U.S. Route 431 in Alabama

U.S. Route 431 (US 431), internally designated by the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) as State Route 1 (SR 1), is a major north–south state highway across the eastern part of the U.S. state of Alabama. Although US 431's south end is in Dothan, SR 1 continues south for about 13 miles (21 km) along US 231 to the Florida state line.

U.S. Route 431 marker

U.S. Route 431
State Route 1
Route information
Maintained by ALDOT
Length352.958 mi[1] (568.031 km)
ExistedJanuary 1954[2]–present
Major junctions
South end
US 231 / US 231 Bus. / US 431 Bus. / SR 1 / SR 210 in Dothan
 Template:Plailist
North end US 231 / US 431 at the Tennessee state line
Location
CountiesHouston, Henry, Barbour, Russell, Lee, Chambers, Randolph, Cleburne, Calhoun, Etowah, Marshall, Madison
Highway system
  • Alabama Highways
I-422I-459
SR 959SR 1SR 2

Route descriptionEdit

 
Map of Dothan

SR 1 is primarily the unsigned partner route assigned to US 431.The two routes run concurrently from the southern terminus of US 431 at Dothan to the Tennessee state line. South of Dothan, SR 1 is assigned to US 231.

US 231 enters Alabama in Meridianville with US 431. The two routes continue south until it becomes Memorial Parkway. This route is a freeway with Texas U-turns and frontage roads. It junctions with US 72 east. It continues south for about three miles (4.8 km) until it junctions with US 72 west. Immediately after this concurrency terminus, I-565 is featured in another junction as downtown Huntsville rises into view to the east. After a parclo with old SR 20/Clinton Avenue, US 431 loses US 231 at its junction with SR 53. It turns onto Governor's Drive and gains unsigned SR 1. It passes by the hub of the Huntsville Hospital system, which runs throughout North Alabama, and begins its journey across Monte Sano mountain. After leaving the mountain range, it has no more major junctions past this point as it loses the Governor's Drive name. It eventually passes into Marshall County.

After about 20 miles (32 km) of hilly terrain, the route crosses the Tennessee River and enters Guntersville, junctioning with SR 79 north. It continues south and splits into two one-way streets; one for each direction. It junctions with SR 227 and SR 69's termini before losing SR 79 south. It turns almost east-to-west and climbs up Sand Mountain. This grade is so steep that there is a runaway truck ramp northbound. It junctions with SR 205's western terminus and enters Albertville. It junctions with SR 75 and leaves the city, entering Boaz and junctioning with SR 205 and SR 179. It then enters Etowah County at Sardis City.

It descends into Ridgeville and junctions with SR 77 and almost immediately junctions with US 278 west. These junctions are immediately beside a railroad track. US 278 and US 431 travel concurrently to Attalla. They maintain a short concurrency with US 11. US 278 and US 431 leave US 11 and cross under a notable railroad bridge, known for its low clearance. The routes then junction with Interstate 59 (I-59). They immediately enter into Gadsden and junction with SR 211. US 431 and US 278 junction with US 411 and cross a bridge over the Coosa River. The routes junction with George Wallace Drive, which leads to I-759. US 278 leaves US 431 and continues east to Hokes Bluff. US 431 enters Glencoe and crosses into Calhoun County.

The route enters into Wellington and junctions with SR 204. The route then climbs and descends multiple hills as it enters into Alexandria, where it junctions with SR 144. It eventually climbs up a steep hill and gives drivers a great view of Anniston, Cheaha State Park, and some of the highest mountains in Alabama as it descends a steep grade into Anniston. It junctions with SR 21 at another parclo interchange and turns south into Oxford. The route junctions with US 78 and immediately junctions with I-20. The route merges with I-20 and about two miles (3.2 km), it leaves it, turning south, and immediately enters Cleburne County.

The route enters Cheaha State Park, and passes through the forest, junctioning with SR 281, which climbs up to the crest of Mount Cheaha, the highest mountain in the state. It leaves the forest and enters Hollis Crossroads, junctioning with SR 9. It enters Randolph County.

The route has no major junctions until it enters Wedowee. It junctions with SR 48. It leaves Wedowee as a short four-lane divided highway. It regains its two-laned status and eventually enters Roanoke. Here, it junctions with SR 22. It then enters Chambers County.

The route passes through Five Points before crossing into La Fayette. Here, SR 77 returns to the scene as SR 50 has its junction in south La Fayette. In Oak Bowery, US 431 junctions with SR 147. It enters Lee County for about a mile before crossing back into Chambers County. It cuts a corner of Lee County before re-entering into Chambers County for under a mile. It finally enters into Lee County completely, not cutting another corner.

It passes through eastern Opelika before reaching a turn and immediately junctioning with I-85, US 29, and US 280. It gains US 280 and continues along a four-lane divided highway into Russell County.

The two routes run concurrently with US 80 in western Phenix City. It loses US 80 and then leaves US 280 just short of the Georgia line at the Chattahoochee River. In rural Russell County, the route junctions with SR 165. In Seale, it junctions with SR 26. It passes through Pittsview. It then crosses the line into Barbour County.

The route junctions again with SR 165 and crosses a fork of the Chattahoochee River. It enters Eufaula and junctions with US 82 west. Just before the route can cross the river into Georgia, it loses US 82 and moves away from the state line. In rural Barbour County, the route junctions with SR 30, SR 131, and SR 95, also crossing multiple forks of the Chattahoochee River, but not crossing the state line. It crosses the line into Henry County.

It moves farther away from the state line as it enters Abbeville. It junctions with SR 10 and SR 27. It makes the long journey through straight terrain down to Headland. It junctions with SR 134 and leaves the city. It then enters Houston County. The route has entered the Dothan Metropolitan Area.

The route eventually reaches the Ross Clark Circle, which is US 84 at this point. It joins it as it passes through east Dothan. It loses US 84 and continues southwest independently with SR 210, the Ross Clark Circle. It junctions with SR 53 once again as it nears its southern terminus. The beltway turns to the northwest and junctions with US 231 and US 231 Bus. and US 431 Bus., both of which pass through Dothan. SR 1 turns south with US 231, The two business routes end, and US 431 ultimately ends its long journey across east Alabama.

US 431 is a very important route throughout east Alabama, and is traversed by many people alongside US 231 and I-65.

HistoryEdit

Four-lane routingEdit

One of the criticisms of US 431 in its entirety from Kentucky to Alabama was that it was mainly a two-lane road. ALDOT has prioritized four-laning the route in Alabama as a viable north–south road corridor in the eastern part of the state.

 
The old alignment of US 431 between Pittsview and the Barbour County line

Of particular concern was the segment from Seale south to the Barbour County line, where rolling hills along the original alignment limit the visibility of oncoming traffic, contributing to poor decisions by motorists to pass, resulting in numerous head-on collisions. In this segment alone, 31 people were killed in crashes between 1992 and 2006, leading Readers Digest to proclaim it one of "America's Deadliest Highways" in 2000.[3] After being contacted by and subsequently meeting the family of a fatal crash victim in 2003, ALDOT Director Joe McInnes decided to expedite the construction on the last remaining stretch of two-lane road between Seale and the Barbour County line.[4] This 16-mile (26 km) section was completed and opened in late 2010. The old alignment in Russell County is still open to traffic and is now labeled County Route 137.

Traveling south from Tennessee, as of mid-2009, US 431 is a four-lane route to Oxford. Then, after diverting from I-20 east of Oxford at exit 191, it reverts to a two-lane highway southward to Opelika, with a brief four-lane stretch just south of Wedowee. From Opelika southward to its southern terminus in Dothan, US 431 is now open as a four-lane highway.

Anniston Eastern BypassEdit

The Anniston Eastern Bypass, officially named the McClellan Veterans Parkway,[5] is a realigned US 431, two miles (3.2 km) east of downtown Anniston and downtown Oxford. Since the early 1990s, bypasses have been planned on both sides of town to alleviate traffic on Quintard Avenue, the main north–south traffic artery in the region. Despite being planned for years, construction did not begin until after receiving funding in a 2009 economic stimulus bill.[6] Prior to the start of construction, archeological work on part of the route that passed through Fort McClellan located Native American spearpoints and an American Civil War homestead.[7]

The bypass runs from I-20 exit 188 (Leon Smith Parkway), following the Golden Springs Road northwards, and cross the Choccolocco Foothills, then crosses over SR 21/McClellan Boulevard. It is complete from McIntosh Road to where the former alignment of US 431 merged with SR 21 which was resconstructed. The northern portion, which began construction in 2010,[8] is built with two at-grade intersections (McClellan Bypass and Summerall Road) and one trumpet interchange (SR 21/McClellan Boulevard). Much development has been the result of this highway in the past decade along I-20 in Oxford and it is regarded as a way to redevelop McClellan as well as north Anniston.[9][10]

The total cost of the project was $164 million;[5] the final stretch of the road to be constructed is complete as of December 2015,[11] and work on the US 431 tie-in continued into 2016 before completion.[12] US 431 follows this route from I-20 northward.

Major intersectionsEdit

CountyLocationmi[1]kmDestinationsNotes
HoustonDothan0.0000.000        
     US 231 / US 231 Bus. north / US 431 Bus. north (South Oates Street) / SR 210 (Ross Clark Circle) – Ozark, Enterprise, Ashford, Headland, Panama City
Southern end of US 431; SR 1 follows US 231 from this point southward
12.72720.482  SR 53 – Cottonwood
14.45823.268  
   US 84 / US 84 Bus. west (SR 12/East Main Street) – Ashford
Southern end of concurrency with US 84
14.93324.032  SR 52 – Columbia
17.83828.707     
    US 84 / US 431 Bus. (SR 1/Reeves Street) / SR 210 – Ozark, Headland, Eufaula
Northern end of concurrency with SR 210/US 84; SR 1 follows US 431 Bus. through Dothan; southern end of concurrency with SR 1
HenryHeadland25.75441.447  SR 134 – Abbeville, Headland, Columbia
26.27042.277  SR 173 north – NewvilleSouthern terminus of SR 173
Abbeville39.74863.968  SR 27 – Ozark, Abbeville
42.39668.230  SR 10 – Blue Springs, Abbeville
Barbour59.97096.512  SR 95 southNorthern terminus of SR 95
Eufaula61.90899.631  SR 131 south – BakerhillNorthern terminus of SR 131
64.058103.091  SR 30 west – Clayton, TroyEastern terminus of SR 30
66.823107.541  US 82 east (SR 6 east/Barbour Street)Southern end of concurrency with US 82
68.307109.929  US 82 west (SR 6 west) – MontgomeryNorthern end of concurrency with US 82
74.949120.619   SR 165 north / SR 285 – CottontonSouthern terminus of SR 165/285
RussellSeale96.895155.937   SR 26 west / CR 18 east – Hurtsboro, Union SpringsEastern terminus of SR 26
99.105159.494   SR 169 north / CR 138 east – Phenix City, SealeSouthern terminus of SR 169
109.155175.668  SR 165 south (Fort Mitchell Road)Northern terminus of SR 165
Phenix City112.081180.377  US 280 east (SR 38 east) – Birmingham, Opelika, Columbus, AtlantaWestern end of concurrency with US 280
113.942183.372  US 80 west (SR 8 west) – MontgomeryWestern end of concurrency with US 80
114.888184.894  US 80 east (SR 8 east) – ColumbusEastern end of concurrency with US 80
LeeOpelika137.253220.887    I-85 / US 29 (SR 15) / US 280 west (SR 38 west) – Montgomery, AtlantaWestern end of concurrency with US 280; I-85 Exit 62
ChambersWaverly149.840241.144  SR 147 south – AuburnNorthern terminus of SR 147
Lafayette158.859255.659  SR 50
160.794258.773  SR 77 north – WadleySouthern terminus of SR 77
RandolphRoanoke180.783290.942  SR 22 – Roanoke, Rock Mills
Wedowee194.314312.718  SR 48 west – R. L. Harris DamSouthern end of concurrency with SR 48
194.437312.916  SR 48 east (Woodland Avenue)Northern end of concurrency with SR 48
CleburneHollis Crossroads212.540342.050  SR 9 – Ashland, Montgomery, Atlanta
217.805350.523  SR 281SR 281 crosses US 431 on an overpass, but the two routes do not actually intersect. SR 281 is accessible via a county road just south of the overpass.
Calhoun221.328356.193   I-20 east / SR 301 north – AtlantaI-20 Exit 191/Southern end of I-20 overlap/Southern terminus of SR 301, which follows former alignment of US 431 northward to US 78
Oxford225.036362.160  I-20 west – BirminghamI-20 Exit 188/Northern end of I-20 overlap
225.269362.535  US 78 (SR 4)Interchange
Anniston232.534374.227  SR 21 (McClellan Boulevard) – Anniston, JacksonvillePartial cloverleaf/trumpet interchange
Alexandria240.300386.725  SR 144 west – OhatcheeEastern terminus of SR 144
247.070397.621  SR 204 east – JacksonvilleWestern terminus of SR 204
EtowahGadsden258.458415.948  US 278 east (SR 74 east/Piedmont Cut-Off) – Hokes Bluff, Piedmont, AtlantaEastern end of concurrency with US 278
260.232418.803   SR 291 south (Hood Avenue) to I-759 – Gadsden State Community CollegeNorthern terminus of SR 291
260.519419.265  US 411 (SR 25/Albert Rains Boulevard) – Rainbow City, Ashville, CentrePartial cloverleaf interchange
261.994421.638  SR 211 north (North 12th Street)Southern terminus of SR 211
265.274426.917  I-59 – Birmingham, ChattanoogaI-59 Exit 183
Attalla266.117428.274  US 11 north (SR 7 north/3rd Street)Southern end of concurrency with US 11
266.449428.808  US 11 south (SR 7 south/3rd Street)Northern end of concurrency with US 11
268.363431.888  US 278 west (SR 74 west) – CullmanWestern end of concurrency with US 278
268.829432.638  SR 77 south – Lincoln, Walnut GroveNorthern terminus of SR 77
Sardis City277.880447.205  SR 205 northSouthern terminus of SR 205
MarshallBoaz280.544451.492  SR 168 (Mill Avenue) – Douglas
Albertville286.741461.465   SR 75 to SR 68 – Geraldine
Guntersville292.423470.609  SR 205 southNorthern terminus of SR 205
294.742474.341  SR 79 south – Blountsville, BirminghamSouthern end of concurrency with SR 79
295.822476.079  SR 69 south – Cullman, ArabNorthern terminus of SR 69
296.190476.672  SR 227 south (Lusk Street) – Lake Guntersville State ParkNorthern terminus of SR 227
302.114486.205  SR 79 north – ScottsboroNorthern end of concurrency with SR 79
MadisonHuntsville333.702537.041   US 231 south (Memorial Parkway) / SR 53 north (Governors Drive) – Arab, DecaturSouthern end of northern concurrency with US 231; southern end of northern signed segment of SR 53
334.700538.647  
   I-565 / US 72 Alt.
335.207539.463  US 72 west (SR 2 west) / University DriveSouthern end of concurrency with US 72
336.884542.162  US 72 eastNorthern end of concurrency with US 72
Hazel Green352.958568.031   US 231 north / US 431 northContinuation into Tennessee; northern terminus of SR 1
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Milepost Web". Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  2. ^ "US 431, US 280 Markers Now Up". The Opelika Daily News. Opelika, Alabama. January 26, 1954. p. 1. Retrieved December 21, 2019 – via Newspapers.com.  
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Long road to rehabilitation nearly over for east Alabama's deadly U.S. 431". AL.com.
  5. ^ a b Lockette, Tim (December 5, 2016). "A year later, Anniston bypass leaves Quintard businesses with mixed results". The Anniston Star. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  6. ^ Goodman, Sherri C. (February 13, 2009). "Anniston bypass, Huntsville overpass are big winners if Obama OKs stimulus plan". The Birmingham News. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  7. ^ Eubanks, Jamie M. (January 26, 2001). "Archaeologists Make Incredible Discoveries in Foothills of Choccolocco Mountain". JSU News. Jacksonville, AL: Jacksonville State University. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  8. ^ Smith, George (February 10, 2010). "Eastern Bypass to vault over Alabama 21". The Anniston Star. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  9. ^ Richardson, Robert (December 19, 2013). "Governor Bentley breaks ground on Veterans Memorial Parkway". Birmingham, AL: WBMA-LD. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  10. ^ Anderson, Brian (January 14, 2014). "Weaver council seeks to annex property along Alabama 21". The Anniston Star. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  11. ^ Thornton, William (December 17, 2015). "Opening of Anniston Eastern Bypass set for Monday". AL.com. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  12. ^ McIlwain, Maria (May 27, 2016). "More traffic lanes to open at bypass northern end". The Anniston Star. Retrieved December 6, 2017.

External linksEdit

Route map:

KML is from Wikidata
  U.S. Route 431
Previous state:
Terminus
Alabama Next state:
Tennessee