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1870 United States House of Representatives elections

  (Redirected from U.S. House election, 1870)

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1870 and 1871 to elect Representatives for the 42nd Congress, and were held in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's first term.

1870 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1868 June 6, 1870 –
October 6, 1871[Note 1]
1872 →

All 243 seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Fernando Wood - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James Blaine Fernando Wood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine-3rd New York-9th
Last election 171 seats 67 seats
Seats won 139[Note 2] 104[Note 3]
Seat change Decrease 32 Increase 37

House042ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1870 elections for 42nd Congress

Speaker before election

James Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

With Grant's administration rocked by a number of scandals (including a shady deal for gold speculation that led to a crash in the market and several business deals that saw high-ranking governmental officials gain kickbacks) and Reconstruction winding down, his Republican Party lost seats to the opposition Democratic Party but retained an overall majority. Also, since the Democratic Party controlled governments were reestablishing themselves in some portions of the South, the Democrats were able to make huge gains in this election.

Contents

Election summariesEdit

139 104
Republican Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change
Mississippi[Note 4][Note 5] District 5 5   0  
Alabama District 6 3   1 3   1
Arkansas District 3 2   1  
California[Note 6] District 3 3   2 0   2
Connecticut[Note 6] District 4 3   1  
Delaware At-large 1 0   1  
Florida At-large 1 0   1 1   1
Georgia District 7 3   4  
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 8   2 6   2
Indiana[Note 4] District 11 6   1 5   1
Iowa[Note 4] District 6 6   0  
Kansas At-large 1 1   0  
Kentucky District 9 0   9  
Louisiana District 5 5   0  
Maine[Note 4] District 5 5   0  
Maryland District 5 0   5  
Massachusetts District 10 10   0  
Michigan District 6 5   1 1   1
Minnesota District 2 2   1 0   1
Missouri District 9 5[Note 7]   2 4   2
Nebraska[Note 4] At-large 1 1   0  
Nevada At-large 1 0   1 1   1
New Hampshire[Note 6] District 3 0   3 3   3
New Jersey District 5 3   1 2   1
New York District 31 15   3 16   3
North Carolina[Note 4] District 7 2   4 5   4
Ohio[Note 4] District 19 14   1 5   1
Oregon[Note 4] At-large 1 0   1  
Pennsylvania[Note 4] District 24 13[Note 8]   3 11   3
Rhode Island District 2 2   0  
South Carolina[Note 4] District 4 4   0  
Tennessee District 8 2   6 6   6
Texas[Note 6] District 4 0   3 4   3
Vermont[Note 4] District 3 3   0  
Virginia District 8 3   5   5[Note 9]
West Virginia[Note 4] District 3 1   2 2   2
Wisconsin District 6 4   1 2   1
Total 243 139[Note 10]
57.2%
  32 104
42.8%
  37
House seats
Republican
57.20%
Democratic
42.80%

The previous election included 5 Conservatives

Election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[1] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1870, there remained 12 States that held elections before Election Day, and 4 that held it after at this time:

All RacesEdit

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent Party Elected Status Opponent
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1867 Incumbent retired.
Republican Gain
Sherman O. Houghton (Republican) 51.6%
Lawrence Archer (Democratic) 48.4%
California 2 Aaron Augustus Sargent Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected Aaron Augustus Sargent (Republican) 54%
James W. Coffroth (Democratic) 46%
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1867 Incumbent retired.
Republican gain
John M. Coghlan (Republican) 51.7%
George Pearce (Democratic) 48.3%

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
Republican hold
Josiah T. Walls (Republican) 51.3%
Silas L. Niblack (Democratic) 48.7%

Niblack subsequently successfully challenged Walls' election, and took Florida's at-large seat on January 29, 1873.[2]

OhioEdit

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[3]
Ohio 1 Peter W. Strader Democratic 1868 Incumbent retired.
Republican gain
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic gain
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
Democratic gain
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Incumbent retired.
Democratic hold
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 James J. Winans Republican 1868 Lost renomination
Republican hold
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Edward F. Dickinson Democratic 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (s) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Erasmus D. Peck (Republican) 52.5%
  • William F. Lockwood (Democratic) 47.5%
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 George W. Morgan Democratic 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
Republican hold
Ohio 15 Eliakim H. Moore Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
Republican hold
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John Bingham (Republican) 52.4%
  • Robert A. Chambers (Democratic) 47.6%
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Majority of states held elections on November 8, 1870 (i.e. Election Day).
  2. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans and 1 Independent Republican.
  3. ^ Note that Dubin (p. 221) records 9–10 "Conservatives", and approximately 94 Democrats, as being elected to the 42nd Congress. This contrasts with Martis (pp. 124–125) which offers no separate accounting of "Conservatives" from Democrats and thus records a total of 104 Democratic members of the 42nd Congress.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elections held early.
  5. ^ Elections held at the same time as elections for 41st Congress.
  6. ^ a b c d Elections held late.
  7. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans: Gustavus A. Finkelnburg elected to Missouri's 2nd district, and James G. Blair elected to Missouri's 8th district.
  8. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican, John V. Creely, elected to Pennsylvania's 2nd district.
  9. ^ Previous election had 5 Conservatives.
  10. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans and 1 Independent Republican.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  2. ^ Forty-Second Congress (membership roster)
  3. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 277, 278.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit