expression."[128][129] Maxwell received a standing ovation from A's fans before his first at-bat following his protest.[130]

The MLB has no policy regarding the national anthem other than it has to be played before games.[110]

BasketballEdit

On September 24, 2017, prior to Game 1 of the 2017 WNBA Finals, players from the Los Angeles Sparks chose to stay in the locker room during the national anthem, while members of the Minnesota Lynx locked arms on the court.[131]

The NBA has a policy that requires players to stand up during the national anthem in their CBA, however many prominent players have expressed support for the NFL protests on social media or in interviews.[132]

Ice hockeyEdit

On October 7, 2017, J. T. Brown of the Tampa Bay Lightning raised his fist while standing on the bench during the national anthem. He had also done the same in a preseason game, in an attempt to "bring awareness to police brutality against minorities and racial inequality".[133] He stated that he had "received death threats" after the protest.[134]

Pan American GamesEdit

At the 2019 Pan American Games in Lima, Peru, team fencing gold medalist Race Imboden kneeled and women's hammer throw champion Gwen Berry raised a fist on the awards stand during the American national anthem.[135][136]

Racism, gun control, mistreatment of immigrants, and a president who spreads hate are at the top of a long list. I chose to sacrifice my moment today at the top of the podium to call attention to issues that I believe need to be addressed. I encourage others to please use your platforms for empowerment and change.

— Race Imboden

It's too important to not say something. Something has to be said. If nothing is said, nothing will be done, and nothing will be fixed, and nothing will be changed.

— Gwen Berry

ReactionsEdit

Political figuresEdit

 
Vice President Pence stands for anthem prior to leaving after players knelt

In September 2016, President Barack Obama stated that Kaepernick was "exercising his constitutional right" to protest. He went on: "I don't doubt his sincerity. I think he cares about some real, legitimate issues that have to be talked about. If nothing else, he's generated more conversation about issues that have to be talked about."[137]

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg criticized the protest as "dumb and disrespectful", stating that athletes have the right to protest "if they want to be stupid". The Supreme Court later issued a statement from Ginsburg stating that her comments were "inappropriately dismissive and harsh. I should have declined to respond."[138]

On September 25, 2017, U.S. Representative Sheila Jackson Lee knelt on the floor of the House of Representatives.[139] Fellow congressman Mark Pocan knelt on the floor of the House the next day.[140]

On September 26, 2017, Louisiana Lt. Gov. Billy Nungesser told The Times-Picayune that he would not be attending the New Orleans Saints game against the Miami Dolphins, which was going to be taking place in London. Although he was going to be in London during the time of the game, he told the newspaper that he would not attend because he was "disappointed in the NFL." He added that "it is disgraceful that anybody would use that as a time to protest."[141]

On October 8, 2017, Vice President Mike Pence left a game between the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the San Francisco 49ers, members of which had knelt during the anthem, "because President Trump and I will not dignify any event that disrespects our soldiers, our Flag, or our National Anthem."[142]

Oklahoma senator James Lankford said Russian internet trolls, seeking to polarize Americans, helped fuel a debate.[143][144][145]

We watched, even this weekend, the Russians and their troll farms, their internet folks, start hashtagging out #TakeAKnee and also hashtagging out #BoycottNFL," he said during a hearing on threats faced by the United States. "They were taking both sides of the argument this weekend ... to try to raise the noise level of America and make a big issue seem like an even bigger issue as they are trying to push divisiveness in this country.

CorporationsEdit

Major sports sponsors Nike, Under Armour, and Ford all issued statements in support of athletes' freedom of expression after Trump's comments regarding the NFL. Nike's statement read, "Nike supports athletes and their right to freedom of expression on issues that are of great importance to our society."[146] Nike's ad featuring Kaepernick read "Believe in something. Even if it means sacrificing everything."[147] In September 2016, after Brandon Marshall knelt during the national anthem, Century Link and Air Academy Federal Credit Union dropped him as a paid sponsor.[148] Radio station WFAY dropped a broadcast of an East Carolina University football game on the station after the marching band took part in the protest, calling it an insult to the U.S. Armed Forces.[149] John Schnatter of sponsor Papa John's Pizza blamed the protests for a drop in sales and a 24% fall in stock during 2017, saying that the "controversy is polarizing the customer, polarizing the country".[150] Later that day, the company announced that the NFL shield or "official sponsor" designation on Papa John's commercials and advertising would be removed.[151] In December 2017 Sanderson Farms CEO questioned whether the NFL protests were to blame for falling chicken wing prices.[152]

After his first kneel in 2016, Nike was well on its way to severing its four year long partnership with Kaepernick.[153] Nigel Powell, chief communications executive of Nike, convinced the company to maintain their partnership with Kaepernick which eventually led to the launch of the politically and socially controversial advertisement released in 2018, "Nike - Dream Crazy", with Kaepernick as their face of their 30th year anniversary campaign.[154] Despite the prevalent backlash on social media of people who criticized Kaepernick's actions by burning and cutting up their Nike brand clothing, and even attracting the attention of President Trump, whom went ahead and tweeted against the company's campaign,[155] Nike sales increased by 31% within five days after the advertisement was released. However, the campaign did result in a temporary drop of 2.2% in the company's stock price.[156][157] By September 13, 2018, Nike's stock price closed at $83.47, which at the time was the highest in the company's history.[158] Nike took this backlash and converted it into a meme by releasing an ad that provided instructions to their customer on how to burn their products "properly".[158]

Athletes and sports mediaEdit

Throughout the remainder of the 2016 season, Kaepernick received public backlash for his protest, with an anonymous NFL executive calling Kaepernick "a traitor".[159] On September 20, 2016, Kaepernick also stated that he received death threats primarily through social media.[160]

Sportscaster Bob Costas offered support for Kaepernick stating, "Patriotism comes in many forms and what has happened is it's been conflated with a bumper-style kind of flag-waving and with the military only so that people cannot see that in his own way Colin Kaepernick, however imperfectly, is doing a patriotic thing."[161]

Trent Dilfer criticized Kaepernick. "The big thing that hit me through all this was this is a backup quarterback whose job is to be quiet, and sit in the shadows and get the starter ready to play Week 1," Dilfer said on Sunday NFL Countdown. "Yet he chose a time where all of a sudden he became the center of attention. And it has disrupted that organization. It has caused friction. And it's torn at the fabric of the team."[162]

Stemming from the Kaepernick controversy, before the beginning of the 2016 World Cup of Hockey tournament in Toronto, Canada, Team USA coach John Tortorella told in an interview that if any one of his players were to sit out during the anthem, they would sit on the bench for the entire duration of the game.[163]

The September 2016 police shootings of Terence Crutcher and Keith Lamont Scott bolstered support for his protest.[164] Kaepernick said of the Terence Crutcher shooting, "this is a perfect example of what this is about."[160] Boxer Floyd Mayweather criticized Kaepernick, stating, "You know, a lot of times, we get stuck, and we are followers. When you hear one person say 'black lives matter' or 'blue lives matter,' all lives matter." Adding moments later, "With me being a fighter, and my hands being registered, if I hit a guy for breaking in my house, or breaking in my car, it's gonna cost me more money, so I gotta work smarter, not harder. I'm gonna call the cops."[165]

Discussion continued throughout August 2017. Baseball Hall of Famer Hank Aaron said, "I think he's getting a raw deal" from the NFL.[166] That same month, Pro Football Hall of Famer and longtime civil rights activist Jim Brown, who a year earlier supported Kaepernick "100 percent",[167] now criticized him, suggesting Kaepernick ought to decide whether to be an athlete or an activist.[168] "I'm an American," said Brown. "I don't desecrate my flag and my national anthem. ... This is my country, and I'll work out the problems, but I'll do it in an intelligent manner."[169]

Jim Harbaugh, Kaepernick's former coach, penned a strong statement of support for him as part of Time's "100 Most Influential People" series. Harbaugh wrote, "His willingness to take a position at personal cost is now part of our American story. How lucky for us all and for our country to have among our citizens someone as remarkable as Colin Kaepernick."[170]

NASCAR team owners Richard Petty and Richard Childress have supported Trump and said that they would fire drivers and employees who would not stand for the national anthem.[171] Petty said, "Anybody that don't stand up for the anthem ought to be out of the country. Period." Childress said, "It'll get you a ride on a Greyhound bus" if anyone on his team protested the anthem.[172] Driver Dale Earnhardt Jr., however, expressed support for the peaceful protests, quoting President John F. Kennedy, "Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable."[173] NASCAR released a statement on September 25 in response to the protests that said, "Sports are a unifying influence in our society, bringing people of differing backgrounds and beliefs together. Our respect for the national anthem has always been a hallmark of our pre-race events. Thanks to the sacrifices of many, we live in a country of unparalleled freedoms and countless liberties, including the right to peacefully express one's opinion."[174]

Jemele Hill tweeted, "Just so we're clear: the president's comments will only incite more player protests, not quell them." following Trump's initial response to the protests.[175][176] Hill was later put on a two-week suspension for "a second violation of our social media guidelines", after Hill suggested people direct their disagreements towards advertisers of Dallas Cowboys owner Jerry Jones, after Jones stated he would bench any player who protested the national anthem on October 9, 2017.[177][178]

On September 25, 2017, Bill Russell posted a photo to Twitter while kneeling and wearing his Presidential Medal of Freedom.[179] On September 26, 2017, Joey Odoms, the national anthem singer for the home games of the Ravens, resigned citing the "tone/actions of a large number of NFL fans in the midst of our country's cultural crisis".[180]

Former Chicago Bears coach Mike Ditka commented, "If you don't respect our country, then you shouldn't be in this country playing football ... So I would say, adios." He added that he was "not condemning anybody or criticizing anybody" in his remarks. According to Ditka, "there has been no oppression in the last 100 years that I know of."[181]

EntertainmentEdit

NFL ratings have been in decline for the past couple years, except for the 2018 season, which saw an increase of 4%.[182] However during the 2016 and 2017 seasons ratings were down by 8% and 9.7% respectively.[183][184] A UBS securities analysis show that the primary cause of the drop in the ratings from the NFL is mainly due to players protesting the national anthem. According to the same survey, 50% of the decline in rating in 2017 is because of players taking a knee before the game, whereas this action only accounts for 18% of the decline of rating in 2016.[185] The decline in ratings have had a huge impact on the ad revenue from major television companies, especially CBS and Fox.[186]

Stevie Wonder knelt during the 2017 Global Citizen Festival on September 23, saying "Tonight, I'm taking a knee for America".[187]

Eddie Vedder, Pharrell Williams, Dave Matthews, John Legend and Roger Waters knelt to support the protests during concerts on September 24.[188] The same day Sonequa Martin-Green posted in her Instagram account a picture of several members from Star Trek: Discovery's cast alongside producer Akiva Goldsman and herself kneeling.[189] Shonda Rhimes posted a photo kneeling with the cast of Grey's Anatomy.[190]

The X-Files actors Gillian Anderson and David Duchovny posted a photo on Twitter of themselves kneeling with arms locked on September 26.[191]

Actor Damien Leake had been making a similar protest for almost 50 years, since the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. When asked to comment:

Does it ever occur to you that the playing of the national anthem has no place at a sporting event, period? Those of you who know me from high school may remember that I decided to start sitting during the playing of the Star Spangled Banner on April 4th 1968, and have been sitting ever since.[192]

CollegesEdit

On October 11, 2018, Colin Kaepernick was awarded the W.E.B. Du Bois Medal at Harvard University during the Hutchins Center Honors sponsored by the Hutchins Center for African & African American Research. The award is going to be given for his "significant contributions and African-American history and culture", and for his support "for intercultural understanding and human rights in an increasingly global and interconnected world".[193] Some might think that the award is significant because it shows what he has sacrificed for starting and upholding the national anthem protest, and gives credibility to him as an activist based on the criteria for the award and past honorees such as Muhammad Ali.[194]

Law enforcementEdit

Due to Kaepernick's 2018 advertisement with Nike, both plaudits and denunciations have been voiced. On September 5, 2018 in response to the new Kaepernick-Nike campaign, the National Black Police Association provided a letter stating, "The NBPA believes that Mr. Kaepernick's stance is in direct alignment with what law enforcement stands for — the protection of a people, their human rights, their dignity, their safety and their rights as American citizens."[195] Despite being police officers, the NBPA defends Kaepernick's actions because they feel that the issue of race must be addressed in order to tackle the ongoing issue.[196]

There is a wide divide of agreement on this subject between law enforcement groups; especially between the NBPA and The National Police Association (who felt that Kaepernick's gestures regarding the national anthem were disrespectful).[197] NAPO has even called for a boycott of Nike products due to their recent partnership with Kaepernick.[198]

Social mediaEdit

Kneeling during the national anthem became a symbol of resistance, similar to the black power fist. The act was discussed heavily on social media, with users on Twitter and Facebook using #TakeAKnee or #TakeTheKnee to discuss the act. The use of this hashtag exploded with 4 million tweets.[199][200] The hashtag was often used with other hashtags such as #BoycottNFL and #BlackLivesMatter. #BoycottNFL is used in different states than #TakeAKnee, with those using #BoycottNFL wanting to boycott the NFL and those using #TakeAKnee supporting the players who choose to protest.[201]

NFL national anthem policyEdit

The previous national anthem policy by the NFL written about a decade before the new policy in May 2018 contained vocabulary that allotted more leeway in the players' behavior during the national anthem before games. It required players to be on the sideline but only stated that players should, not must, stand during the national anthem.[202] Colin Kaepernick used this fact to an advantage and conducted his act of a peaceful protest which remained inconspicuous until President Trump posted his tweets on Twitter.[203] The tweets brought enormous amounts of media attention to the participating players and found people on two sides of the issue; one group that supported Kaepernick and many other players that were protesting to bring awareness to police brutality black people faced and the other group that believed kneeling was disrespectful to the country, flag, or the military.[204]

To address the backlash, the NFL released a national anthem policy in May 2018, stating that players and team personnel were required to stand during the national anthem. Those who chose not to stand were required to remain in the locker room.[205] Though NFL commissioner Roger Goodell said the vote was unanimous among all NFL owners, Jed York, the owner of the San Francisco 49ers and Kaepernick's previous team said he abstained.[206] During an interview, President Trump said that the NFL did "the right thing" of releasing the new policy. He added, "You have to stand proudly for the national anthem or you shouldn’t be playing. You shouldn’t be there. Maybe you shouldn’t be in the country."[207]

Since passing the new national anthem policy in May 2018, the policy was put on hold in July 2018. This occurred when the NFLPA filed a grievance against the NFL's national anthem policy, stating that the policy violated the players' rights because there were no prior discussions between the NFL and NFLPA. The policy remained suspended until Super Bowl LIII and will remain suspended until further notice.[208]

See alsoEdit

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